Blue Card (European Union) vs Квебек Канада


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EU Blue Card Germany

BLUE CARD EU FOR GERMANY

Similar to the Green Card in the USA, the EU blue card offers highly educated skilled workers of non- EU- States the opportunity and the right to work and stay in the European Union.
Register in our network, find a job and apply for the EU blue card for Germany or another state in the EU.

EU Blue Card

The EU blue card for Germany is a residence title for specific purposes; it provides an evidence for the legal stay of a citizen from a non-EU-country in an EU- member state for the purpose of working. So the blue card is a card for citizens from non-EU-states. For members of EU- states generosity is valid concerning their stay. The EU- regulations concerning the blue card will be valid in Germany as a part of the German law from the 1 st August 2012, through the law for reaction of the high- qualification –outline of the European Union. In particular, the stay law was modified. The core regulation of the stay law is addressed by the EU blue card. The most important paragraph is section 19a of the German Residence Act – EU Blue Card.

Conversion of the highly qualified directive of the European Union

Conversion of the highly qualified directive of the European Union is the basis of the EU Blue Card; namely, the directive can be found in 2009 / 50 /EG. The blue card grants a stay in the EU to highly qualified non-EU-state members. This should help to combat the shortage of skilled workers. The rules for the administration of the single EU states are outside of the rules of action of the EU. These rules do not control the immigration of citizens from non EU- states, who are staying in the EU to research projects, who enter the EU because of family unification for migrants living in Germany or who cannot be deported. Owners of the EU blue card will get the same salary as citizens of the EU who do in the same job. The equalisation concerning the rights for education or welfare is not yet a law but shall be practiced that way. The EU blue card is limited. The duration of this limit is one to four years. The format in the EU is the same in all member states and belongs to the legal order (EG) 1030/2002.

The following section provides answers to the most important questions concerning the EU blue card.

Who can apply for the EU blue card?

A foreigner, a citizen of a non-EU- country, can apply for the EU blue card if
a) he or she has a German or an accredited foreign or a university degree that is comparable to a German one.
b) he or she has a working contract with a gross annual compensation of at least €50.800 (4.134 Euros per month), a contract in the so-called shortage occupation (scientists, mathematics, engineers, doctors and IT- skilled workers) with the amount of €39.624 (3302 Euros per month).

Does a foreigner need to apply for the EU blue card before he enters the country?

Yes. The journey into Germany complies with the general entry rules. Therefore, a citizen of a non-EU-country needs to apply for the EU blue card before his entry into Germany. The German representation embassy abroad is responsible in each case.

How long is the blue card valid for?

The EU blue card is at first valid for 4 years. If the working contract covers a period of less than 4 years, meaning it is limited, the EU blue card will be valid for the time of the working contract plus 3 months.

It can be extended or establishment permission can be given.

When can the owner of a blue card qualify for a permanent right of residence?

Foreigners who own the EU blue card can apply for permanent residence after 33 months. If they have German language knowledge at level B1 then they can apply earlier after 21 months (19a, passage 6, law of residence).

Can the EU card become invalid if a person stays in a non-EU country for a longer time?

Owners of the EU blue card can stay out of the EU for up to 12 months without losing the right of staying in Germany or the EU.

Can owners of the EU blue card move to another EU country?

Owners of the EU blue card have the right, after having stayed in Germany for 18 months, to move to another country of the EU.

Will the duration of stay in another state of the EU be considered concerning the permanent right of residence?


If the foreigner has already stayed in another EU-member state with the EU blue card, this will be considered concerning the permanent right of residence in Germany.

Is it necessary to carry out a visa procedure to move around in the EU?

If the foreigner wants to move on in the EU, he / she can be sure that in almost all EU member states a visa is not necessary. The application can be made at home. In Germany the application must be made within one month after entering Germany.

Is a priority check carried out? Are members of the German job market treated better?

Check of priority means that a check will be done to see whether German employees are potential candidates for the job. Such a check is done within the salary borders. But there will be a check of the working conditions. If a salary of at least € 39.624 will be paid there will be a priority check for non- shortage occupations, so the EU blue card can be given.

Can relatives of the EU blue card owners work without limits in Germany?

Relatives of the owners of the EU blue card can work without delay and without limits in Germany.

Do spouses need to have proof of German language knowledge?

The spouse is not required to have proof of German language knowledge. Even simple knowledge of the German language is not necessary for marriage partners.

Immigration to Germany

For more information about the topic immigration to Germany have a look at this site: immigration to germany. There you can read in detail which visa is necessary for entering Germany, you can inform yourself about the different kinds of residence permit and about the subsequent family immigration.

Blue Card

An overwhelming majority of the European Parliament voted to support the EU’s “Blue Card” scheme to attract highly-skilled immigrants. Modeled on the the US “Green Card” system, the Blue Card gets its name from the EU flag, which is blue with twelve yellow stars.

