Canadian Multiculturalism Day Picnic Канада

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Q107 Canada Day Picnic

Jul 1, 2020
12:00 pm — 11:00 pm
Woodbine Park

The annual Q107 Canada Day Picnic brings Woodbine Park to life with live music, loads of food and family fun.

Featuring Q107 Rock & Roll Tributes to

  • Neil Young
  • Santana
  • Radiohead
  • U2
  • The Foo Fighters
  • Chicago and
  • the Red Hot Chili Peppers

End the night with Toronto’s largest FIREWORKS display from Ashbridges Bay, set to a “live” tribute to Prince!

The party starts at NOON on Canada Day, in Woodbine Park near the beaches.

Come down and enjoy children’s entertainment and activities, great eats and a great selection of beers in the Moosehead Breweries licensed Garden.

Today, over 100,000 people from around the city flock to the Beach community to celebrate our country’s birthday and enjoy the festival.

The Q107 Canada Day Picnic is the Toronto’s largest Canada Day celebration!

Canada Day in Toronto & GTA 2020

Photo Credit: Downsview Park

Canada Day Celebrations & Fireworks in GTA – 2020
Toronto – Durham – Halton – Peel – York

Wondering what to do on Canada Day in GTA? Where to see Canada Day fireworks and which concert to attend to celebrate Canada day 2020?

Read on for a comprehensive list of most of the Canada Day events happening across GTA including Regions of Peel, Halton, Durham, and York.

There is no better day than Canada Day Weekend to explore nearby towns and cities as communities come together to celebrate Canada’s Birthday! There are magic shows, stilt walkers, canoeing, guided hikes, rock & roll, Strawberry festival, Ribfests, and more happening across the GTA this Canada Day!

For other weekend activities & events, see Things to do in Toronto this weekend .

All events are free, unless otherwise mentioned.

Canada Day Celebrations in the following cities/ towns are listed in the below given order. Click on the City/Region/Town Name to go directly to the specific city’s celebrations .

Canada Day Celebrations in Toronto

2020 Canada Day Fireworks – Within City of Toronto

When & Where:

  1. Mel Lastman Square, 5100 Yonge St, Toronto – 10:30 PM
  2. Amesbury Park, 1507 Lawrence Ave W, Toronto – 09:45 PM
  3. Milliken Park (Steeles Road and McCowan Road), Scarborough: 10:00 PM Call: 416-396-4376
  4. Ashbridges Bay Park (Lake Shore Boulevard East at the foot of Coxwell Avenue)

10:00 PM
Stan Wadlow Park, 373 Cedarvale Avenue, Toronto, ON M4C 4K7

10:00 PM
Centennial Park, Etobicoke (Part of Ribfest)

10:00 PM
Downsview Park

@ Dark
Weston Lions Park (2125 Lawrence Ave. W.)

Canada Day Community Celebrations in Toronto

Mel Lastman Square Celebrations

Celebrate Canada’s 152nd birthday from 6 to 10:30 p.m at Mel Lastman Square with music, arts, family friendly onsite activities, and a spectacular fireworks display. Hosted by Devo Bown from Breakfast Television and Entertainment City on CityTV. Free admission! Details

Road Closure: Yonge Street will be fully closed between Park Home Avenue and North York Boulevard from Monday, July 1 at 4 p.m. until Tuesday, July 2 at 1 a.m.

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 6 to 10:30 PM

Mel Lastman Square, 5100 Yonge St, Toronto

Amesbury Park Canada Day Celebrations

This is guaranteed to be a fun-filled day with the best event line-up yet, featuring a full assortment of multicultural entertainment, children’s activities including a talent search plus many interesting vendors. This is going to be an event that you surely won’t want to miss.Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 9:00 AM – 10:00 PM

Fireworks – 09:45 PM

Amesbury Park, 1507 Lawrence Ave W, Toronto

Celebrations in East York

Road Closure: See link above

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 12:00 – 10:00 PM

Fireworks – 10:00 PM

Stan Wadlow Park, 373 Cedarvale Ave, East York

The annual Canada Day parade: Annual Canada Day parade with marching bands at Dieppe Park will start at 10:00 AM and move east to Stan Wadlow Park, where the motorcade is scheduled to finish at noon.

Canada Day at Thomson Memorial Park

From a pancake breakfast to live entertainment to a 75-foot zipline, there’s something for everyone! Find more. Details

Road Closure:
Brimley Road between Progress Avenue and Lawrence Avenue East, and Triton Road between Brimley Road and Borough Drive will be closed on Monday, July 1 from 11 a.m. to 7 p.m.

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM

Thomson Memorial Park
1005 Brimley Rd, Scarborough
Parade: Southbound on Brimley from Ellesmere Road to Lawrence Ave

Albert Campbell Square Canada Day

This Canada Day, Celebrate Dance! Come out in your dance gear, be it a costume, a dance group t-shirt, be it your dance school banners, flags, props. Whatever makes your dance school stand out. Together we will dance at Albert Campbell Square!

There will be food vendors, lots of entertainment & together we will dance on a couple of songs.

July 1, 2020 | 5:00PM to 8:00PM

Albert Campbell Square, Borough Drive, Scarborough

Toronto Ribfest

Rotary Etobicoke invites you to kick off your summer at the Annual Toronto Ribfest. Be sure to join us on Canada Day for special performers, magic shows, and a spectacular fireworks display at sundown. Details

Friday, June 28 – Monday, July 1, 2020

Sundown (10:00 PM)

Etobicoke Centennial Park, 256 Centennial Park Rd,Toronto

Toronto Harbourfront Canada Day Weekend

Canadian songwriters are renowned worldw >Details

Friday, June 28 to Monday, July 1, 2020
Broken Social Scene: Monday, July 1, 2020 | 9:30 PM –10:45 PM

Harbourfront Centre
235 Queens Quay West

Queen’s Plate Festival

The Queen’s Plate Festival takes place June 28-29 and features world-class thoroughbred racing paired with the city’s hottest fashion, incredible gourmet food, live entertainment and much more!


June 28 & 29, 2020
Queens Plate: June 29, 2020

Woodbine Racetrack, 555 Rexdale Blvd. Toronto


URBANI_T : Public Playground for Urban Culture & Creativity is a large-scale free outdoor celebration of creativity and local talent. For its second edition, the event will take over Nathan Phillips Square with live music, art installations, fashion talks, squads and shows, design workshops, as well as a vibrant selection of pop-up shops and food trucks. Details

June 27 – 29, 2020

Nathan Phillips Square, 100 Queen St W, Toronto

Q107 Canada Day Celebration

Get ready to rock your red and white with us at the Q107 Canada Day Picnic!

Free celebration with live performances, food, and drinks. We’re featuring Q107 Rock & Roll Tributes to Tom Petty, The Tragically Hip, Queen, Led Zeppelin, Bob Marley, Eagles and Prince. Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 12:00 PM to 10:00 PM

Fireworks at Ashbridge’s Bay Park – 10:00 PM

Woodbine Park, Coxwell Ave and Lakeshore Blvd, Toronto

Canada Day Festival at Downsview Park

Invite your family and friends to partake in an action-packed day of festivities with r >Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 4:00 PM to 11:00 PM

Downsview Park – 70 Canuck Avenue, Toronto

Redpath Waterfront Festival

The Redpath Waterfront Festival, presented by Billy Bishop Airport, is back on the Toronto waterfront June 29 to July 1 with carefree fun, endless entertainment and >Details

June 29 to July 1, 2020

East end of the waterfront at Sugar Beach and Sherbourne Common.

Multiculturalism Day at Mel Lastman Square

Celebrate Canada’s diversity and commitment to democracy, equality and mutual respect at Multiculturalism Day at Mel Lastman Square from 2 to 6:30 p.m. Music, drumming, family friendly onsite activities, and more. Details

June 30, 2020 | 2:00 PM to 6:30 PM

Mel Lastman Square- 5100 Yonge St. Toronto

Canada Day Celebration @ Black Creek Pioneer Village

Party Like It’s 1867: Black Creek Pioneer Village is THE place to be this Canada Day! Step back in time and celebrate Canada’s 150th birthday at an exciting 1867-style birthday bash! Special activities include an official Citizenship ceremony, traditional games, and horse-drawn wagon r > More details

July 1, 2020 | 10:00 AM – 5:00 PM

Black Creek Pioneer Village,
1000 Murray Ross Parkway, M3J 2P3

MultiCultural Canada Day

Annual Multicultural Canada Day Celebration presented by the Community Folk Art Council of Toronto. Live performances from around the world, crafts, world market & more! More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 12:00 PM – 09:00 PM

Yonge – Dundas Square, Toronto

Canada Day with Parks Canada

Celebrate Canada Day anniversary of Confederation at Canada’s first national urban park! More details

Rouge Park, Toronto

Sports Events

  • Canada Day Weekend: Kansas City Royals @ Toronto Blue Jays on Monday, July 01, 2020 | 1:07 PM @ Rogers centre

Canada Day Dinner Cruise

Celebrate Canada’s birthday on the Toronto Harbour! Embark on a three-hour voyage aboard our Canada Day Dinner Cruise. Toronto is Canada’s downtown and there is no better vantage point than the water to experience the city! Enjoy a market-fresh buffet dinner and enjoy the the unmatched ambiance of Toronto’s iconic skyline and harbour! Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 7:00 PM – 10:30 PM

Mariposa Cruises,207 Queens Quay West, Toronto

$92.90 + Fees & HST

Canadian Taste Buds

This weekend at Scarborough Museum is devoted to enjoying and celebrating Indigenous food, with diverse recipes being used to create a menu of Indigenous treats. Come and try lemon biscuits and lemonade, and an Indigenous strawberry recipe while playing games and indulging in an animal-themed scavenger hunt. Details

June 29 & 30, 2020 | 12:00 AM – 5:00 PM

Scarborough Museum
1008 Brimley Rd, Scarborough

Toronto Diversity Festival

Join thousands of GTA res >Details

Saturday, June 29 | 12 PM – 9 PM
Sunday, June 30 | 12 PM – 8 PM

David Pecaut Square
215 King St W, Toronto

Rhythms of Canada

Bring the family to celebrate Canada’s contemporary fabric — a dynamic mix of cultures, stories, and rhythms. Kids and adults alike will enjoy strolling through our market of artisan wares and artisanal food, inspired by the souk markets of the Middle East.

Sunday, June 30 | 2-11 PM
Monday, July 1 | 2-6 PM

Aga Khan Museum, 77 Wynford Dr., Toronto

Other Canada Day Events:

For more events taking place this weekend including The Sustainable Block Party, Bud Light Dreams, Christie Pits Film Festival, TD Taste of Asia, Toronto Cocktail Party and more: See This Weekend in Toronto

Canada Day Celebrations in Durham

Canada Day in Ajax

It’s the biggest birthday party in Town! Celebrate Canada Day in Ajax with fun, food, games, entertainment and fireworks. There will be children’s activities, face painting, inflatable rides, wagon rides, strolling buskers and more. Visit our local community groups and organizations, enjoy live entertainment and cultural performances on stage, and try some delicious food at one of our many food vendors and spectacular firework display.

Sunday, July 1, 2020

11:00 PM – 03:00 PM @ Rotary Park, 177 Lake Driveway West
06:00 PM to 10:00 PM @ Ajax Downs, 50 Alexander’s Crossing, Ajax

Canada Day in Beaverton

This local celebration is produced as a community partnership with The Lions Club of Beaverton, local businesses and service groups, bringing multi-generational and family-friendly activities throughout the day and evening, sure to entertain festival goers all day long. Start the day with a pancake breakfast at the Fire Hall and windup at dusk with a spectacular fireworks display at the fairgrounds. Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 08:00 AM – 10:00 PM

Beaverton FairGrounds,176 Main St, Beaverton & Other locations

Beaverton – Map
Parade route: Main Street W, Bay Street, Osborne Street, Simcoe Street
Pancake Breakfast: Firehall

Canada Day Celebrations at Beaver River Museum

Strawberry Shortcake Festival, Musical entertainment, & more! Details

Monday, July 1 | 11:00 AM

Beaver River Museum
284 Simcoe Street, Beaverton

Canada Day in Cannington

Annual Cannington Canada Day Festival and Classic and Custom Car & Truck Show! Includes live on stage entertainment, rides and inflatables for all ages, ball hockey tournament, car and truck show, motorcycle show n shine, bbq & concession food, beer tent, fire department displays & exhibits, Brock’s Biggest Canada Day Cake and more!

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 11:00 AM – 11:00 PM

Fireworks at Dusk

MacLeod Park, 72 Peace St.
Cannington, ON L0E 1E0

Free including rides

Canada Day in Clarington

Join Clarington on Monday, July 1st for Canada Day Celebrations! Live bands, food trucks, fun for the kids and Fireworks at dusk!

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 5:00 AM – 10:00 PM

Fireworks at Dusk

Garnet B. Rickard Recreation Complex
2440 Highway 2, Bowmanville

Canada Day in Pickering

Free family activities and entertainment, followed by a giant pyromusical firework display.