This proposed Blue Card is designed to attract highly qualified workers from third countries by providing access to all of the Member States. The card will not replace national systems, but is an additional channel of attraction with a common grant procedure. Until now, many highly-skilled migrants have preferred the US, Australia or Canada over the EU, because of the fragmentation of the EU labour markets. The Blue Card is meant to turn this tide.

The European Parliament, in addition to backing the scheme, also called for a clearer framework, more precise definitions, and more flexibility for the Member States. The eligibility requirements stipulate that an applicant must have found a job in the EU, and have a minimum of five years’ experience in the relevant economic sector or a university qualification recognized by the Member State. The employment contract must guarantee an income of at least 1.7 times the average gross salary in the Member State of residence and such salary must not be lower than that of a comparable worker in the host country.

The Blue Card also includes social protection; holders will be entitled to social welfare coverage in the appropriate Member State. It also provides for family reunification, i.e. the cardholders’ spouses will also be able to seek jobs in the EU. Furthermore, in the event that holders lose their jobs, they have six months to find new jobs. Moreover, holders who have spent three years in a first EU country of residence are assured access to the other Member States. The normal period of validity of the Card would be three years, renewable for an additional two years. If the employment contract is of a shorter duration, the card should be granted for that duration plus six months.

The Member States are granted wide discretion in granting Blue Cards. Not only will each Member State be able to decide how many Blue Cards they issue each year, they can also refuse to grant the card to migrants who meet the criteria. Furthermore, preference may be given to EU citizens as well as unemployed third country nationals, in order to accomodate labour market policy.

The European Parliament included a caveat that this proposal should not facilitate a “brain drain” from third countries, after criticism from African countries who fear losing skilled human capital in the health and education sectors.

The UK and Ireland have decided not to opt-in to the Blue Card system.

Proposal for New EU Blue Card

The European Commission proposal (2020/0176 (COD)) revamps the existing rules for the EU Blue Card and aims to improve the EU’s ability to attract and retain highly skilled third-country nationals. Highly skilled third country nationals are highly qualified workers from outside the EU, being highly educated and experienced.

The European Commission has drafted this proposal because the current EU Blue Card scheme (Directive 2009/50/EC), adopted in 2009, has proven insufficient and unattractive so far.


The European Commission states that the new EU Blue Card Scheme would bring an estimated positive annual economic impact of between €1,4 billion to €6,2 billion to the Member States from additional highly skilled workers coming to the EU to take up jobs.
At the moment, only 31% of highly-educated migrants to OECD countries choose the EU as a destination; 69% opt for other destinations which compete economically with the EU. Since the ambition for the European Union is to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge based economy in the world, the new proposal is intended to contribute to achieving this goal.

In the Netherlands until very recent the number of EU Blue Cards issued has been very limited, because most employers choose to apply for the Dutch Highly Skilled Migrant Visa.

Restrictive admission conditions and the existence of parallel rules, conditions and procedures at national level have limited the use of the EU Blue Card. In order to develop the EU Blue Card into a truly EU-wide scheme, Member States are obliged to grant an EU Blue Card instead of a national permit for highly skilled work to persons falling under its scope.

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For the Netherlands this will imply that the current fast track highly skilled migrant program would no longer be allowed.

The new EU Blue Card proposal:

  • As a distinction to the current EU Blue Card scheme, the new proposal does not allow Member States to have parallel national schemes targeting the same group of highly skilled workers.
  • A lower general salary threshold, equivalent to or at the highest 1.4 times the average national salary.
  • The required minimum duration of the employment contract is brought down from 12 to 6 months.
  • EU Blue Card holders are allowed to exercise a self-employed activity in parallel with their Blue Card occupation.
  • Professional experience equivalent to qualifications higher education qualifications to be recognised by Member States.
  • Access to EU long-term residence after 3 years if the EU Blue Card holder resided continuously in the same Member State.
  • A lower salary threshold should also be laid down to benefit third-country nationals during a certain period after their graduation.
  • Member States may offer a special fast-track procedure for trusted employers with fewer conditions to reduce administrative burden.
  • Short-term business trips will be less complicated for EU Blue Card holders, allowing for business trips of up to 90 days within the other EU Member States that apply the Blue Card, without the need of a new work permit.

The United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark will not apply the new Blue Card Directive. These countries also did not adopt the current EU Blue Card Directive.

Interesting links:

Factsheet European Commission: Revision of the EU Blue Card

Banks vs. Credit Unions in Canada: What’s the Difference?

The Big Five banks dominate Canada’s financial ecosystem, but credit unions have quietly prospered since Alphonse Desjardins opened the first caisses populaires (people’s bank) in Quebec in the early 1900s. Credit unions provide a community-focused approach to day-to-day banking, with emphasis on meeting customers’ needs rather than turning a profit.

There are around 700 credit unions and caisses populaires across the country, with the highest membership concentrated in Quebec and the western provinces. Although they offer many of the same services as banks, there are several differences in how credit unions are structured, regulated, and the benefits to customers.

What’s the difference between credit unions and banks?

Credit unions are financial cooperatives that are locally owned and controlled by customers. They run on a not-for-profit model that reinvests profits back into the business, issues dividends to members, and donates to local charities and community programs. A credit union’s board of directors is volunteer-run and elected democratically, with each credit union member getting one vote regardless of the size of their deposits or investments. Like banks, credit unions have branches and ATMs.

Domestic commercial banks, on the other hand, are large for-profit entities. These include the Big Five: Scotiabank, TD Canada Trust, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC), Royal Bank of Canada (RBC), and Bank of Montreal (BMO). Investors don’t have to be bank customers to buy shares, and their interest is purely financial. However, no person or group can own more than 20% of voting shares and 30% of non-voting shares. Board members are elected by shareholders, receive compensation, and do not have a professional relationship with the bank.

Funnily enough, there’s debate over the language credit unions can use to describe what they do. The Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (OSFI), Canada’s federal banking regulator, backtracked in August after banning credit unions from using the words “bank,” “banker,” or “banking” to explain their services. The issue is currently under review.

Looking for a savings account?

Check out our savings account comparison tool

What kind of accounts can you hold at a credit union?

Pretty much the same as a bank: chequing and savings accounts, mortgages, loans and credit products, and investment and retirement products. Depending on which bank and credit union you compare, latter may charge lower banking fees and offer higher interest rates on savings. Members can also use their bank card at any credit union ATM within The Exchange Network free of charge. The tradeoff, however, is that credit unions offer fewer account types and financial products than the big banks.


How are credit unions regulated?

Most credit unions are provincially run, with legislation spelling out how they can lend, borrow, and invest. Deposits are covered by provincial corporations or non-government insurers. Some are members of the trade group the Canadian Credit Union Association. Recent legislation paved the way for credit unions to expand and convert to a federal charter, but they’re still member-owned and run as a cooperative.

Major domestic banks are federally regulated by OSFI, an independent government agency that also oversees foreign banks operating in the country, trust companies, fraternal benefit societies, loan companies, and life/property and casualty insurance companies. Bank deposits up to $100,000 are insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation (CDIC). Federal banks and credit unions are legislated by the Bank Act.

Who can join a credit union?

As long as they have the proper identification, every Canadian citizen has a right to open an account with a federally chartered bank or credit union.

Provincial credit unions have more stringent rules. A credit union may require you to live, work, or attend school in the immediate area; they’re especially popular in small or underserved rural communities. Some cater to specific professions, such as farmers, teachers, or government employees, and may allow you to refer family or friends. To join a credit union, you must meet eligibility requirements and buy a share (usually between $5-$25) to establish membership.

Why choose a credit union over a bank?

It depends on your financial needs and where you live. When deciding between a bank and a credit union, consider the products and rates offered, the number and location of branches and ATMs, fee structure, customer service, and online/mobile banking options.

Banks vs. Credit Unions in Canada: What’s the Difference?

The Big Five banks dominate Canada’s financial ecosystem, but credit unions have quietly prospered since Alphonse Desjardins opened the first caisses populaires (people’s bank) in Quebec in the early 1900s. Credit unions provide a community-focused approach to day-to-day banking, with emphasis on meeting customers’ needs rather than turning a profit.

There are around 700 credit unions and caisses populaires across the country, with the highest membership concentrated in Quebec and the western provinces. Although they offer many of the same services as banks, there are several differences in how credit unions are structured, regulated, and the benefits to customers.

What’s the difference between credit unions and banks?

Credit unions are financial cooperatives that are locally owned and controlled by customers. They run on a not-for-profit model that reinvests profits back into the business, issues dividends to members, and donates to local charities and community programs. A credit union’s board of directors is volunteer-run and elected democratically, with each credit union member getting one vote regardless of the size of their deposits or investments. Like banks, credit unions have branches and ATMs.

Domestic commercial banks, on the other hand, are large for-profit entities. These include the Big Five: Scotiabank, TD Canada Trust, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC), Royal Bank of Canada (RBC), and Bank of Montreal (BMO). Investors don’t have to be bank customers to buy shares, and their interest is purely financial. However, no person or group can own more than 20% of voting shares and 30% of non-voting shares. Board members are elected by shareholders, receive compensation, and do not have a professional relationship with the bank.

Funnily enough, there’s debate over the language credit unions can use to describe what they do. The Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (OSFI), Canada’s federal banking regulator, backtracked in August after banning credit unions from using the words “bank,” “banker,” or “banking” to explain their services. The issue is currently under review.

Looking for a savings account?

Check out our savings account comparison tool

What kind of accounts can you hold at a credit union?