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 12:00 PM – 5:00 PM. @ Esplanade Park, behind City Hall

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 6:00 PM – 10:30 PM @ Bay Ridges Kinsmen Park, 705 Sandy Beach Road, Pickering

Fireworks at dusk

Canada Day in Oshawa

Live, local entertainment, carnival, family zone, historical village and spectacular fireworks will prov > More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 02:00PM -10:00 PM

Fireworks at close

1:30 p.m. to 2:15 p.m. – The Heat
2:30 p.m. to 3:15 p.m. – Wooly
3:30 p.m. to 4:15 p.m. – Jess and Tay
4:30 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. – Opening Ceremonies
5:15 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. – Ugly Horse
6:15 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. – Punch Douglas
7:15 p.m. to 8:15 p.m. – Rory Taillon
8:15 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. – The Band Destiny
9:15 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. – GT Harris and the Gunslingers

Lakeview Park, Simcoe St. S. and Lakeview Park Ave, Oshawa

Canada Day in Village of Newcastle

Celebrate Canada Day at the Newcastle Memorial Park starting at 4:00pm. Music, Fun Family Activities, Food, Decorated Bicycle Parade and more. Win fabulous prizes and promote your community. More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 4:00 AM – 10:00 PM

Newcastle Memorial Park, King Avenue East

Canada Day in Scugog

Join us on July 1 for unforgettable fun and entertainment! Our celebrations kick off at 10:30 a.m. with a parade through Historic Downtown Port Perry, featuring our annual “Vettes for Vets”, along with antique cars, local athletes, fife & drum and pipe bands, historical characters, and more! While the parade ends in Palmer Park, the fun has only just begun! After opening ceremonies, the day is packed full of live performances, activities in the K > More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 10:30 AM – 11:00 PM.

Fireworks at 10:00 PM

Palmer Park, 175 Water St, Port Perry

Canada Day in Uxbridge

Celebrate Canada Day in Elgin Park! Gates open at 5:30. Featuring free family entertainment, YDHR mini-train, live music, Citizen of the Year and fireworks at dusk. More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 05:30 PM – 10:00 PM

Elgin Park, 180 Main Street South, Uxbridge

Canada Day in Whitby

Canada Day and County Town Carnival
Enjoy kids zone, Adventure Zone, Arts Trail, Farmers’ Market, community and food vendors, water activities, music, displays and much more.

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 1:00 PM to 7:00 PM

Fireworks at 10:00 PM

Victoria Fields, the Port Whitby Marina and the Whitby Yacht Club, Whitby
Parking is available at Iroquois Park Sports Centre and the south lot of the Whitby GO Station

Canada Day Celebrations in Halton

Canada Day in Burlington

1. City of Burlington Canada Day Celebrations

Bring your national pride to Burlington’s Canada Day celebration and enjoy free Canadian-inspired activities and entertainment at a beautiful lakeside setting.

Enjoy numerous other event highlights including: stilt walkers, face painters, hair artists, giant inflatables, sampling booths, great food, vendors and lots of true Canadian spirit! Join got Canada Day 5km Run and 1km K >Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 2 PM – 10:00 PM

Fireworks: 10:00 PM

Spencer Smith Park
1400 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington

Road Closure: Lakeshore Road from Maple Ave. to Elizabeth St. will be closed July 1 from 9 to 11 p.m. for the fireworks at the Canada Day Celebration. Traffic will be redirected and the closure will be supervised by the Halton Regional Police Service.

2. Green Germann Sakran Canada Day 5K

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 09:30 AM

Spencer Smith Park
1400 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington

Canada Day in Halton Hills

Village of Glen Williams

This wonderful annual event attracts people from not only Glen Williams & Georgetown, but also other surrounding communities who come and participate in a free, fun-filled day in Glen Williams. We invite everyone to watch the parade and enjoy the activities, entertainers, musicians, food and crafts in the park. We prov > details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 08:00 AM – 10:00 PM
Parade: 12:00 PM
Fireworks: 10:00 PM

Glen Williams Park,509 Main Street, Glen Williams
Parade route begins at Alexander and Confederation and ends at St. John’s United Church.
Fireworks @ St. Alban’s Church on Main Street.

Canada Day in Acton

The Acton Firefighters’ Association is once again hosting its massive fireworks display in celebration of Canada Day. The show will last for about 25-30 minutes over the calm reflection of Fairy Lake. Donate at the Gate. – Details

Monday, July 1 | 9:30 PM – 11 PM

Prospect Park, 30 Park Avenue

Canada Day in Milton

Fantastic live music, wide variety of entertainment, diverse food choices, arts and crafts, fun activities for all ages, and the finale featuring spectacular fireworks under the stars!

Stage Entertainment -Beggar’s By Choice , Against The Wind

Fun activities include – Zero Gravity Circus, The Lumberjack Company Show, Ontario Falconry, Hands On Exotics, The Reptile Store Reptile Show, Pony R > More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 11:00 AM to 11:00 PM
Veteran’s Parade (from Cenotaph to Fairgrounds) – 11:30 AM
Gates will be open to the public at 11:30 AM

Hugh Foster Hall and Milton Fairgrounds, 136 Roberts Street, Milton

Free, donations appreciated.

Canada Day in Oakville

Join the Bronte Business Improvement Area for this FREE family festival. Includes: Music and performances all day long on three stages, Bouncy castles, A spectacular fireworks show over lake Ontario More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 06:00 PM – 10:00 PM

Fireworks – at 10:00 PM

Bronte Heritage Waterfront Park, Oakville ON.
Fireworks display at dusk off Bronte pier.

Canada Day Celebrations in Peel Region

Canada Day in Brampton

Come and enjoy internationally acclaimed and local live entertainment, participate in the many fun family activities and enjoy the various food vendors.

Make sure to stick around for the spectacular fireworks show!
More details

Monay, July 1, 2020 | 12:00 PM – 10:00 PM


6:00 PM – Exco Levi & High Priest

Fireworks | 10:00 PM

Donald M. Gordon Chinguacousy Park, 9050 Bramalea Road, Brampton

FREE Brampton Transit Shuttle Service from Mount Pleasant GO Station, Trinity Common Mall
Sheridan College, Gore Meadows Community Centre

Canada Day in Caledon

1. Annual Caledon Canada Day Celebrations

Come celebrate our nation’s independence at the 22nd annual Caledon Canada Day Celebrations. With music, strolling entertainers, tractor rides, wood carving demonstrations, archery lessons, food trucks, swimming pool and splash pad, hiking trails and more, this is a birthday bash you won’t soon forget. The event is jam-packed full of fun for the whole family.
More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 06:00 PM – 10:30 PM

Fireworks at dusk

Albion Hills Conservation Area,
16500 Highway 50,Caledon

Free with a donation to the Rotary Club of Palgrave.

2. Caledon Fair Canada Day Strawberry Festival

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 08:00 AM – 04:00 PM

Caledon Fairgrounds,
18297 Hurontario Street (Hwy 10), Caledon Village

3. Canada Day Strawberry Festival

Join us for a day of celebration as we recognize the birth of our glorious country with live music from several local groups, exciting and thrilling activities, and even a dog show! More details

monay, July 1, 2020 | 09:00 AM – 04:00 PM

Downey’s Farm Market,
13682 Heart Lake Road, Caledon

Free Admission & Parking

Canada Day in Mississauga

1. Celebrations at Celebration Square

Catch an incredible line-up of Canadian artists on the mainstage headlined by multi-award nominated rock group Marianas Trench, multi-instrumentalist Logan Staats, country duo Leaving Thomas and singer/producer Sickick. More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 02:00 PM – 10:30 PM

Fireworks: at close

Mississauga Celebration Square,
300 City Centre Drive Mississauga L5B 3C1

Paint the Town Red

Join us at Port Credit Memorial Park where live music, tribute and local bands, and up-and-coming stars will entertain you throughout the afternoon and evening. There is a great selection of local and international food and craft vendors to enjoy. We also have several Canadian artists, youth groups, children’s entertainers, and Kids zone in the park.
More details

Paint the Town Red Parade – Parade Route

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 10:00 AM – 10:30 PM


Port Credit, Mississauga
Main Stage Entertainment: Memorial Park, Mississauga
Hazel McCallion Canada Day Parade along Lakeshore Road.

Canada Day Celebrations in Streetsville

Join us as we celebrate Canada’sbirthday! Come out and enjoy this FREE community event!
A fun evening for the entire family!

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 06:00 PM – 10:00 PM
Fireworks: 10:00 PM

Streetsville Village Square & Streetsville Memorial Park –
335 Church Street, Mississauga

Canada Day in Malton

Get ready for the biggest Canada Day celebration to ever come to Malton! Enjoy family-friendly entertainment, delicious food. The family fun starts in our parking lot at 2pm with stage entertainment at 5pm, ending with a fantastic firework show!
More details

July 1 | 02:00 PM to 10:00 PM

Westwood Square, 7205 Goreway Dr, Mississauga

Canada Day Together Festival

The 2020 Canada Day Together Festival features a culturally-diverse line up of performers, artisans and experiences for all ages to enjoy! In just its third year, the Together Festival is pulling out all the stops to put on a massive celebration in honour of our nation’s 152nd anniversary of confederation.
More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 04:00 PM – 10:00 PM

Fireworks: 10:00 PM

Churchill Meadows Community Common
3340 McDowell Drive, Mississauga

Canada Day @ Living Arts Centre

Join us as we put the spotlight on Play – through arts and crafts, games, performing arts and sports – indoors and out!
More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 12 PM – 3 PM

Living Arts centre, 4141 Living Arts Drive, Mississauga

Canada Day Celebrations in York

Canada Day in Aurora

Enjoy family oriented activities, live entertainment, fireworks and much more. Don’t miss the Aurora Teen > Details

Canada Day Parade: Monday, July 1, 2020 | 10:00 AM
Celebrations: Monday, July 1, 2020 | 11:00 AM – 10:00 PM

​Sheer Heart Attack – Tribute to Queen | ​8:15 PM

Fireworks: 10:00 PM

The parade route: Yonge Street from Mosley Street to Murray Drive.
Festivities & Fireworks: Lambert Willson Park, 135 Industrial Parkway North

Canada Day in East Gwillimbury

Join us outdoors for some music, food, bouncy castles.
More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 07:00 PM – 10:00 PM

Mount Albert Lions Community Centre, 5057 Mount Albert Rd., Mount Albert

Free shuttles will be available to and from the Holland Landing Community Centre, East Gwillimbury Sports Complex, Ross Family Complex.

Sharon Temple Museum Canada Day

Families and history buffs alike will enjoy this imaginative recreation of the 1837 Upper Canada Rebellion, in which Newmarket played a vital role. Military re-enactors and historical interpreters will take over the Sharon Temple Museum as it transforms into a 19th century encampment where visitors can talk with historians and experience hands-on history. Experience fun for all ages! Games for children include bouncy castles, backyard lawn games and so much more! Win prizes, or try some delicious popcorn! More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 11:00 AM – 04:00 PM

Sharon Temple National Historic Site and Museum
18974 Leslie Street, Sharon

Canada Day in Georgina

Join us at the ROC for a day full of exciting festivities for the whole family! Enjoy live entertainment, children’s activities, inflatables, food and more. Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 2:00 PM – 10:00 PM

Fireworks begin at 10:00 PM sharp

The ROC & Georgina Pioneer Village
26479 Civic Centre Road, Keswick

Canada Day in Markham

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 3:00 PM to 11:00 PM

Fireworks Dusk (Approx. 10:00 p.m.)

Milne Dam Conservation Area. There is no public parking at the conservation area.

People’s Parade
Enjoy colourful floats, dancers, entertainers and much more!

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 4:00 PM

Beginning at McCowan Road and Hwy 7,
leading in to Milne Dam Conservation Park

Unionville Canada Day

Celebrate Canada Day with entertainment by Kindred Spirits Orchestra and prepare for a dazzling display of light, colour, and sound as the sky alights with the magnificent flowers of the fireworks. Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 8:00 P.M to 11:00 PM

Unionville Millennium Bandstand
Main Street – Unionville

You may like: TD Taste of Asia 2020 on June 28 & 29, 2020 @ 1300 Finch Ave W, North York

Canada Day in Newmarket

1. Canada Day Open House at the Museum

Join us at the Elman W. Campbell Museum for our Canada Day Open House. Special display: 200 Years of Yonge Street Quilts features quilts made by the Women’s Institutes of Yonge Street from Toronto to Thunder Bay. Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 10:00 AM – 03:00 PM

The Elman W. Campbell Museum,
134 Main St. South, Newmarket

2. Canada Day Celebrations Newmarket

Come celebrate Canada’s birthday with neighbours, family and friends! Enjoy entertainment for all ages.

Finish your Canada Day with live music before an amazing 20 minute fireworks show. Fireworks begin at 10:10 p.m. Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 11 AM to 4 PM @ Community Centre & Riverwalk Commons, 200 Doug Duncan Drive
Monday, July 1, 2020 | 07:30 PM to 10:30 PM @ George Richardson Park

Fireworks : Dusk (Approximately 10:10 p.m.) @ George Richardson Park, Bayview Pkwy

Canada Day in Richmond Hill

Join us to celebrate Canada Day. Every year, thousands of people in Richmond Hill and the GTA come to Richmond Green to celebrate Canada’s birthday. It’s a day full of fun activities including: Live entertainment, Food from around the world, A beer garden, A children’s village, A teen zone, A marketplace, An art exhibit, The region’s largest firework display! More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 11:00 AM – 11:00 PM

JJ and the Pillars – 7:30 PM

Ria Mae – 9:15 PM

Fireworks at 10:00 PM

Richmond Green Park, 1300 Elgin Mills Road East
(located at the northwest corner of Elgin Mills Road East and Leslie Street)

Free Shuttle: 10 AM – 9 PM. & 11:00 PM

Canada Day in Vaughan

1. Canada Day Celebrations by the City of Vaughan

This year, Canada Day festivities will be held at the newly opened North Maple Regional Park, 11085 Keele St. and will feature FREE: admission, activities & entertainment, live performances, inflatables, arts & crafts, Vaughan Soccer Club Friendly Tournament & more!