Pretty much the same as a bank: chequing and savings accounts, mortgages, loans and credit products, and investment and retirement products. Depending on which bank and credit union you compare, latter may charge lower banking fees and offer higher interest rates on savings. Members can also use their bank card at any credit union ATM within The Exchange Network free of charge. The tradeoff, however, is that credit unions offer fewer account types and financial products than the big banks.

How are credit unions regulated?

Most credit unions are provincially run, with legislation spelling out how they can lend, borrow, and invest. Deposits are covered by provincial corporations or non-government insurers. Some are members of the trade group the Canadian Credit Union Association. Recent legislation paved the way for credit unions to expand and convert to a federal charter, but they’re still member-owned and run as a cooperative.

Major domestic banks are federally regulated by OSFI, an independent government agency that also oversees foreign banks operating in the country, trust companies, fraternal benefit societies, loan companies, and life/property and casualty insurance companies. Bank deposits up to $100,000 are insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation (CDIC). Federal banks and credit unions are legislated by the Bank Act.


Who can join a credit union?

As long as they have the proper identification, every Canadian citizen has a right to open an account with a federally chartered bank or credit union.

Provincial credit unions have more stringent rules. A credit union may require you to live, work, or attend school in the immediate area; they’re especially popular in small or underserved rural communities. Some cater to specific professions, such as farmers, teachers, or government employees, and may allow you to refer family or friends. To join a credit union, you must meet eligibility requirements and buy a share (usually between $5-$25) to establish membership.

Why choose a credit union over a bank?

It depends on your financial needs and where you live. When deciding between a bank and a credit union, consider the products and rates offered, the number and location of branches and ATMs, fee structure, customer service, and online/mobile banking options.

Главная юниорская хоккейная Лига Квебека 2020/2020 онлайн, счет, таблица

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Official symbols of Canada

Over the past century, the following symbols have been formally adopted by the Government of Canada and are now considered official symbols of our country.

The beaver

The beaver was given official status as an emblem of Canada when “An Act to prov >Castor canadensis ) as a symbol of the sovereignty of Canada” received royal assent on March 24, 1975. However, the beaver was a part of the Canadian identity long before Parliament passed the National Symbol of Canada Act.

Historical significance of the beaver

After the early European explorers realized Canada was not the spice-rich Orient, the main profit-making attraction was the beaver population. In the late 1600s and early 1700s, the fashion of the day demanded fur hats, which needed beaver pelts. As these hats became more popular, the demand for the pelts grew.

King Henry IV of France saw the fur trade as an opportunity to acquire much-needed revenue and to establish a North American empire. Both English and French fur traders were soon selling beaver pelts in Europe at 20 times their original purchase price.

The trade of beaver pelts proved so profitable that many Canadians felt compelled to pay tribute to the buck-toothed animal.

  • Sir William Alexander, who was granted title to Nova Scotia in 1621, was the first to include the beaver in a coat of arms.
  • The Hudson’s Bay Company put four beavers on the shield of its coat of arms in 1678 to show how important the hard-working rodent was to the company.
  • A coin was created – which was known as a “buck” – that was equal to the value of one male beaver pelt.
  • Louis de Buade de Frontenac , Governor of New France in 1678, suggested the beaver would be a suitable emblem for the colony – and proposed it be included in the coat of arms of the City of Québec.
  • The French Kebeca Liberata medal, created in 1690 to celebrate France’s successful defence of the City of Québec, depicts the image of a seated woman (representing France) with a beaver at her feet (representing Canada).
  • When the City of Montréal was incorporated in 1833, it included the beaver’s image in its coat of arms.
  • Sir Sandford Fleming featured the beaver on the first Canadian postage stamp – the Three Penny Beaver – in 1851.
  • Le Canadien , a newspaper published in Lower Canada Footnote 1 , featured the beaver in its masthead.
  • The Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste included the beaver in one of its emblems for a time.
  • The Canadian Pacific Railway company still includes the beaver on its crest today.
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Despite this recognition, the beaver was close to extinction by the mid-19th century. There were an estimated six million beavers in Canada before the start of the fur trade. During its peak, 100,000 pelts were being shipped to Europe each year; the Canadian beaver was in danger of being wiped out. Luckily, about that time, Europeans took a liking to silk hats and the demand for beaver pelts all but disappeared.

Today, thanks to conservation and silk hats, the beaver – the largest rodent in Canada – is alive and well all over the country.

The Coat of Arms

In the Middle Ages, coats of arms served as a sort of identification card. This was especially true on the battlefield where coat of arms made it possible to distinguish allies from enemies. Today, they are used to preserve traditions and inspire love of country.


The Canada Coat of Arms, or Arms of Canada, were originally adopted by proclamation of His Majesty King George V in 1921. In 1994, a circular, red ribbon was added to the arms – displaying the motto of the Order of Canada: Desiderantes Meliorem Patriam . The English translation of the Latin text is “They desire a better country”, which is taken from the Epistle to the Hebrews (New Testament) 11:16.

Design of the Canada Coat of Arms

The present design of the Arms of Canada was drawn by Mrs. Cathy Bursey-Sabourin, Fraser Herald of Arms Footnote 2 at the Canadian Heraldic Authority Footnote 3 , office of the Governor General of Canada. It faithfully depicts the arms described in the Royal Proclamation of November 21, 1921. The design includes:

  • symbols of the four founding nations of Canada featured on the shield: the three royal lions of England, the royal lion of Scotland, the royal fleur-de-lis of France, and the royal Irish harp of Tara;
  • the lion of England holding the Royal Union Flag and the unicorn of Scotland carrying the flag of Royal France;
  • the floral emblems of the four founding nations: the English rose, the Scottish thistle, the French fleur-de-lis, and the Irish shamrock;
  • the Royal Crown at the top, indicating that these are the Arms of Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, commonly called the “Canada Coat of Arms”, the “Coat of Arms of Canada”, the “Arms of Canada” or the “Royal Coat of Arms of Canada”.

Where you find the Canada Coat of Arms

The Canada Coat of Arms are used on federal government possessions like buildings, official seals, money, passports, proclamations and publications. They are also reproduced on the rank badges of some members of the Canadian Armed Forces. The Arms of Canada are also used by federal institutions, including the Supreme Court of Canada, the Federal Court of Canada and the Tax Court of Canada to symbolize their judicial independence from the Government of Canada.

The motto

The heraldic practice of attaching an inscription – or appropriate sentiment – to a coat of arms or a crest has been honoured by the Dominion of Canada and eight of the 10 provinces. While none of the territories has a motto, many municipalities have their own.

The motto of the Dominion of Canada is A Mari Usque Ad Mare which is officially translated as “From Sea to Sea” and “ D’un océan à l’autre ”. The phrase comes from the Latin translation of Psalm 72:8 in the Bible.

The Maple Leaf Tartan

The Maple Leaf Tartan was declared an official national symbol on March 9, 2011.

Created in 1964 by David Weiser, the Maple Leaf Tartan was designed in anticipation of the 100th anniversary of Canada’s confederation in 1967. Inspired by the colours of the maple leaf through the changing seasons, the tartan’s pattern incorporates the green of summer leaves, the gold of early autumn, the red of the first frost and finally, the brown tones of the fallen leaves before winter.

The Maple Leaf Tartan is used by The Royal Canadian Regiment Pipes and Drums, and has also been worn by the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Battalions. A symbol of national pride, the tartan was designed to be worn by Canadians from all backgrounds – regardless of their ancestry – especially on national days like Canada Day (July 1) and Tartan Day (April 6).

The maple tree

Although the maple leaf is closely associated with Canada, the maple tree was not officially recognized as Canada’s arboreal emblem until 1996.

Of the 150 known species of maple ( genus Acer ), only 13 are native to North America. Ten of these grow in Canada: the sugar, black, silver, bigleaf, red, mountain, striped, Douglas, vine and Manitoba maples. At least one of the 10 species grows naturally in every province. Canada’s arboreal emblem is the generic maple species.

Trees have played a meaningful role in the historical development of Canada and continue to be of commercial, environmental and aesthetic importance. Maples contribute valuable wood products and sustain the maple sugar industry; they are ideal for promoting Canada as a world leader in the sustainable management of forests.

The national anthem

“O Canada” was proclaimed Canada’s national anthem on July 1, 1980, one century after it was first sung in the City of Québec on June 24, 1880.

The music was composed by Calixa Lavallée , a well-known composer born in Verchères , Canada East Footnote 4 . French lyrics to accompany the music were written by Adolphe-Basile Routhier , a poet and judge born in Saint-Placide , Lower Canada. Many English versions have appeared over the years. The version on which the official English lyrics are based was written in 1908 by Robert Stanley Weir, a poet born in Hamilton, Ontario.


The national flag

With its distinctive maple leaf, Canada’s red and white flag is easily recognized around the globe.

The adoption of the national flag in 1965 was the result of many years of discussion, thousands of designs and a heated debate in Parliament. The search for a new Canadian flag began in 1925, when a committee of the Privy Council began to look into potential designs. In 1946, a parliamentary committee examined more than 2,600 submissions – but members could not agree on a new design. As the Centennial of Confederation approached, Parliament increased its efforts to choose a new flag.

On February 15, 1965, the National Flag of Canada was raised for the first time over Parliament Hill. The red-white-red pattern is based on the flag of the Royal Military College of Canada and the ribbon of the Canada General Service Medal of 1899, a British decoration given to those who defended Canada in 19th-century battles. The leaf has 11 points, and the flag’s proportions are two by length and one by width.

The anniversary of our flag’s adoption is observed across the country on February 15, which is known as National Flag of Canada Day.

Learn more about the National Flag of Canada, including its history and dimensions, flag etiquette and rules for half-masting.