Headlined by duo JUNO award winner and multi-platinum global reggae-pop quartet MAGIC!! More details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | 2:00 PM – 8:00 PM

North Maple Regional Park, 11085 Keele Street, Vaughan

Fireworks at Canada’s Wonderland

Join us for a brilliant fireworks display throughout the season! Spend your day enjoying over 200 awesome r > Details

Monday, July 1, 2020 | Fireworks at

Canada’s Wonderland
9580 Jane St, Vaughan

Fireworks are included with park admission. from $39.99

Celebration Canada

Visit Canada’s Wonderland and join us in honouring our country with a birthday celebration. During your visit to the park, enjoy spectacular performances by Tundra: A Cirque Experience, Flying Frontenacs, live music, authentic Canadian food, street performers, and more! You also won’t want to miss our fantastic fireworks display on July 1 as we light up the sky with thousands of colourful explosions and picture perfect views.. Details

June 29 – July 14, 2020 Daily

Canada’s Wonderland
9580 Jane St, Vaughan

Canada Day in Whitchurch-Stouffville

Strawberry Festival & Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville Celebrations
Fun for the whole family the whole weekend! Come out and enjoy the fun and games, and participate in contests. Come and enjoy local crafts, food, entertainment and more.The Street Market at the Strawberry Festival features over 250 artisans, crafters, and merchants! Music and entertainment fill the air throughout the Festival. Details

Festival: June 28 – July 1, 2020

Canada Day Celebrations: Monday, July 1, 2020 | 02:00 PM – Dusk

Fireworks at Dusk

Main festival & Fireworks: Stouffville Memorial Park


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Celebrating Canadian Multiculturalism Day

Celebrating Canadian Multiculturalism Day

Ottawa – On November 13, 2002, the Government of Canada, by Royal Proclamation declared June 27th of each year as Canadian Multiculturalism Day.

It is a day to recognize and acknowledge Canada’s rich diversity and significant contributions many ethnocultural communities have made and continue to make to the development of our great country, Canada.

“As we celebrate Multiculturalism Day, let us reflect and give homage to not only all those people who have come from every corner of the world and by working together contributed to building this country of ours but also to the precious values of equality, mutual respect and democracy that are at the forefront of our diversity and which make Canada such a great nation and the envy of the world. Multiculturalism is also a cornerstone of our values and a very fundamental part of our Canadian identity. Let us together celebrate Multiculturalism Day and be proud of our rich diversity and at the same time embrace our identity and heritage”, said Dominic Campione, President.

“We applaud and are in gratitude to the Government of Canada for proclaiming in 2002 Canadian Multiculturalism Day, and most recently the unanimous support at the Ontario Legislative Assembly of MPP for Trinity- Spadina Han Dong’s motion officially recognizing Canadian Multiculturalism Day in the Province of Ontario. We look forward to the recognition of Canadian Multiculturalism Day in all Provinces and Territories in Canada and thereby fully celebrate our cultural diversity and the cultural, social, and economic contributions of ethnocultural communities.”

Beside that, the Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada, Justin Trudeau, today issued the following statement on Canadian Multiculturalism Day:

“On Multiculturalism Day, Canadians from all corners of the country come together to celebrate the cultural diversity that has become so deeply characteristic of – and essential to – our national fabric and Canadian identity.

“Canada has long been a beacon of hope to the rest of the world – a model nation founded on the principles of acceptance, fundamental freedoms, and mutual respect. Together, we have proven that a country can be stronger not in spite of its differences, but precisely because of them.”

Bizim Anadolu / June 27th, 2015

Research publications


1 Introduction

The concept of Canada as a “multicultural society” can be interpreted in different ways: descriptively (as a sociological fact), prescriptively (as ideology) or politically (as policy).

As a sociological fact, multiculturalism refers to the presence of people from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Ideologically, multiculturalism consists of a relatively coherent set of ideas and ideals pertaining to the celebration of Canada’s cultural diversity. At the policy level, multiculturalism refers to the management of diversity through formal initiatives in the federal, provincial, territorial and municipal domains.

This study focuses on an analysis of Canadian multiculturalism both as a sociological fact and as a federal public policy. It goes on to look at attitudes to multiculturalism, as well as provincial and territorial multiculturalism policies. It also provides a chronology of federal policy on multiculturalism, and selected references.

2 Background and Analysis

2.1 Multiculturalism as a Sociological Fact of Canadian Life

Canada’s history of settlement and colonization has resulted in a multicultural society made up of three founding peoples – Indigenous, French, and British – and of many other racial and ethnic groups.

The Indigenous peoples include First Nations (Status and Non‑Status Indians), Métis and Inuit. Their proportion of Canada’s total population is increasing. Statistics Canada’s 2020 Census revealed that just over 2.1 million people reported having some Indigenous ancestry, representing 6.2% of the total population. By comparison, in the 2011 Census, people with Indigenous ancestry represented 4.3% of the population.

French and British colonizers began arriving in the early 1600s, and at the time of Confederation, Canada’s population was chiefly British (60%) and French (30%). At the turn of the 20 th century, immigrants from other European countries were allowed entry into Canada. In percentage terms, the influx peaked in 1912 and 1913, when annual arrivals exceeded 5% of the total population. The proportion of the population born outside the country dropped during the Great Depression and the Second World War, but has been rising since the early 1950s. The sources of immigration have also shifted toward locations such as Asia, the Caribbean, and South and Central America.

By 1981, the combination of a declining birth rate and ongoing immigration saw the British and French populations decline to 40% and 27%, respectively. At the beginning of the 21 st century, the proportion of people with British, French, and/or Canadian ethnic origins had dropped to 46%. (The term “Canadian” ethnic origin was first introduced in the 1996 Census.) An ethnic diversity survey published by Statistics Canada in 2003 showed that 21% of the population aged 15 years and older was of British‑only ancestry, while 10% reported only French origins, 8% were Canadian only, and 7% were a mix of these three origins.

This increased diversity is evident from the data from the 2020 Census carried out by Statistics Canada, in which more than 250 different ethnic origins or ancestries were reported. The most common reported ancestries were Canadian, English, Scottish, French and Irish, followed by German, Chinese, Italian, First Nations, Indian (from India), Ukrainian, Dutch and Polish. The census data also found that 21.9% of the population was born outside Canada – the highest proportion since the 1921 Census. In 2020, the largest number of immigrants was from Asia, representing 48.1% of the population born abroad. The visible minority population – that is, the non-white population, excluding the Indigenous population – accounted for 22.3% of the total population, up from 4.7% in 1981.

Linguistic diversity is also at the core of Canadian multiculturalism. In 2020, according to census data, English was the first language (mother tongue) for 58.1% of the population. This was a slight decrease from 2011, when 58.6% of the population said English was their mother tongue.

The same trend was observed for French, the second most common mother tongue after English: 21.4% of the population reported speaking French as their first language, compared with 22% in 2011. Lastly, the percentage of those whose mother tongue was a language other than English or French was 22.9% in 2020, up 1.6% from 2011.

In 2020, “immigrant” languages – that is, languages other than English, French, Indigenous languages or sign language – were the mother tongues of 22.3% of the Canadian population (more than 7.7 million people). The immigrant languages spoken most often at home were Mandarin, Cantonese, Punjabi, Spanish, Tagalog and Arabic. The Indigenous languages spoken by the largest number of people were Cree languages, Inuktitut, Ojibway, Oji-Cree, Dene and Montagnais (Innu).

2.2 Multiculturalism as a Public Policy at the Federal Level

Analysts generally agree that federal multiculturalism policy has evolved through three developmental phases: the incipient stage (pre-1971), the formative period (1971–1981), and institutionalization (1982 to the present).

2.2.1 The Incipient Stage (Pre-1971)

The era preceding 1971 can best be described as a time of gradual movement toward acceptance of ethnic diversity as legitimate and integral to Canadian society. Nation‑building in the symbolic and cultural sense was oriented toward the replication of a British type of society in Canada. Culturally, this was reflected in Canada’s political, economic and social institutions. All Canadians were defined as British subjects until the passage of the Canadian Citizenship Act in 1947, and a variety of cultural symbols legitimized the British underpinnings of English-speaking Canada. For the most part, central authorities dismissed the value of cultural heterogeneity, considering racial and ethnic differences as inimical to national interests and detrimental to Canada’s character and integrity. Only the massive influx of post-World War II immigrants from Europe prompted central authorities to rethink the role and status of “other ethnic groups” within the evolving dynamic of Canadian society.

Later, events and developments during the 1960s paved the way for the eventual demise of the official policy of assimilation and the subsequent appearance of multiculturalism. Pressures for change stemmed from the growing assertiveness of Canada’s Indigenous peoples, the force of Québécois nationalism and increasing resentment on the part of some ethnic minorities regarding their place in society.

2.2.2 The Formative Period (1971–1981)

In 1969, the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism published Book Four of its report, which dealt with the contribution of non-Indigenous, non‑French and non-English ethnic groups to the cultural enrichment of Canada. The Commission recommended the “integration” (not assimilation) into Canadian society of those ethnic groups with full citizenship rights and equal participation in Canada’s institutional structure. These recommendations led to the introduction in 1971 of the Multiculturalism Policy. Its key objectives were these:

  • to assist cultural groups to retain and foster their identity;
  • to assist cultural groups to overcome barriers to their full participation in Canadian society (thus, the multiculturalism policy advocated the full involvement and equal participation of ethnic minorities in mainstream institutions, without denying them the right to identify with select elements of their cultural past if they so chose);
  • to promote creative exchanges among all Canadian cultural groups; and
  • to assist immigrants in acquiring at least one of the two official languages.
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Achieving these policy objectives depended on government funding. Nearly $200 million was set aside in the 10 years following the implementation of the policy for special initiatives in language and cultural maintenance. A Multicultural Directorate within the Department of the Secretary of State was approved in 1972 to assist in the implementation of multicultural policies and programs. The directorate sponsored activities aimed at assisting ethnic minorities in the areas of human rights, freedom from racial discrimination, citizenship, immigration and cultural diversity. A Ministry of Multiculturalism was created in 1973 to monitor the implementation of multicultural initiatives within government departments. In addition, formal linkages between the government and ethnic organizations were established to provide ongoing input into the decision-making process. An example was the Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism, established in 1973 and later renamed the Canadian Ethnocultural Council.

The architects of the 1971 Multiculturalism Policy perceived barriers to social adaptation and economic success largely in linguistic or cultural terms. The marked increase in the arrival of visible minority immigrants whose main concerns were obtaining employment, housing and education, as well as fighting discrimination, required a shift in policy thinking. Equality through the removal of racially discriminatory barriers became the main focus of multicultural programs, and race relations policies and programs were put in place to uncover, isolate and combat racial discrimination at personal and institutional levels. Particular emphasis was placed on encouraging and facilitating the ways in which cultural minority groups could fully participate in Canadian society.

2.2.3 Institutionalization (1982 to the Present)

The 1980s witnessed a growing institutionalization of multicultural policy. Shifts in this policy coincided with a difficult period for race relations in Canada. Immigration had noticeably changed the composition of the population in large cities over a short period of time. Canada also began to see the emergence of a few individuals and groups promoting racist ideas. The government first concentrated on the changes needed in order to help Canadian institutions adapt to the presence of the new immigrant groups. It also introduced anti-discrimination programs designed to help remove social and cultural barriers separating minority and majority groups in Canada.

With the adoption of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (the Charter) in 1982, the multicultural heritage of Canadians was recognized in the Constitution. Section 27 of the Charter states: “This Charter shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canadians.”

This provision is critical in placing multiculturalism within the wider framework of Canadian society. It empowers the courts to take Canada’s multicultural reality into account at the highest levels of decision-making. In the words of a former human rights commissioner, it provides a useful “interpretative prism” to assist the courts when balancing individual and multicultural (and often collective) rights. A relevant example is the issue of freedom of individual expression, which must take account of the prohibition against racial slurs or circulation of racially based hate propaganda. Hence, the principle underlying the freedom of individual expression does not extend to absolute free speech.

Moreover, the Charter addresses the elimination of expressions of discrimination by guaranteeing both equality and fairness to all under the law, regardless of race or ethnicity. Section 15(1) states:

Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.

In addition, section 15(2) establishes entitlement to non-discriminatory benefits without denying the need for additional measures to assist disadvantaged groups.

In 1984, the Special Parliamentary Committee on Visible Minorities produced its well‑known report Equality Now!, and in 1985, a House of Commons Standing Committee on Multiculturalism was created. In 1987, the committee issued an extensive report that called for the enactment of a new policy on multiculturalism and the creation of the Department of Multiculturalism.

A new multiculturalism policy with a clearer sense of purpose and direction came into effect in 1988 when the Canadian Multiculturalism Act was adopted by Parliament. Canada was the first country in the world to pass a national multiculturalism law. Still today, the Act sets out the legal framework for Canada’s multiculturalism policy.

The Act acknowledges multiculturalism as a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society with an integral role in the decision-making process of the federal government. Directed toward the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada, the Act seeks to assist in the preservation of culture and language, to reduce discrimination, to enhance cultural awareness and understanding, and to promote culturally sensitive institutional change at the federal level.

In order to maintain a balance between cultural distinctiveness and equality, the Act specifies the right of all to identify with the cultural heritage of their choice, yet retain “full and equitable participation … in the … shaping of all aspects of Canadian society.” In effect, the Act seeks to preserve, enhance and incorporate cultural differences into the functioning of Canadian society, while ensuring equal access and full participation for all Canadians in the social, political, and economic spheres. It also focuses on the eradication of racism and the removal of discriminatory barriers as ways to fulfill Canada’s human rights commitments.

Moreover, the Act presents multiculturalism as a positive instrument of change that aims to remove barriers that preclude the involvement, equity, and representation of all citizens in Canada’s institutions, as well as their access to those institutions. The Act recognizes the need to increase minority participation in Canada’s major institutions by bringing diversity into these institutions as a natural, normal, and positive component of decision‑making, resource allocation, and the setting of priorities. Under the Act, all government agencies, departments and Crown corporations – not just the department responsible for multiculturalism – are expected to provide leadership in advancing Canada’s multicultural mix and to take part in the design and implementation of plans, programs, procedures and decision‑making strategies that enhance the full and equal participation of minorities within institutional structures.