The national horse

While the Canadian horse was declared by Parliament to be Canada’s national breed in 1909, it was not until May 2002 that it was recognized as the national horse of Canada by Act of Parliament.

The origins of the Canadian horse date back to 1665. At that time, the King of France sent horses from the royal stables to New France – the Norman and Breton horses were of mixed origin and included Arabian, Barb and Andalusian horses. Over the next century, the horse population of New France developed in isolation from other breeds, gradually becoming a breed of its own – the Canadian horse.

The Canadian horse is known for its great strength and endurance, resilience, intelligence and good temper. Threatened with extinction in the late 19th century, efforts were made in the late 1800s and throughout the 20th century to preserve the distinctive Canadian horse.

The national sports

The Parliament of Canada declared ice hockey as the national winter sport and lacrosse as the national summer sport when it passed the National Sports of Canada Act on May 12, 1994.

The national colours

Red and white became Canada’s official colours as a result of the proclamation of the Canada Coat of Arms by King George V in 1921. However, the history of the official colours dates back to the First Crusade in the 11th century.

Bohemond I, a Norman lord, had red crosses cut from cloaks and distributed to 10,000 crusaders. The crusaders wore the crosses on their clothes as a distinguishing mark, since they had no uniform to identify them.

In later crusades, each nation was identified by a cross of a different colour. For a long time, France used a red cross on its banners, while England carried a white cross. In the course of history, red and white alternated as the national colours of France and England.

Footnotes

Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). It covered the southern portion of the modern-day Province of Quebec and the Labrador region of the modern-day Province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Fraser Herald of Arms is the title of one of the officers of arms at the Canadian Heraldic Authority in Ottawa.

Heraldry is the profession, study, or art of creating, granting, and blazoning arms and ruling on questions or rank or protocol, as exercised by an officer of arms.

Canada East was what became of the former colony of Lower Canada after being united into the Province of Canada. It became the Province of Quebec after confederation, in 1867.

European Qualifiers on Sky: Albania vs France


Watch games live on Sky Sports Football or on the red button

Last Updated: 17/11/19 9:51pm

Team news and previews ahead of Sunday’s European Qualifiers, with France live on Sky Sports.

Albania vs France — 7.45pm, live on Sky Sports Football

State of play — Group H: While Les Bleus have already progressed to Euro 2020 thanks to Turkey’s 0-0 draw with Iceland before their 2-1 win over Moldova on Thursday, top spot in Group H is still up for grabs on Sunday evening.

Didier Deschamps’s team will be guaranteed first place in the section with a draw at the Arena Kombetare. Defeat, though, would see second-placed Turkey win the group if Senol Gunes’s side also win in Andorra on Sunday night.

Team news: The visitors are set to experiment in Albania with qualification for next summer’s tournament already guaranteed.

That could mean a start for Leo Dubois at left-back in place of Everton’s Lucas Digne, while Presnel Kimpembe may come in for Clement Lenglet in the centre of defence after the Barcelona player’s error gifted Moldova’s early opener on Thursday.

Elsewhere, Arsenal’s Matteo Guendouzi is set to make his debut in midfield alongside Corentin Tolisso and Wissam Ben Yedder could get the nod in attack.

Quebec

As the only French-speaking region of North America, Quebec is unlike anywhere else on the continent. The majority of the population consists of French-Canadians, the descendants of 17th century French settlers who have resisted centuries of pressure to assimilate into Anglo society. That tradition continues to this day, and modern Quebec is a vibrant, fascinating place whose residents remain determined as ever to preserve a distinctive culture and unique values.

As Canada’s second-most populated province, the concerns of Quebec have played a large role shaping Canadian history, and continue to exert enormous influence on Canada’s culture, politics, and economy. The relationship between Quebec and the Rest of Canada (or “ROC”) has not always been easy. Tensions over language have raged for centuries, and over the last few decades the question of separatism — whether Quebec would be better off leaving Canada and becoming a separate country — has been one of Canada’s most difficult debates.

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Note: This chapter provides a broad overview on Quebec. For information on things to see and do in Quebec, see the Quebec tourism chapter.

The St. Lawrence

The mighty St. Lawrence River and skyline of Montreal as seen from Ile-Ste-Helene (St. Helen’s Island). Both of Quebec’s largest cities — the other being Quebec City — are located on the St. Lawrence coast.

Quebec Geography

Quebec is Canada’s largest province in terms of landmass, but much of its territory is uninhabited — and uninhabitable. The province’s extreme north is a barren arctic wasteland similar to that of Canada’s three northern territories, inhabited by polar bears, caribou and arctic wolves, while the central region is filled with dense, boreal forest. As is in Ontario, early efforts to colonize the north were mostly unsuccessful due to the rocky soil and harsh climate that made farming impossible.