It is also noteworthy that the Act makes the government accountable to both Parliament and the public for ensuring compliance with its provisions by requiring annual reports. A multiculturalism secretariat was established to support the government in implementing improved delivery of government services in federal institutions.

In 1988, the Government of Canada formally apologized for the wrongful incarceration, seizure of property and disenfranchisement of Japanese Canadians during World War II and offered compensation. The Government of Canada and the National Association of Japanese Canadians signed the Japanese Canadian Redress Agreement, and the federal government promised to create the Canadian Race Relations Foundation.

The Canadian Race Relations Foundation Act was adopted by Parliament in 1991. It established a Race Relations Foundation in Toronto with the purpose of helping to eliminate racism and racial discrimination through public education. Funding for the establishment of the Foundation was deferred until 1996, when the federal government provided a one-time endowment of $24 million to establish the Foundation. The Foundation’s core mandate included the following:

  • undertaking research, collecting data, and developing a national information base to further understanding of racism and racial discrimination;
  • providing information to support effective race relations training and the development of professional standards; and
  • disseminating information to increase public awareness of the importance of eliminating racism.

The Canadian Heritage Languages Institute Act, which was adopted by Parliament in 1991, provided for the establishment of a Heritage Languages Institute in Edmonton, with the purpose of developing national standards for teacher training and curriculum content for ethnic minority language classes in Canada. Before it could be created, however, the 1992 Budget deferred the Institute’s establishment until further notice. In January 2012, under the provisions of the Statutes Repeal Act, the Canadian Heritage Languages Institute Act was repealed.

Legislation creating a full-fledged Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship was adopted by Parliament in 1991. The institutionalized programs established under the newly created department were:

  • Race Relations and Cross-Cultural Understanding “to promote among Canadians and in Canadian institutions appreciation, acceptance and implementation of the principles of racial equality and multiculturalism”;
  • Heritage Cultures and Languages “to assist Canadians to preserve, enhance and share their cultures, languages and ethnocultural group identities”; and
  • Community Support and Participation “to support the full and equitable participation in Canadian life of individuals and communities from Canada’s racial and ethnocultural minorities.”

Where early multicultural policies concentrated on cultural preservation and intercultural sharing through promotion of ethnic presses and festivals, the rejuvenated multiculturalism policy emphasized cross-cultural understanding and the attainment of social and economic integration through institutional change, affirmative action to equalize opportunity, and the removal of discriminating barriers.

The new department was short-lived, however; it was dismantled in 1993. Its multiculturalism programs were integrated into the new and larger Department of Canadian Heritage, while programs associated with citizenship (citizenship registration and promotion) were assigned to the newly established Department of Citizenship and Immigration.

The Standing Committee on Multiculturalism and Citizenship released its last report in 1993, shortly before it ceased to exist when the Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship was disbanded. Entitled Study of the Implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act in Federal Institutions, the report made recommendations suggesting various ways of improving the evaluation of federal institutions’ progress in implementing the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. Other key recommendations identified specific measures whereby government departments and agencies could strengthen their commitment to the principles of the Act.

Following increased criticism of the multiculturalism policy voiced by various groups and individuals from different parts of Canadian society, the Department of Canadian Heritage launched a comprehensive review of its multiculturalism programming activities in 1995. In 1997, the federal government announced a new policy that focused on three objectives: social justice (building a fair and equitable society); civic participation (ensuring that Canadians of all origins participate in the shaping of our communities and country); and identity (fostering a society that recognizes, respects and reflects a diversity of cultures so that people of all backgrounds feel a sense of belonging to Canada).

The new policy prioritized proposals that:

  • assisted in the development of strategies to facilitate the full and active participation of ethnic, racial, religious and cultural communities in Canada;
  • supported collective community initiatives and responses to ethnic, racial, religious and cultural conflict and hate-motivated activities;
  • improved the ability of public institutions to respond to ethnic, racial, religious and cultural diversity;
  • encouraged and assisted in the development of inclusive policies, programs and practices within federal departments and agencies; and
  • increased public awareness, understanding and dialogue with respect to multiculturalism, racism and cultural diversity in Canada.

In 2002, the government announced that Canadian Multiculturalism Day would be held every year on 27 June.

Meanwhile, in March 2005, the government released A Canada for All: Canada’s Action Plan Against Racism. Its objectives were to strengthen social cohesion, to further Canada’s human rights framework, and to demonstrate federal leadership in the fight against racism and hate-motivated crime.

In 2006, the federal government offered a full apology to Chinese-Canadians for the head tax that was imposed on Chinese immigrants until 1923 and Canada’s subsequent refusal, until 1947, to accept Chinese immigrants. The government also replaced the ACE program, described above, with the Community Historical Recognition Program (which ended on 31 March 2013) and the National Historical Recognition Program to commemorate the historical experiences and contributions of ethnocultural communities.

In 2008, responsibility for multiculturalism was transferred from the Department of Canadian Heritage to the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, whose minister was renamed the Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism. The multiculturalism policy was modified to stress the following priorities:

  • support for the economic, social, and cultural integration of new Canadians and cultural communities;
  • facilitation of programs that promote mentorship, volunteerism, leadership, and civic education among at-risk youth of different cultural backgrounds; and
  • promotion of intercultural understanding and Canadian values (democracy, freedom, human rights and the rule of law) through community initiatives, with the objective of addressing issues of cultural social exclusion (parallel communities) and radicalization.

In 2008, the federal government announced the creation of the Paul Yuzyk Award for Multiculturalism to recognize the contribution and work of individuals and groups dedicated to promoting multiculturalism and helping newcomers integrate into Canada.

In 2009, Canada became a full member of the Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research. This organization was renamed the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA ) in 2012. Canada chaired the IHRA from March 2013 to February 2014.

That same year, the following three new objectives for the multiculturalism policy were implemented:

  • to build an integrated, socially cohesive society;
  • to improve the responsiveness of institutions to meet the needs of a diverse population; and
  • to actively engage in discussions on multiculturalism and diversity at an international level.

In 2013, the government created the Office of Religious Freedom with a mandate to defend religious minorities, promote religious freedom and advance policies and programs that support the right to freedom of religion. As a section of Global Affairs Canada, the Office focus was abroad. The Office closed its doors on 31 March 2020.

On 23 April 2015, Parliament passed Bill S-219, known as the Journey to Freedom Day Act, which commemorates the exodus of Vietnamese refugees and their acceptance in Canada after the fall of Saigon and the end of the Vietnam War.

In June 2015, Canada chaired the inaugural meeting of the International Contact Group for Freedom of Religion or Belief. This informal group seeks to protect the right to freedom of religion or belief through interstate cooperation.

Also in June 2015, the Zero Tolerance for Barbaric Cultural Practices Act was passed by Parliament. The Act amends the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Civil Marriage Act, the Criminal Code and other Acts to stipulate a minimum age of 16 years for marriage and to specify that a permanent resident or foreign national is inadmissible on grounds of practising polygamy in Canada.

Following Canada’s 2015 elections, the Government of Canada announced in November 2015 that the multiculturalism portfolio was being transferred from the Department of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship to the Department of Canadian Heritage. However, the objectives of the Multiculturalism Program were still the same as those announced in 2010.

Also in May 2020, the Government of Canada delivered a formal apology for the Komagata Maru incident in 1914. This Japanese ship arrived in Vancouver in May 1914 with 376 passengers on board from South Asia. A total of 352 passengers were refused entry to Canada because of the immigration policy of that era.

In March 2020, Motion M-103 on systemic racism and religious discrimination was passed by the House of Commons, and on 8 June 2020, the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage began a study on how the government could achieve the following two objectives:

  1. develop a whole-of-government approach to reducing or eliminating systemic racism and religious discrimination, including Islamophobia, in Canada, while ensuring a community-centred focus with a holistic response through evidence-based policy making, and
  2. collect data to contextualize hate crime reports and to conduct needs assessments for impacted communities.

Further to this motion, in February 2020 the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage published a report entitled Taking Action Against Systemic Racism and Religious Discrimination Including Islamophobia. The report made 30 recommendations, including updating and reinstating the previous Canadian Action Plan Against Racism, establishing uniform pan-Canadian guidelines and standards for the collection and handling of hate crime data and hate incident data, developing an anti-racism framework, and increasing multiculturalism funding dedicated to eradicating systemic racism and religious discrimination and to promoting greater intercultural understanding and awareness. The report also recommended that 29 January be designated as the National Day of Remembrance and Action on Islamophobia and other forms of religious discrimination.

2.3 Attitudes Toward Multiculturalism

Various publications and polls suggest that Canadians are generally supportive of a multicultural society, at least in principle if not always in practice. Indeed, attitudes toward immigration and multiculturalism have become more positive over the years. According to the Focus Canada surveys conducted by the Environics Institute for Survey Research, the percentage of Canadians who see multiculturalism as a symbol of Canadian identity increased from 37% in 1997 to 54% in 2015. At the same time, the percentage of Canadians who feel that immigration levels are too high dropped from 61% in 1977 to 37% in 2020.

While it appears as though Canadians are largely in favour of multiculturalism, attitudes about religious diversity are more mixed. According to a survey conducted by the Angus Reid Institute in 2020, when asked whether religious diversity in Canada was good or bad, 26% of Canadians responded that it was a good thing, 23% said it was a bad thing, and the remainder of respondents said they were unsure or they felt the impact was mixed.

Attitudes toward multiculturalism vary from region to region. In particular, many Québécois have expressed uneasiness about, or even resistance to, the federal multiculturalism policy since its inception. This uneasiness is largely explained in terms of the perception, by many Québécois, of multiculturalism as another intrusion by federal authorities into their province’s internal affairs. Many are inclined to view multiculturalism as a ploy to downgrade the distinct society status of Québécois to the level of an ethnic minority culture under the domination of English-speaking Canada. Multiculturalism is thus seen as an attempt to dilute the French fact in Canada, weakening francophone status and threatening the partnership of English‑speaking and French-speaking Canadians. For many Québécois, the idea of reducing the rights of French-speaking Canadians to the same level as those of other ethno-racial minorities in the name of multicultural equality is inconsistent with the special compact between the three founding peoples of Canada.

In addition, some commentators have expressed the fear that the multiculturalism policy is promoting too much diversity at the expense of unity. Critics say the policy is divisive because it emphasizes what is different, rather than the values that are Canadian. Canadian culture and symbols, it is felt, are being discarded in the effort to accommodate other cultures. On the other hand, defenders of Canada’s approach to multiculturalism argue that it encourages integration by telling immigrants they do not have to choose between preserving their cultural heritage and participating in Canadian society. Rather, they can do both.

In his book Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada, published in 1994, author Neil Bissoondath leads the charge against the government’s multiculturalism policy. His book reiterates his concern over the potential divisiveness inherent in government promotion of cultural diversity. In Bissoondath’s opinion, the government’s encouragement of ethnic differences leads immigrants to adopt a “psychology of separation” from the mainstream culture. Multiculturalism is blamed for isolating ethno-racial groups in distinct enclaves by fostering an inward-focused mentality that drives a wedge between Canadians of different ethnic backgrounds. The author argues that unity and cohesion are being sacrificed for a philosophy that separates, intensifies misunderstanding and hostility, and pits one group against another in the competition for power and resources.

Other prominent authors, such as Richard Gwyn, in his 1995 book Nationalism Without Walls, and Jack Granatstein, in his 1998 book Who Killed Canadian History?, have criticized what they see as the negative impacts of the multiculturalism policy. Gwyn argues that the political elite was mistaken in rationalizing that the backlash against multiculturalism was caused by temporary “employment anxiety” in the early 1990s, rather than a widespread fear that Canadians were becoming “strangers in their own land.” Granatstein implicates official multiculturalism and political correctness in the death of Canadian history, both in schools and among Canadian youth in general. He claims that a number of studies in schools and at post-secondary levels of education show that Canadians are learning less and less about their history and cannot pass relatively basic tests about historical events or personalities. Granatstein also argues that multiculturalism policies have helped spread the idea among immigrants and even native-born Canadians that Canada, particularly English‑speaking Canada, has no culture and identity of its own.

In response to these arguments, in 1998, philosopher Will Kymlicka published Finding Our Way: Rethinking Ethnocultural Relations in Canada. He says the evidence does not support claims that multiculturalism has decreased the rate of integration of immigrants. Using statistics on naturalization rates for immigrants, levels of political participation among ethnocultural groups, rates at which new Canadians can speak an official language and rates of intermarriage, Kymlicka argues that the multiculturalism policy has worked and that there is no evidence that it has promoted ethnic separateness.

As noted at the beginning of this section, recent polls show that multiculturalism is largely seen in a positive light. In a review of public opinion research on attitudes toward multiculturalism from 2006 to 2009, Stuart Soroka and Sarah Roberton found that multiculturalism is “viewed as an integral and largely positive aspect of the Canadian state.” At the same time, they found that Canadians “see some value in shared values and traditions as well.”

2.4 Provincial and Territorial Multiculturalism Policies

All provincial governments have adopted some form of multiculturalism policy. At present, six of the ten provinces – British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, and Nova Scotia – have enacted multiculturalism legislation. Eight provinces – British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia – have created a multiculturalism advisory council that reports to the minister responsible for multiculturalism. In Alberta, the Alberta Human Rights Commission performs the role of multiculturalism advisory council. In Nova Scotia, the legislation is implemented by both a Cabinet committee on multiculturalism and advisory councils. Ontario has an official multicultural policy and the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration is responsible for promoting social inclusion, civic and community engagement and recognition. The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador launched the province’s policy on multiculturalism in 2008 and the Minister of Advanced Education and Skills leads its implementation.

While the territorial governments do not have multiculturalism policies per se, they have human rights Acts that prohibit discrimination based on, among other things, race, colour, ancestry, ethnic origin, place of origin, creed or religion. In Whitehorse, the Multicultural Centre of the Yukon provides services to immigrants.

2.4.1 British Columbia

British Columbia adopted the Multiculturalism Act in 1993. It requires the government to “generally, carry on government services and programs in a manner that is sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of British Columbia.” Each ministry and Crown corporation makes an annual report describing its efforts to promote multiculturalism. The minister responsible for multiculturalism submits an omnibus report, Report on Multiculturalism: Government of British Columbia, to the legislature. The Multicultural Advisory Council advises the minister responsible for multiculturalism on issues related to anti-racism and multiculturalism. It brings people together from across British Columbia who are dedicated to promoting multiculturalism.

In order to promote understanding of diversity, in 2008 British Columbia launched EmbraceBC. With support from the provincial and federal governments, this program provides information resources as well as funding for community-based anti-racism and multiculturalism projects.

That same year, the Government of British Columbia launched the British Columbia Multicultural Awards, which recognize individuals, organizations and businesses whose exceptional work helps bring diverse cultures together.

On 15 May 2014, the Government of British Columbia issued a formal apology to Chinese Canadians for the historic wrongs done to them by past provincial governments.

In British Columbia, the third week in November every year is dedicated to celebrating multiculturalism.

2.4.2 Alberta

Alberta first adopted multiculturalism legislation in 1984 with the passage of the Alberta Cultural Heritage Act. Multiculturalism was thereby recognized as a fundamental characteristic of Alberta society, which confers economic as well as social and cultural benefits on all Albertans. It was replaced in 1990 by the Alberta Multiculturalism Act, of which the main objectives were to encourage respect for and promote an awareness of the multicultural heritage of Alberta and to foster an environment in which all Albertans can participate and contribute to the cultural, social, economic and political life of their province. The Act established a Multiculturalism Commission to advise the government on policy and programs respecting multiculturalism, as well as a Multiculturalism Advisory Council to make policy recommendations to the Commission. A Multicultural Fund was also set up to finance programs and services related to its objectives and to provide grants to eligible persons and organizations.

In 1996, the government merged the human rights and multiculturalism programs. The Human Rights, Citizenship and Multiculturalism Act retained the main objectives of the Alberta Multiculturalism Act, and the Alberta Human Rights Commission took over the duties of the former Multiculturalism Commission. Similarly, the Multicultural Fund continued as the Human Rights, Citizenship and Multiculturalism Fund. In 2009, Alberta’s human rights legislation was amended and was renamed the Alberta Human Rights Act. The Multiculturalism Fund became the Human Rights Education and Multiculturalism Fund.

2.4.3 Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan was the first province to adopt legislation on multiculturalism. The Saskatchewan Multicultural Act was first passed in 1974. In 1997, a new Multiculturalism Act was enacted, which reaches beyond the traditional scope of multiculturalism to address the social justice issues of society today, such as racism and discrimination. The purposes of the Act (section 3) are:

  1. to recognize that the diversity of Saskatchewan people with respect to race, cultural heritage, religion, ethnicity, ancestry and place of origin is a fundamental characteristic of Saskatchewan society that enriches the lives of all Saskatchewan people;
  2. to encourage respect for the multicultural heritage of Saskatchewan;
  3. to foster a climate for harmonious relations among people of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds without sacrificing their distinctive cultural and ethnic identities;
  4. to encourage the continuation of a multicultural society.

The Government of Saskatchewan supports multicultural activity primarily through the Saskatchewan Lotteries Trust Fund for Sport, Culture and Recreation. Lottery funding directly supports the activities of over 1,200 volunteer-driven organizations.

2.4.4 Manitoba

Manitoba adopted the Manitoba Intercultural Council Act in 1984. Under the Act, the Council’s mandate is to make recommendations to the government, through the minister responsible for ethnocultural matters in the province, on education, human rights, immigrant settlement, media and communication, and cultural heritage. In the summer of 1992, the Manitoba legislature adopted a new provincial Multiculturalism Act, the preamble of which states:

Manitoba’s multicultural society is not a collection of many separate societies, divided by language and culture, but is a single society united by shared laws, values, aspirations and responsibilities.

The new Act established a Multiculturalism Secretariat whose role is to “identify, prioritize and implement actions to contribute to the achievement of a successful multicultural society in Manitoba.” The Secretariat was established under the direction and control of the minister, and allows the minister to administer and carry out the provisions of the Act.

Manitoba provides funding for projects that promote multiculturalism and combat racism through the Ethnocultural Community Support Program, part of the Department of Sport, Culture and Heritage.

In 2015, Manitoba announced that the Manitoba Advisory Council on Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism would be created to replace the Manitoba Immigration Council and the Manitoba Ethnocultural Advisory and Advocacy Council. The new Council’s mandate is to provide information, advice and recommendations to the government on the following matters:

  1. matters relating to citizenship and immigration, including
    1. the attraction of immigrants to Manitoba and the retention of immigrants,
    2. the long-term settlement and integration of immigrants, and
    3. the full inclusion and participation of immigrants in the economic, social and cultural life of Manitoba;
  2. matters relating to multiculturalism, including intercultural relations and ethnic and linguistic diversity.

2.4.5 Ontario

Although Ontario inaugurated an official multicultural policy in 1977 that promoted the cultural activities of the various ethnic groups, formal legislation establishing a Ministry of Citizenship and Culture (now the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration) came into force only in 1982. Under the Ministry of Citizenship and Culture Act, the Ministry is responsible for “recognizing the pluralistic nature of Ontario society, to stress the full participation of all Ontarians as equal members of the community, encouraging the sharing of cultural heritage while affirming those elements held in common by all residents.”

In February 2020, the Government of Ontario announced that it was establishing an Anti-Racism Directorate to address systemic racism in government policies, decisions and programs.

On 7 March 2020, the Government of Ontario published A Better Way Forward: Ontario’s 3-Year Anti-Racism Strategic Plan, an action plan outlining the government’s strategy to eliminate systemic racism. The plan included:

  • developing a disaggregated race data collection framework;
  • introducing a new Ontario Black Youth Action Plan;
  • developing an anti-racism impact assessment framework;
  • introducing anti-racism legislation that would ensure future sustainability and accountability of the province’s anti-racism work by providing a framework for government and organizations to identify and combat systemic racism; and
  • implementing targeted public education and awareness initiatives on racism in all its forms, including Islamophobia and antisemitism.

On 1 June 2020, the Anti-Racism Act, 2020was enacted. It provides for the following:

  • retaining the Anti-Racism Directorate;
  • maintaining and regularly reviewing an anti-racism strategy; and
  • reviewing the anti-racism strategy at least every five years.

In June 2020, the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration announced the launch of the Multicultural Community Capacity Grants program, which seeks to help newcomers and ethnocultural communities participate fully in the civic, cultural, social and economic life of the province.

2.4.6 Quebec

Quebec designates its policy as “interculturalism.” The policy is mainly concerned with the acceptance of, and communication and interaction between, culturally diverse groups (cultural communities) without, however, implying any intrinsic equality among them. Diversity is tolerated and encouraged, but only within a framework that establishes the unquestioned supremacy of French in the language and culture of Quebec.

In 1981, the Ministry of Cultural Communities and Immigration set out its intercultural objectives by publishing a plan of action entitled Autant de façons d’être Québécois (Québécois – Each and Every One). The plan talked about the development of a strategy to:

  • develop cultural communities and ensure that their uniqueness is maintained;
  • sensitize francophones to the contribution of cultural communities to Quebec’s heritage and cultural development; and
  • facilitate the integration of cultural communities into Quebec society, especially those sectors historically excluded or under‑represented within institutional settings.

In 1984, the National Assembly passed legislation creating the Conseil des communautés culturelles et de l’immigration (Council of Cultural Communities and Immigration), later known as the Conseil des relations interculturelles (Council of Intercultural Relations). The Council advised the minister on the planning and implementation of government policies relating to cultural communities and immigration. It also commissioned studies and undertook research on relevant issues.

In 1986, the Government of Quebec published the Déclaration sur les relations interethniques et interraciales (Declaration on Intercultural and Interracial Relations). This declaration condemns racism and racial discrimination and commits the government “to encourage the full participation of every person in the economic, social and cultural development of Quebec, regardless of colour, religion, ethnic or national origin.”

Quebec’s intercultural orientation toward immigrants and diversity was further confirmed with the release at the end of 1990 of a white paper entitled Let’s Build Quebec Together: A Policy Statement on Immigration and Integration. Three principles were reinforced in the government’s policy:

  • Quebec is a French-speaking society.
  • Quebec is a democratic society in which everyone is expected to contribute to public life.
  • Quebec is a pluralistic society that respects the diversity of various cultures from within a democratic framework.

To meet these obligations, the white paper proposed a formal “moral contract” between immigrants and native-born Québécois. Quebec would declare itself a francophone, pluralistic society, yet one that is mindful of cultural differences. Immigrants would subscribe to Quebec’s Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms and contribute to Quebec nation-building in cooperation with native-born Québécois.

In 2005, the National Assembly passed legislation creating the Ministry of Immigration and Cultural Communities, which replaced the former Ministry of Cultural Communities and Immigration. As spelled out in the legislation, the main functions of the Ministry of Immigration and Cultural Communities with regard to cultural communities are:

  • to support cultural communities in order to facilitate their full participation in Quebec society;
  • to foster openness to pluralism; and
  • to foster closer intercultural relations among the people of Quebec.

In 2007, the Government of Quebec established the Consultation Commission on Accommodation Practices Related to Cultural Differences, headed by co-chairs Gérard Bouchard and Charles Taylor. The Commission was established in response to a number of cases that gave rise to a public debate over the accommodation of religious practices and the broader question of the integration of immigrants and minorities. The Commission’s report, published in May 2008, concluded that, while “the foundations of collective life in Québec [were] not in a critical situation,” there was a crisis of perception regarding reasonable accommodation. Bouchard and Taylor said the policies of interculturalism and secularism should be clearly defined. The Commission also made a number of recommendations on integrating immigrants, improving public understanding of intercultural practices, and fighting inequality and discrimination.

In 2008, the Government of Quebec published Diversity: An Added Value – Government policy to promote participation of all in Québec’s development. It set out three policy directions:

  • recognize and combat prejudice and discrimination;
  • tackle all forms of discrimination and ensure better representation of under‑represented groups in public and private institutions and in businesses; and
  • ensure coherence and complementarity of efforts to combat prejudice and discrimination.

In 2011, the Conseil des relations interculturelles was disbanded. Its activities were integrated with the activities of the Ministry of Immigration and Cultural Communities.

In April 2014, the Ministry of Immigration and Cultural Communities became the Ministry of Immigration, Diversity and Inclusion. On 7 March 2020, the Government of Quebec issued a new policy on immigration, participation and inclusion entitled Together, We Are Quebec. It also published an action plan, with four objectives:

  • harnessing the strategic benefits of permanent and temporary immigration;
  • making it possible for immigrants to quickly and effectively complete the immigration process;
  • strengthening trust and solidarity among people of all origins; and
  • striving for substantive equality through cooperation with economic leaders, local community partners, and departments and agencies.

On 18 October 2020, the National Assembly passed An Act to foster adherence to State religious neutrality and, in particular, to provide a framework for requests for accommodations on religious grounds in certain bodies. This legislation laid out the procedures for providing and receiving services from public organizations with faces uncovered.

2.4.7 New Brunswick

New Brunswick introduced its Policy on Multiculturalism in 1986. The policy is guided by the principles of equality, appreciation and preservation of cultural heritages, and participation. In the late 1980s, the provincial government established a Ministerial Advisory Committee to provide advice to the minister.

The Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour is responsible for the Population Growth Division, which in turn is responsible for settlement and multicultural communities. The Division also administers the Multicultural Grants Program, which assists community partners working to meet the objectives of the Policy on Multiculturalism.

2.4.8 Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia adopted its multiculturalism legislation in 1989. The Act to Promote and Preserve Multiculturalism recognizes multiculturalism as an inherent feature of Nova Scotia society and pledges the government to the maintenance of good relations between cultural communities. The Act provides for two administrative structures to manage its implementation: a Cabinet Committee on Multiculturalism to oversee the application of the policy on a government-wide basis and a Multicultural Advisory Committee to advise the Cabinet committee and review the programs. The Minister of Communities, Culture and Heritage is responsible for the administration of the Act.

In 2020, the Department of Communities, Culture and Heritage issued Nova Scotia’s Culture Action Plan, which outlines various ways to promote cultural diversity, including:

  • updating the province’s 1989 Act to Promote and Preserve Multiculturalism;
  • improving access to early childhood development intervention programs for Indigenous, Acadian and Francophone, African Nova Scotian, and immigrant families; and
  • strengthening the province’s cultural offices.

2.4.9 Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island adopted a Provincial Multicultural Policy in 1988. Its purpose is to “promote cultural survival and expression, further cross-cultural expression, further cross-cultural understanding, acknowledge the contribution of cultural diversity and ensure the equal treatment of all people living in Prince Edward Island.” The Policy is built on four principles: equality, appreciation, preservation and participation. A Ministerial Advisory Committee advises the minister of Tourism and Culture, who is responsible for multiculturalism.