The vast majority of Quebecers have always lived around the vast St. Lawrence River that cuts into southeastern Quebec from the Atlantic ocean. This was the path the first European explorers used to enter North America, and both of Quebec’s major cities, Montreal and Quebec City, originally arose as coastal settlements. This region’s land is lush and fertile, with rolling hills, small lakes and arable soil that was ably tilled by early French-Canadian habitants, or sustenance farmers.

Quebec’s long, snowy winters are an iconic symbol of the province, and the massive outdoor Carnaval du Quebec in Quebec City, featuring skating, dog-sledding, ice-sculpting, and tobogganing is one of the highlights of the year. While Quebec has far flatter terrain than the mountainous provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, the modest Laurentian Mountains in the province’s south serve as the main mecca of eastern Canadian skiing.

The distinctive Olympic Stadium and tower stands as a remnant of Montreal’s stint hosting the 1976 summer Olympics. Though Montreal’s winning bid helped put the city on the map, in recent years the infamously over-budget games have become synonymous with government mismanagement.

Quebec Cities


About half of Quebec’s eight million residents live in Montreal, the second-largest city in Canada after Toronto. A modern, stylish, cosmopolitan city, Montreal is home to many of the province’s (and indeed, the country’s) top cultural attractions including the Montreal Jazz Festival and the Just For Laughs stand-up comedy extravaganza. Historically, Montreal was known for being an oasis of English in an otherwise French-dominated province, due to its high population of wealthy Anglos — the descendants of British colonial settlers. For a variety of political and economic reasons many Anglos have chosen to leave in recent decades, however, and today only about 15% of Montrealers speak English as their first language. Their influence remains strong enough for nearly 60% of all residents to claim to be bilingual, however — the highest rate of any Canadian big city. While Montreal has always housed sizable Jewish, Italian, and Irish communities, new waves of immigration from outside Europe have helped reshape the city’s demographics, cuisine, and culture.

Quebec City, which is confusingly often called simply Quebec by locals, is the province’s second-largest city and the provincial capital. Unlike multicultural Montreal, Quebec City is vastly more uniformly French, with much lower rates of bilingualism, English-Canadians, and immigrants. An older city than Montreal, it retains a very pronounced European flavour through its shops, architecture, and festivals. There are still enough remnants of the city’s history as an 18th century walled fortress to have earned it a UNESCO World Heritage Site designation in 1985.

Most of Quebec’s other residents either live in suburban cities close to Montreal, like Laval, Terrebonne, and Longueuil, suburbs close to Quebec City, like Lévis, or somewhere in the approximately 300 kilometre space between the two big cities, mostly the Eastern Townships area, which is located south of the St. Lawrence River and is home to the sizeable communities of Sherbrooke and Trois-Rivières.

«Settlers Camp Saint Maurice Valley» (1858) by Cornelius Krieghoff (1815-1872) a famed painter of early Quebec life.

In 1967, at a time of growing tension between French-Canadian nationalists and Canada, General Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970), the president of France, visited Montreal and made an emotional appeal to the crowd — «Vive le Québec libre!» (long live Quebec freedom!) His words caused a diplomatic stir and fostered decades of Canadian anxiety about the French government’s involvement in Quebec separatism.

History of Quebec

As the early history chapter discusses in more detail, explorers from France were the first Europeans to actively settle the land that is now Canada, forming an impressive colony known as New France along the St. Lawrence River in 1603, before proceeding to expand westward. Masters of the fur trade, early French colonists earned a reputation as rugged outdoorsmen, navigating the continent’s hostile terrain and forming productive alliances with aboriginal nations. Tensions between French and English interests eventually led to war between the two European powers in 1756 (The Seven Years War, or French and Indian War), and the French were clobbered. New France was seized by the British, the French army was forced to abandon the continent, and all remaining French settlers were placed under English rule. This pivotal moment, dubbed simply “The Conquest” by modern Quebecers, forms the context for everything that came after.

Since the French settlers in North America greatly outnumbered the English, the victorious British quickly concluded that New France — soon renamed Quebec — could only be effectively governed as a British colony if its were permitted to retain their distinct cultural traditions. A British law known as the Quebec Act (1774) allowed residents to keep speaking French and worshipping in the Catholic Church, and generally maintain the same way of life they had under French rule. Political and economic power, however, was concentrated in the hands of a small, English-speaking elite. Under their rule, Quebec remained a largely rural, borderline feudal society well into the 20th century. For most of their history, the majority of Quebeckers lived mostly meagre lives as sustenance farmers, with Catholic clergy playing an enormous role in education and politics. Deeply conservative and traditional, even after joining Canada in 1867 French-speaking Quebec remained culturally and economically isolated from the rest of North America.