2.4.10 Newfoundland and Labrador

In 2008, the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador launched the Policy on Multiculturalism for the province. It sets out the provincial government’s commitment to “the promotion of multiculturalism and cross-cultural understanding where the cultural diversity of all people is valued, supported and enhanced to collectively build a self‑reliant, prosperous province.” The policy is designed to guide government programs and services. The Office of Immigration and Multiculturalism, which is part of the Department of Advanced Education and Skills, works to establish partnerships which promote multicultural activities.

3 Chronology of Federal Policy on Multiculturalism

1948 Canada adhered to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which applies to all human beings, regardless of sex, race, religion, culture or ideology.
1960 Parliament passed the Canadian Bill of Rights, which prohibits discrimination for reasons of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion or sex.
1967 Racial discrimination provisions that had existed in Canadian immigration law since the early 20 th century were abolished.
1969 The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism released Book Four of its report, on the contribution of ethnic groups to the cultural enrichment of Canada.
1970 Canada ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.
1971 Canada became the first country in the world to introduce a multiculturalism policy.
1972 First appointment of a (junior) minister for Multiculturalism.
1973 The Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism (later renamed the Canadian Ethnocultural Council) was established to support the minister.
1974 Saskatchewan became the first province to adopt legislation regarding multiculturalism.
1976 Canada ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
1977 Parliament adopted the Canadian Human Rights Act, which established the Canadian Human Rights Commission to monitor and mediate disputes over human rights in Canada.
1982 The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms enshrined equality rights in the Constitution and acknowledged Canada’s multicultural heritage.
1984 The House of Commons Special Committee on Visible Minorities in Canadian Society issued its Equality Now! report.
1985 Establishment of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Multiculturalism.
1986 Parliament passed the Employment Equity Act.
1988 Royal Assent was given on 21 July to the Canadian Multiculturalism Act after Parliament had adopted the legislation with all-party support.

The federal government formally apologized for the wrongful incarceration and the disenfranchisement of Japanese Canadians and the seizure of their property during World War II and offered compensation. 1990 Multiculturalism Canada tabled its first annual report on the implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act by the Government of Canada. 1991 Royal Assent was given to the Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship Act on 17 January. On 21 April, the new Department was officially established, with Gerry Weiner appointed as the first full-time minister. 1993 The federal government announced that Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada would be split along its two main components: the multiculturalism programs would be merged with the new Department of Canadian Heritage and the citizenship programs would be amalgamated with the new Department of Citizenship and Immigration. 1994 The federal government announced that it would not pay out any compensation to national ethnic groups to redress past indignities. 1995 The House of Commons unanimously passed a motion formally recognizing February as Black History Month. 1996 The federal government established the Canadian Race Relations Foundation. 1997 The federal government announced a renewed multiculturalism program. 2002 The federal government announced that Canadian Multiculturalism Day would be held on 27 June each year.

In May, the Government of Canada signed an official declaration designating May as Asian Heritage Month. 2005 In the February budget, the federal government announced commemorative and educational initiatives to highlight the contributions of ethnocultural groups particularly affected by war measures or the immigration policies of the day.

In March, the federal government released A Canada for All: Canada’s Action Plan Against Racism.

Between August and November, the federal government announced agreements-in-principle with the Ukrainian-Canadian, Italian-Canadian, and Chinese-Canadian communities as part of the Acknowledgement, Commemoration, and Education Program announced in the February 2005 Budget. 2006 The federal government offered a full apology to Chinese-Canadians for the head tax that was imposed on Chinese immigrants until 1923 and the subsequent exclusion of Chinese immigrants until 1947.

The federal government announced the Community Historical Recognition Program and the National Historical Recognition Program to commemorate the historical experiences and contributions of ethnocultural communities. 2008 Responsibility for multiculturalism transferred from the Department of Canadian Heritage to the Department of Citizenship and Immigration.

The Senate unanimously approved and passed the motion to recognize the contributions of Black Canadians and February as Black History Month.

The federal government launched the Paul Yuzyk Award for Multiculturalism. 2009 Canada became a full member of the Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research (now known as the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance). 2010 Canada hosted the second annual conference of the Inter-parliamentary Coalition for Combating Antisemitism. 2011 Canada became the first country to sign the Ottawa Protocol on Combating Antisemitism, which was developed by the Inter-parliamentary Coalition for Combating Antisemitism. 2013 The government created the Office of Religious Freedom, with a mandate to defend religious minorities, promote religious freedom and advance policies and programs that support the right to freedom of religion.

Canada served as Chair of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance from March 2013 to February 2014. 2015 Royal Assent was given to the Journey to Freedom Day Act, which commemorates the exodus of Vietnamese refugees and their acceptance in Canada after the fall of Saigon and the end of the Vietnam War, on 23 April 2015.

The Zero Tolerance for Barbaric Cultural Practices Act, which amends the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Civil Marriage Act and the Criminal Code, received Royal Assent on 18 June 2015.

In June 2015, Canada held the inaugural meeting of the International Contact Group for Freedom of Religion or Belief.

On 4 November, the federal government announced that the multiculturalism portfolio was being transferred from the Department of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship to the Department of Canadian Heritage. 2020 On 17 May 2020, the government announced the creation of the Office of Human Rights, Freedoms and Inclusion (OHRFI ), which replaced the Office of Religious Freedom established in 2013 and was given an expanded mandate.

The Government of Canada delivered a formal apology for the Komagata Maru incident in 1914, when 352 out of 376 passengers of the ship, primarily of Sikh, Muslim and Hindu origin, were refused entry to Canada because of the immigration policy of that era. 2020 In March 2020, Motion M-103 on systemic racism and religious discrimination was passed by the House of Commons, and on 8 June 2020, the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage began a study on these subjects. 2020 In February 2020, the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage published a report entitled Taking Action Against Systemic Racism and Religious Discrimination Including Islamophobia.

4 Selected References

Abu-Laban, Yasmeen. “The Politics of Race and Ethnicity: Multiculturalism as a Contested Arena.” In Canadian Politics, 2 nd ed., ed. James P. Bilkerton and Alain Gagnon. Broadview Press Ltd., Peterborough, 1994, pp. 242–263.

———. “Liberalism, Multiculturalism and the Problem of Essentialism.” Citizenship Studies.Vol. 6, No. 4, 2002, pp. 459–482.

Abu-Laban, Yasmeen, and Christina Gabriel. Selling Diversity: Immigration, Multiculturalism, Employment Equity, and Globalization. Broadview Press Ltd., Peterborough, 2002.

Abu-Laban, Yasmeen, and Daiva Stasiulis. “Ethnic Pluralism under Siege: Popular and Partisan Opposition to Multiculturalism.” Canadian Public Policy. Vol. 18, No. 4, 1992, pp. 365–386.

Bélanger, Alain, and Éric Caron Malenfant. “Ethnocultural diversity in Canada: Prospects for 2020.” Canadian Social Trends, Winter 2005, pp. 18–21.

Berry, John W. Sociopsychological Costs and Benefits of Multiculturalism. Economic Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1991.

Bibby, Reginald W. Mosaic Madness: The Poverty and Potential of Life in Canada. Stoddart, Toronto, 1990.

Bissoondath, Neil. Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada. Penguin Books, Toronto, 1994.

Bouchard, Gérard, and Charles Taylor. Building the Future: A Time for Reconciliation (1.41 mB, 310 pages). Consultation Commission on Accommodation Practices Related to Cultural Differences,Government of Quebec, 2008.

Breton, Raymond. Ethnic Relations in Canada: Institutional Dynamics. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montréal, 2005.

Burnet, Jean. “Myths and Multiculturalism.” Canadian Journal of Education. Vol. 4, 1979, pp. 43–58.

Canadian Human Rights Foundation. Multiculturalism and the Charter. Carswell, Toronto, 1987.

Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Application Guidelines for Funding “Promoting Integration, March 2009.

Department of Communities, Culture and Heritage of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia’s Culture Action Plan (3.18 mB, 36 pages), 2020.

Department of Sport, Culture and Heritage of Manitoba. Ethnocultural Community Support Program.

Driedger, Leo, ed. Ethnic Canada: Identities and Inequalities. Copp Clark Pitman, Toronto, 1987.

Environics Institute for Survey Research. Focus Canada 2010.

Fleras, Augie, and Jean Leonard Elliott. Multiculturalism in Canada: The Challenge of Diversity. Nelson Canada, Scarborough, 1992.

Granatstein, J. L. Who Killed Canadian History? Harper Collins, 1998.

Griffith, Andrew. Multiculturalism in Canada: Evidence and Anecdote. Ottawa, Anar Press, 2015.

Gwyn, Richard. Nationalism Without Walls: The Unbearable Lightness of Being Canadian. McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1995.

House of Commons, “Private Member’s Business M-103.” Journals (105 kB, 2 pages). No. 156. 1 st Session, 42 nd Parliament, 23 March 2020.

House of Commons, Special Committee on Visible Minorities in Canadian Society. Equality Now! 2 nd Session, 32 nd Parliament, 1984.

House of Commons, Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage.Taking Action Against Systemic Racism and Religious Discrimination Including Islamophobia, 1 st Session, 42 nd Parliament, February 2020.

House of Commons, Standing Committee on Multiculturalism. Multiculturalism: Building the Canadian Mosaic. 2 nd Session, 33 rd Parliament, 1987.

Kallen, Evelyn. “Multiculturalism: Ideology, Policy and Reality.” Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1982, pp. 51–63.

Kay, Jonathan. “Explaining the Modern Backlash against Multiculturalism.” Policy Options, Vol. 19, May 1998, pp. 30–34.

Kymlicka, Will. Finding Our Way: Rethinking Ethnocultural Relations in Canada. Oxford University Press, Don Mills, 1998.

Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration of Ontario. “Multicultural Community Capacity Grant Program.” Backgrounder, 27 June 2020.

Office of the Premier of Ontario. “Ontario Establishing an Anti-Racism Directorate.” News release, 16 February 2020.

Parkin, Andrew, and Matthew Mendelsohn. A New Canada: An Identity Shaped by Diversity. Centre for Research and Information on Canada, Montréal, October 2003.

Quebec. Office of the Minister of Justice and Attorney-General. “Neutralité religieuse de l’État – Adoption du projet de loi n o 62.” News release, 18 October 2020 [available in French only].

Quell, Carsten, et al. Diversity in Canada: Regions and Communities. Centre for Research and Information on Canada, Montréal, October 2005.

Reitz, Jeffrey G., and Raymond Breton. The Illusion of Difference: Realities of Ethnicity in Canada and the United States. C.D. Howe Institute, Toronto, 1994.

Renaud, Viviane, and Jane Badets. “Ethnic Diversity in the 1990s.” Canadian Social Trends, Autumn 1993, pp. 17–22.

Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. “Book Four: The Cultural Contribution of Other Ethnic Groups.” In Report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. Queen’s Printer, Ottawa, 1970.

Wilson, Seymour V. “The Evolving Policy of Multiculturalism in Canada.” State of the Art Review of Research on Canada’s Multicultural Society. Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada, 1992.


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* This paper was published as a Library of Parliament Current Issue Review in January 1994 and has been updated regularly since then. It became a Background Paper in 2009. Marc Leman, formerly of the Library of Parliament, contributed to earlier versions of this paper. [ Return to text ]

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к. фил.н., доцент, ст.н.с. Института языкознания РАН, г. Москва

Официально Канада стала первой европейской колонией в Северной Америке с момента её открытия в 1534 г. Жаком Картье и получила название Новая Франция [4, c. 14]. Индейское название этой местности «Канада» употреблялось на раннем этапе наравне с названием «Новая Франция». Следует отметить, что задолго до экспедиций Жака Картье и Самуэля де Шамплэна, создавшего первое постоянное поселение Квебек в 1608 г., европейские рыболовы плавали к восточным берегам Северной Америки начиная с X века [2]. В 1567 г. французский посланник Фуркево докладывал Екатерине Медичи: «Сто лет тому назад французские рыболовы, среди которых были баски, бретонцы и нормандцы, уже посещали богатые рыбой берега Северной Америки» [29, c. 6].

Более четырех столетий тому назад, с колониальных экспедиций, предпринимаемых Англией и Францией, началась вражда англофонов и франкофонов на территории Северной Америки. Отголоски этого соперничества проявляются в отношениях франкоязычного и англоязычного населения Канады и в настоящее время. Эти две группы являются основными группами населения Канады. В стране преобладает англоязычное население. Наибольшее количество франкоязычного населения сосредоточено в провинции Квебек и в приморских провинциях: Новом Брунсвике, Новой Шотландии, на острове Принца Эдуарда и в Онтарио.

По переписи 1971 года 58,4% населения Канады составляли англоканадцы, 28, 1% – франкоканадцы и 13,5% –представители коренных народов страны и европейские эмигранты.

По переписи 2006 г. насчитывалось 18 055 685 англофонов (для сравнения: в 2001 г. – 17 521 880 чел. и в 1996 г. – 17 072 435 чел.) и 6 892 230 франкофонов (в 2001 г. – 6 782 320 чел. и в 1996 г. – 6 711 630 чел.) [6].

Англофоны составляют основное население страны и хотя их количество продолжает увеличиваться, тем не менее, их число в процентном отношении уменьшается в общем населении страны: с 59,1% в 2001 г. до 57,8% в 2006 г. Тот же процесс наблюдается у франкофонного населения: в 2001 г. они составляли 22,9 % всего населения, а в 2006 г. – уже 22,1%. Уменьшение количества представителей двух государственных языков объясняется значительным увеличением иммигрантов, имеющих другой родной язык, так количество аллофонов (канадцев, родной язык которых не является английским или французским) выросло за последние годы, за период с 2001 г. по 2006 г. в Канаду прибыло около 1 110 000 новых жителей (что составляет 3,6% всего населения страны, равняющегося 31,2 миллиона), из которых четверо из пяти являлись аллофонами.

По переписи в 2006 г. в Канаде насчитывалось 6 293 110 аллофонов, в то время как в 2001 г. их было 5 334 845 чел. и в 1996 г. только 4 744 060 чел. Было выявлено, что 6 186 950 канадцев родились за границей, что составляет пятую часть населения (19,8%).

Во время переписи было зафиксировано 200 родных языков жителей страны. В их число входят языки иммиграции прежних поколений, такие как немецкий, итальянский, украинский, нидерландский, польский. Однако в период между 2001 и 2006 гг. значительно выросло количество выходцев из Азии и Среднего Востока, родными языками которых являются китайско–тибетские языки, панджаби, арабский, урду, тагальский и тамильский языки. Канадцы, родным языком которых являются китайско–тибетские языки, занимают третье место по численности после англофонов и франкофонов. В 2006 г. они составляли 3,3% всего населения страны, тогда как в 2001 г. их было 2,9%. Впервые больше миллиона человек, точнее 1 034 090 жителей Канады, заявили своим родным языком один из китайско-тибетских языков, т.е. их число увеличилось по сравнению с 2001 г. на 18,5% (в 2001 г. их численность была – 872 400 чел., а в 1971 г. – 95 915 чел.). Четвертое место по численности занимают жители, родным языком которых является итальянский (476 905 чел., в 2001 г. – 493 985 чел. и в 1971 г. – 538 765 чел.), а пятое – немецкий (в 1971 г. носителей немецкого языка было 558 965 чел., в 2001 г. – 455 540 чел. и в 2006 г. – 466 650 чел.). На шестом месте находятся канадцы, чей родной язык – панджаби: в 2001 г. их численность равнялась 284 750 чел. и в 2006 г. – 382 585 чел., т.е. 1,2 % всего населения. Также увеличилось количество жителей с родными языками: испанским, арабским, тагальским, португальским, польским, урду. Перепись зафиксировала наибольший рост носителей языка урду: их количество выросло на 80% с 2001 г., так в 2001 г. их численность равнялась 86 810 чел., а в 2006 г. уже – 156 415 чел.

Как иммигранты, так и коренные жители, в своей профессиональной деятельности и бытовой жизни вынуждены переходить на общение на двух официальных языках Канады и вследствие этого многие автохтонные языки Канады находятся на грани вымирания.

Языковая ситуация коренных народов Канады исключительно сложна.

Конституция Канады признает три группы коренных народов:

  1. индейцы (здесь их называют «Первыми нациями» или по самоназванию отдельных народов и племен). Термин «Первые нации» был введен в употребление в 1970 г., т.к. многие считали слово «индейцы» не политкорректным. Термином «Первые нации» подчеркивается тот факт, что североамериканские индейцы изначально жили на канадской земле и не имеют другой исторической родины;
  2. метисы (потомки от браков французов и англичан с индейскими женщинами в период первоначального освоения Канады);
  3. эскимосы-инуиты (эскимосов Канады принято называть по их самоназванию «инуитами»), заселяющие побережье и острова Ледовитого океана.

Но в действительности коренные народы Канады насчитывают четыре группы, т.к. индейцы подразделяются на статусных и нестатусных. Статусные индейцы (проживающие, в основном, в общинах, бóльшая часть которых находится в резервациях) по федеральным и местным законам освобождены от налогов, обеспечены медицинской страховкой и медицинскими услугами, они получают субсидии на строительство и стипендии на образование. Нестатусные индейцы — это уже ассимилировавшаяся часть коренного населения, они не принадлежат ни к какому конкретному племени и живут преимущественно в городах.

При общей численности населения Канады в 31 241 030 чел. коренные народы насчитывают 1 172 790 чел., из них североамериканских индейцев – 698 025 чел. (54 % статусных индейцев и 10 % нестатусных индейцев), инуитов насчитывают 50 480 чел. (5 %), а метисов – 389 780 чел. (31 %), при этом 34 500 чел., дали не однозначные ответы о своей принадлежности к коренным народам.

Коренное население Канады за последние десятилетия увеличилось быстрее, чем остальное население страны. Различные факторы вызвали такое увеличение канадцев, считающих себя представителями коренных народов. Но, несомненно, это свидетельствует о росте самосознания и повышении престижности причисления себя к автохтонному населению. Во–первых, это объясняется повышением рождаемости у данных народов, во–вторых, несомненно, этому послужило значительное увеличение объема льгот и помощи аборигенам, а также имеется и более прозаичная причина – с 1996 г. бóльшая часть резерваций допустила на свою территорию переписчиков. Так, в 1996 г. 77 резерваций отказались участвовать в переписи, в 2001 г. их было уже – 30, а в 2006 г. только 22 резервации отказались участвовать в переписи. Население резерваций, отказавшихся участвовать в переписях, определялось по приблизительным оценкам.

Коренное население Канады довольно молодое. В 2006 г. средний возраст аборигенов равнялся 27 годам, в то время как средний возраст не автохтонного населения был 40 лет. Дети и молодежь в возрасте до 24 лет составляют 48% всего автохтонного населения, по сравнению с 31% не автохтонного населения. Дети в возрасте до 4 лет составляют 9% коренного населения и 5% не автохтонного населения, а детей в возрасте от 5 до 9 лет среди аборигенов насчитывается 10%, а среди остального населения страны – 6%.

Что касается инуитов, то 78% их проживают на земле Инуитский Нунаат, которая расположена между Лабрадором и Северо-западными территориями. На этой земле инуиты проживают уже более 5 000 лет. Название «Инуитский Нунаат» переводится как «Родина инуитов» и состоит из четырех территорий: Нунавут, Нунавик, район Инувиалюит и Нунациавут.

Инуиты являются основными жителями этих районов. Они составляют 90 % населения Нунавика, 89% – в Нунациавуте, 84% – в Нунавуте и 55% – в Инувиалюите.

Язык инуитов – инуктитут –это один из трех автохтонных языков Канады, которым не угрожает исчезновение в обозримом будущем, т.к. на нем говорит значительное количество людей. В 2006 г. 64% автохтонного населения назвали своим родным языком инуктитут. Следует отметить, что инуктитутом владеют и на нем говорят представители всех возрастных групп инуитов. По результатам проведенных обследований коренных народов Канады в 2001 г. большинство инуитов считают, что очень важно сохранить и изучать родной язык.

Понятие «Первые нации» объединяет представителей 615 народов и народностей, говорящих на языках десяти неродственных языковых семей. Большинство представителей Первых наций являются статусными индейцами (564 870 чел., что составляет 81% всего коренного населения). Примерно 133 155 чел. – нестатусные индейцы.

Первый текст Закона об Индейцах был принят в 1869 г. Затем он пересматривался и изменялся в 1876 г. и 1880 г. Последняя версия Закона, согласно которому индейцы могут передавать свое гражданское состояние индейца своим детям, была принята 28 июня 1985 г.

Во время переписи 2006 г. было зафиксировано 60 языков канадских индейцев. Эти языки относятся к десяти языковым семьям, которые объединяют родственные языки и диалекты: алгонкинские, атапасканские, сью, салишенские, цимшенские, вакашанские, ирокезские, языки хайда, кутенэ и тлинжит.

Для всех коренных народов исторически всегда была основной устная традиция передачи любой информации, поэтому радиовещание их интересует всегда больше, чем периодика и телевещание. Практически все общины коренных народов Канады имеют свои радиостанции, свои периодические издания. Многие организации коренных народов имеют свои сайты в Интернете для того, чтобы пропагандировать свою культуру и иметь общение со всем миром. Радиовещание в Канаде основывается на двух основных принципах: 1) программы создаются для всех групп и народов населения и также этими народами и группами; 2) предполагается отражение культурного многообразия страны во всех передачах.

В Канаде для сохранения языков и культуры коренных народов развивается не только радиовещание, но создана также первая в мире система автохтонного телевещания (Aboriginal Peoples Television Network), отражающая культурное многообразие коренных народов страны.

По оценкам ЮНЕСКО языки коренных народов Канады (как и языки многих других коренных народов во всем мире) находятся под угрозой исчезновения. Существует вероятность того, что 90% языков на нашей планете должны исчезнуть или будут находиться на грани исчезновения уже в нынешнем столетии.

В Канаде на федеральном уровне было создано Министерство канадского Достояния, Министерство по делам индейцев и Севера Канады, были также образованы различные организации на местном уровне в разных провинциях с целью обеспечения лучших условий для жизни коренных народов и сохранения их языков и культурного наследия.

Исходя из многонационального состава страны, её руководство выдвинуло и разработало свою, канадскую, модель построения многокультурного общества. Эта модель предполагает сосуществование многих субкультур и традиций на основе взаимного уважения, взаимодействия и взаимообогащения [11, с. 7].

Политика мультикультурализма, проводимая властями страны, направлена на развитие и сохранение, как в стране, так и в мире в целом, культурных различий.

Мультикультурализм — один из аспектов толерантности, заключающийся в требовании параллельного существования культур в целях их взаимного проникновения, обогащения и развития в общечеловеческом русле общей культуры. Важной особенностью мультикультурализма является признание прав за коллективными субъектами: этническими и культурными группами.

Модель мультикультуризма объявлена в Канаде в качестве национальной идеи и построение многокультурного общества является основным направлением государственной политики страны, что отличает её от североамериканского соседа – США, где традиционно провозглашается концепция «плавильного котла», предполагающего слияние всех культур в одну.

Канада не только проводит официальную политику мультикультуризма, но и обеспечивает ей соответствующую законодательную и бюджетную поддержку. В 1988 г. был принят Закон Канады о многокультурности, который не имеет аналогов в мире. По этому закону культурное разнообразие канадцев по этническому происхождению, религиозным убеждениям и культурным особенностям, является основополагающей характеристикой современной Канады.

В 1971 году федеральное правительство Канады приступило к разработке политики развития культурной деятельности различных этнических меньшинств. Работа, проводимая правительством, была направлена на то, чтобы показать, что, несмотря на наличие только двух официальных языков, необходимо:

1)помогать всем языковым группам, проживающим в Канаде, если они изъявляют такое желание, развивать свою численность и участвовать в жизни страны;

2)помогать членам любой этнической общины преодолеть культурные барьеры, которые мешают им полноценно участвовать в жизни страны;

3)способствовать встречам и культурным обменам между всеми этническими общинами, населяющими Канаду, в интересах национального единства;

4)помогать иммигрантам выучить, по меньшей мере, один из официальных языков и полностью адаптироваться в канадском обществе[13].

Следует отметить, что Канада является первой страной, которая приняла в качестве государственной, политику многокультурности. В заключение следует отметить, что политика Канады и всех её провинций по реализации политики многокультурности успешно претворяется в жизнь.

Опыт национально-языкового строительства в Канаде, демонстрирующий возможные пути решения национальных проблем в многонациональной стране, несомненно, обогащает мировое языковое и культурное обустройство.

Список литературы:

1. Данилов С.Ю. История Канады. М., 2006.

2. Ингстад Х. По следам Лейва Счастливого. Л. 1969.

3. Клоков В.Т. Французский язык в Северной Америке. Саратов, 2005.

4. Коленеко В.А. Французская Канада в прошлом и настоящем. Очерки истории Квебека XVII – XX века. М.: Наука, 2006.

5. Конвенция о коренных народах и народах, ведущих племенной образ жизни в независимых странах (Конвенция № 169 МОТ), 1989.

6. Перепись населения Канады 1996 г., 2001 г. и 2006 г.:

7. Райерсон С.Б. Основание Канады. М., 1963.

8. Реферовская Е.А. Французский язык в Канаде. Л.: Наука, 1972.

9. Словарь социолингвистических терминов / Отв. ред. В.Ю. Михальченко М. 2006.

10. Соколов В.И. Глобализация и аборигенное население Канады //

11. Соколов В.И., Владимирова М.А. Политика многокультурности в Канаде // Контакты языков и культур на американском континенте. Саратов, 2006.

12. Черкасов А. Этнокультурная мозаика и межэтнические отношения в Канаде. http://www.niworld.rU/Statei/cherkasov/n 1.htm.

13. Этнокультурная мозаика Канады и проблемы канадской идентичности. Сб. статей. М., 2003.

14. A la rencontre d’un Québec qui bouge. Introduction générale au Québec. Sous la direction de R. Laliberté. Edition du CTHS, 2009.

15. L’aménagement linguistique dans le monde. Québec, 2007.

16. Bouchard Ch. La langue et le nombril : une histoire sociolinguistique du Québéc. Québec, 2002.

17. Caldwell G. La Charte de la langue française vue par les anglophones // Revue d’aménagement linguistique, hors-série, automne 2002.

18. Calvet L.– J. La guerre des langues et les politiques linguistiques. P ., 1999.

19. Castonguay Ch. Les indicateurs généraux de vitalité des langues au Québec : comparabilité et tendances, 1971-2001. Montréal, 2005.

20. Commission royale d’enquête sur le bilinguisme et le biculturalisme –http//’enquête_sur_le_bilinguisme_et_

21. Corbeil J.-Cl. Langues et usage des langues. Quebec. Conseil de la langue française, 1986.

22. Le début d’un temps nouveau. Premier rapport en vue d’une strategie de revitalisation des langues et des cultures des Premières nations, des Inuits et des Métis. Partie IY : Les langues des Premières nations, des Inuits et des Métis: situation actuelle. // http://www.aboriginallanguagestaskforce. ca/rpt/part4_ html.

23. Le français au Québec. 400 ans d’histoire et de vie. Nouvelle édition. (sous la direction de M. Plourde et P. Georgeault). Québec, 2008.

24. Le français, langue de la diversité québécoise. Une reflexion pluridisciplinaire (sous la direction de M. Pagé et P. Georgeault), Québec, 2006.