The two terms of the very right-wing Maurice Duplessis (1890-1959), who served as prime minister of Quebec from 1936-1939 and 1944-1959, are usually seen as the last gasp of this particular phase of Quebec life. The mid-20th century saw a gradual rise in a more educated and secular Quebec middle class, and Duplessis’ death in 1959 allowed a more liberal government to take his place, ushering in a series of far-reaching social and economic reforms dubbed the Révolution tranquille or “Quiet Revolution.” Among other things, Quebec women began to go to work, divorce, and use birth control, while men moved their families to the cities, took up white-collar jobs and formed large and powerful unions. The Church ceased to play an active role in politics and social services, and people gradually stopped going to mass. Within a generation, Quebec had done a complete flip; it had gone from being the most rural, religious, conservative part of the country to Canada’s most urban, secular, and progressive province.

Laïcité (Secularism)

As has been the case in actual France, Quebec society has become more anxious about its increasing diversity, and particularly its swelling Muslim population. In 2013, the Quebec government proposed a «Charter of Values» that would have, among other things, forbade any provincial employee from wearing what were deemed «ostentatious» religious headgear (as depicted in the second half of the above guide). Though the full Charter did not ultimately become law, the province does retain some bans on overly religious dress among public sector workers.

Quebec Culture

Quebecers’ identity as a unique and special people is tied to their distinctive Francophone culture, often described as a blending of European traditions and North American attitudes. Though Quebec, like the rest of Canada, is becoming an increasingly multicultural place, particularly in its big cities, Quebecers have been very aggressive in trying to preserve their historic identity in the face of considerable social and technological change.

The vast majority of Quebeckers, around 94%, speak French. Most can speak at least some English as well, with the city of Montreal — the historic home of Quebec’s powerful English-speaking minority — the most functionally bilingual place in Canada. Protecting and strengthening the use of the French language has historically been the central project of Quebec patriotism, and since the 1970s, the provincial government has passed a number of laws that limit the use of English in business, schools, and — most infamously — public signs and advertisements. The legal centrepiece of this is the Charter of the French Language, also known as Bill 101, whose strict rules have governed Quebec language policy for over 40 years.

Most Quebecers remain ethnic French-Canadians descendant from a fairly small group of 17th century colonial settler families, and many of the province’s most famous cultural tropes harken back to that community’s centuries-old shared rural past. Traditional French-Canadian meals remain hearty “peasant” dishes like pea soup, meat pie (tourtière), and cipaille, a kind of stew. The proud Canadian cliche of maple syrup originates from Quebec, where it was originally harvested by forest-dwelling farmers in cabanes à sucres (literally, “sugar shacks”). French-Canadian folk songs, such as Alouette or Les Raftsmen, are often about rural chores, exploring the wilderness, or farm life. Today, Quebeckers enjoy a host of French language TV channels and radio stations, and often have very different pop culture tastes than English Canadians in the other provinces.

Partying at Quebec City’s summer festival (Le Festival d’été de Québec).
Francis Gagnon
Separatist Rule

René Lévesque (1922-1987) was a Quebec cabinet minister who quit the Liberal Party in 1968 to found a separatist party, known as the Parti Quebecois. In 1976 he was elected the province’s first separatist premier and served two terms before resigning in 1985. Even among non-separatists, he is considered one of the great statesmen of modern Canadian politics for his fierce intellect and passion for his cause.

Quebec Separatism

The idea that Quebec exists as a unique “nation” within North America is quite old, but taking things a step further and arguing Quebec should leave Canada altogether and form its own country is relatively newer. This ideology, known as separatism, really came into prominence during the 1960s, when a poorly-performing economy coupled with the post-Quiet Revolution culture of self-empowerment made previously unthinkable ideas suddenly more attractive. Just as colonized peoples in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East were abandoning their imperial masters, many Quebeckers began to dream of completing their long escape from English domination.

The argument in favor of separatism takes many forms, and there are right and left wing separatists, as well as separatist moderates and separatist extremists. Some separatists believe Quebec should be its own country for strictly patriotic reasons, and feel humiliated being part of Canada, which they see as this utterly foreign, English place. Others may believe Canada is simply a bad country to be a part of, and think Quebec could be richer and more successful without the Canadian government holding it back. Others may basically like Canada, but believe Quebec and Canada could arrange a better partnership between themselves as two separate countries.

A new provincial political party devoted to separatism known as the Parti Quebecois was founded in 1968 and elected in to power in 1976. In 1980, it organized a province-wide referendum on separatism, but Quebecers ultimately voted to stay. Despite the defeat, the French-Canadian separatist movement grew in power and size during the 1980s and 1990s. Several more separatist premiers were elected, the majority of Quebec’s representatives in the Canadian House of Commons became separatists, and a second separatism referendum was held in 1995 — and only failed by a margin of less than one per cent. That loss was quite demoralizing, however, and since then the separatist movement has declined in popularity quite a bit, with many Quebecers now inclined to regard separation as a distraction from more immediate social and economic problems. Quebec’s most recent separatist government only held office for a year and a half (September 2012 to April 2014) and in the 2011 and 2015 federal elections, most separatist candidates for parliament were defeated.

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