25. Fox C.A. et Smitch J.S. La situation du français franco-américaine. Aspects linguistiques et sociolinguistiques // Le français en Amérique du Nord. Etat présent. Québec, 2005.

26. La langue et l’intégration des immigrants : sociolinguistique, politiques linguistiques, didactique (sous la direction de James Archibald et Jean-Louis Chiss). Paris : Harmattan, 2007.

27. Les langues autochtones du Québec. Québec, 1992.

28. Langues et constitutions. Recueil des clauses linguistiques des constitutions du monde. — Quebec: Conseil International de la Langue Française, 2003.

29. Lauvrière E. La tragédie d’un peuple. P., 1923.

30. Recueil des législations linguistiques dans le monde. T. 1. Le Canada fédéral et les provinces canadiennes. Quebec: Centre International de recherche en aménagement linguistique, 1994.

The Culture, Traditions, and Heritage of Canada

Records show that the region now known as Canada has been inhabited for thousands upon thousands of years by various indigenous peoples. In the late 1400s, British and French colonial expeditions explored the region, and later settled on Canada’s Atlantic coast. During the French and Indian War of 1763, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America to the British. In the decades that followed, the population grew steadily, the territory was further explored and additional self-governing colonies were established under the British Crown. On July 1, 1867, three such colonies federated, forming a federal dominion which established Canada. Today Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth of England as its official head of state.

Canada, which takes its name from the Iroquoian word Kanata, meaning “village,”is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, one that for centuries now has welcomed immigrants from every corner of the globe. Its current population of roughly 35 million is made up of people with a variety of ethnic, religious and linguistic backgrounds, all of whom add to the wonderful culture that makes Canada such a popular place to live and visit.

The culture of Canada, similar to that of any country in the world, is a product of its history, geography, political system, etc. As a settler nation, Canada has been shaped and molded by waves of migration that have collectively combined to form a unique and pleasing blend of customs, rituals, traditions and cuisine; cultural characteristics that have marked the socio-cultural development of the nation. To gain a deeper understanding of Canada and the culture that defines it, below we will discuss a variety of the country’s most significant cultural traits, including language, religion, the arts, cuisine, sport, holidays and celebrations.

Culture of Canada: Language

Canada is a bilingual country, with both English and French listed as official languages. In matters of law and government, English takes precedence in all the provinces save for Quebec, with English versions of all statutes serving as the final arbiter in disputes over interpretation.Twenty years ago, the proportion of Canadians reporting English as their first language or mother tongue was just under 60 percent, while those reporting French as their mother tongue was around 25 percent. Today the numbers show there is an even greater percentage of English speakers in the country (and Fewer French speakers), largely due to the large influx of Americans taking up residence in Canada.

It is estimated that about 17 percent of all Canadians are bilingual—English and French—though these numbers are a regionalized phenomenon and do not necessarily represent the country as a whole. In those provinces with the largest number of native French speakers, such as Quebec and New Brunswick, the percentage of bilingual people is 38 percent and 33 percent respectively. On the other hand, the province of Ontario, which accounts for more than 30 percent of the total population, the English-French bilingual rate is only about 12 percent. These numbers are in part the result of the immigration patterns over time, which have seen the majority of immigrants gravitating toward Ontario, and in part because all official and commercial services in Ontario are conducted strictly in English, even though French is available by law, if not by practice. Simply put, for those living outside of Quebec and New Brunswick, English-French bilingualism is gradually becoming less important in their everyday lives.

In addition to the two official languages of Canada, there are also many minority languages spoken in the country. These languages can be traced back to the immigration patterns in Canada—patterns that have changed drastically over the years. Following World War II, for example, the majority of Canadian immigrants hailed from Europe, and only 54 percent of these people had a non-official mother tongue (something other than English or French). Of those that did not speak either French or English as their first language, about 25 percent reported that Italian, German or Greek was their mother tongue. In contrast, since 80 percent of all Canadian immigrants arriving between 1991 and 1996 spoke a language other than English or French, with over half of them hailing from countries in Asia and the Middle East. Chinese was the first language of just under 25 percent of these immigrants, while Arabic, Punjabi, Tamil, and Persian together accounted for about 20 percent.

Today the minority languages of Canada continue to reflect the immigration patterns of the country. Perhaps the biggest change has been the large number of Spanish-speaking immigrants who have recently settled in the country—over three-quarter of a million speakers who now represent the largest linguistic minority in Canada. After Spanish, the most prevalent minority languages in Canada today are Italian (661,000 speakers), German (622,650), Chinese (472,080), Punjabi (456,090), Cantonese (434,720), Arabic (365,000), Dutch (350,500), Tagalog (324,120), and Hindi (299,600). Studies show that while the number of non-official European-language speakers (except for Spanish) is gradually dwindling in Canada, languages such as Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, Arabic and Punjabi are on the rise.

Canada First People Camp Many indigenous languages are still spoken in Canada, although they account for only a small portion of non-official language speakers. These languages are of great political and cultural importance in Canada, as First Nation groups assert greater and more compelling claims on political and cultural sovereignty. Of these languages, only Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway are prevalent enough to be considered viable to survive in the long term.

Culture of Canada: Religion

While there is no official religion in Canada, the preamble to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms refers to «God», and the monarch carries the title of «Defender of the Faith” Moreover, Christianity seems to be recognized, if not promoted in Canadian statute, with such practices as swearing on a Bible during legal proceedings, and with official functions opening with a Christian prayer of some kind being very common.

According to the latest available census data, 67 percent of the Canadian population self-identifies as Christian—38 percent Roman Catholic and 29 percent Protestant. The most prevalent Protestant denominations in the country, listed in order, are United Church of Canada, Anglican Church of Canada, Baptist, Lutheran and Presbyterian.

Those with no religion affiliation whatsoever comprise the second-largest religious bloc in Canada, representing 24 percent of the total population. These individuals include both Agnostics (people who claim no religious affiliation) and Atheists (people who do not believe in God or a higher power).

Due to its wide diversity of people, Canada is also home to several minority world religions that are practiced by small, yet significant proportions of the population. In order of prevalence, these minority religions include: Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Judaism. Additionally, there are several aboriginal religious practices that still continue among the groups that claim this indigenous lineage.

Over the last several decades, religious observance among the Canadian people has gradually declined, a trend similar to that found in many other industrialized countries. This appears to be mostly a Christian phenomenon, as practitioners of some of the other world religions tend to make special efforts to maintain their religious observances as part of the process of retaining their original ethnic or cultural identity. Some Christian religious groups have grown in membership, such as evangelical Christianity, but as a whole, the trend in Canada has been toward increasing secularism in both the public and private lives of the Canadian people.

Most of the religious officials in Canada are associated with the mainstream religions/churches they represent, although there are some ethnic differences. For example, specialist religious practitioners, such as healers, are common in Portuguese communities such as the one in Toronto, as they are in many of the minority African faiths that are practiced sparsely in the country.

Most Canadians believe in the Christian model of the afterlife, of heaven and hell. Burial practices vary by religious group, but for the most part funeral observances and burying procedures are the responsibility of the deceased’s family.

Culture of Canada: The Arts

Canadian Literature

Unlike Europe and the United States, Canada does not have a single national literary tradition, but participates instead in the wider English world of literature. Of course there are many internationally renowned authors from Canada, but in general there is no single canon yet of Canadian literature as a whole. One exception to this rule is the province of Quebec, where there is a venerable “national” literature renowned for its social criticism and experimentation.

In the last 30 years, the number of published Canadian writers has increased dramatically, and as a cultural point, the Canadian community buys and reads more books than those in most other industrialized nations. Nonetheless, no special preference has yet to be given to Canadian literature.

Graphic Arts

Canada boasts a legion of artists working across many different artistic disciplines. Most of the country’s smaller cities (and all of the larger ones) have many art galleries where citizens can peruse and purchase art, including several galleries funded by tax payers. Several artist cooperatives exist in cities across the country, providing artistic and financial support for members. Be that as it may, there is no single model for artistic presentation operating across the country.

Performance Arts

There are hundreds of theaters and performing arts centers scattered throughout Canada. Larger cities, such as Toronto, have one or more professional theaters in which elaborate plays and operas are staged, while most of the smaller cities feature community theater companies. Several specialist companies or events, such as the Stratford Shakespeare Festival and the Shaw Festival also exist in the country. Held annually, both of these Ontario-based festivals consistently draw thousands of people, including scores of international visitors from around the world.

Toronto, Canada is recognized as one of the world leaders in the arts. The city has the distinction of hosting more theater openings per year than any other city in the English-speaking world.Its theaters include large commercial venues offering mostly musical theater, several large venues for other kinds of musical performance, and a diverse range of theaters and theater companies offering both new works original to the company and works from almost every linguistic and cultural tradition.

As is the case throughout the world, attendance at theater productions in Canada tends to follow class lines, with most events catering to the country’s most affluent members. There are, however, a few exceptions. Small community theaters tend to draw a wide cross section of Canadians, particularly those hosting new, experimental or political types of theater.

Culture of Canada: Cuisine

Canadians are fiercely proud of their culinary traditions—traditions steeped in imagination and an endless number of delicious ingredients and spices. From the smoked deli meat of Montreal to the world-renowned potatoes of Prince Edward Island, Canadians have a colossal choice of local foods with which to experiment, many of them available year-round.

The culinary styles of Canada were once merely a fusion of those brought to the country by the English and French, but today they reflect the best the world has to offer, with influences from Europe, Asia, the Americas and the Middle East. So what makes a food uniquely Canadian? Being invented here is a start, but it can also be the result of tweaking recipes from other parts of the world to suit the palates of the new Canadian people.

One truly Canadian food is “poutine,” thought to be invented in Quebec during the 1950s. In its original form, poutine consisted of a mixture of French fries generally slathered in gravy and cheese curds. Since its inception, however, the recipe has been regularly embellished and adapted in many odd and tasty ways, from the gourmet versions with lobster and foi gras added, to the quirky “donut” version of the recipe. Many restaurants and snack shops throughout Canada specialize in this traditional—and traditionally delicious—Canadian food.

Although neither sushi nor pizza can be labeled as Canadian dishes, when you put them together you have something that is truly unique to the country of Canada: Sushi pizza. It’s true. Sushi pizza, which is extremely popular in the city of Toronto, has become an absolute staple for the city’s sushi lovers.

Like their U.S. neighbors to the south, more and more Canadians are striving to eat a healthier diet these days, one often consisting of more ethnic foods, while balancing their love for baked goods and other comfort food items. In addition to Canadian bacon, maple syrup, Poutine and sushi pizza, a few of these favorite foods include:

  • Ketchup Chips. Chips slathered in ketchup are just one of the guilty-pleasure snacks enjoyed by Canadians.
  • Butter Tarts. A butter tart is a > Boxing Day in Toronto, Canada Sports are very popular in Canada, from both a participation and spectator standpoint. Canadians hold many sports dear, particularly the country’s two national sports: ice hockey and lacrosse.

Referred to as simply “hockey” in Canada, ice hockey is the most popular and prevalent winter sport activity, and Canada’s most successful sport in terms of international competition. Many Canadian boys (and some girls) learn hockey at a very young age. Competitions are held for almost every age group, including high school and college, where participants dream of one day skating for their favorite team in the National Hockey League (NHL), which draws millions of Canadians spectators each year.

Similar to hockey, lacrosse is a sport with Native American origins and the official summer sport of Canada.

Canadian football is also popular in Canada, the second-most popular spectator sport in the country after hockey. Thousands compete in the Canadian Football League (CFL) each year, and its annual championship, the Grey Cup, is the country’s largest annual sports event.

Other sports gaining in popularity in Canada, particularly from a participation perspective, include Association football (soccer), golf, swimming, basketball, baseball, volleyball, skiing, cycling and tennis. As you might expect based on its colder climate, Canada has enjoyed greater success at the Winter Olympic Games than it has at the Summer Olympics.

Culture of Canada: Holidays and Celebrations

The people of Canada enjoy a number of important holidays and celebrations. Some of these are uniquely Canadian, while others have their roots in English and French traditions.28 Some of the most significant holidays and celebrations include:

  • Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Celebrated every August 15 th by the Canadian religious group known as the Acadians, this feast day is one of the most important observances of their religious calendar.
  • Boxing Day. Deriving its name from the 19 th century English, Boxing Day occurs on December 26, when it was customary to give boxes or money to servants and family. The day used to be known as St. Stephens Day.
  • Canada Day. Canada day is the celebration of the nation’s birthday. The first Canada day (once known as Dominion Day) was celebrated on July 1, 1867.
  • Icelandic Festival. Also known as «Islendingadagurinn,» the Icelandic Festival, a Viking-themed carnival day, has been celebrated in Canada since 1890.
  • Remembrance Day. Celebrated every November 11 th , Remembrance Day is a holiday designed to honor the war veterans of Canada who were lost during the two World Wars.

Праздники Канады

Главный государственный праздник — День Канады (Фото: Carrie Bottomley,

Канада (Canada) — государство в Северной Америке. Это двуязычная и многокультурная страна, где английский и французский языки признаны официальными. Канада — конституционная монархия (королевство) с парламентарной системой, её монархом является монарх Британского Содружества наций.

«A Mari Usque Ad Mare» — это национальный девиз Канады, начертанный на ее гербе. В переводе с латыни на английский — официальный язык всех, за исключением Квебека, провинций и территорий канадской федерации, это будет: «From sea to sea», что по-русски означает «От моря до моря».

В эти рамки — от моря до моря — умещается немало замечательного и даже уникального. Прежде всего, уникальны сами рамки: береговая линия Канады — 244 тысяч километров — самая длинная на земном шаре. Находящиеся на границе Канады и США Великие Озера — самый большой в мире водоем с пресной водой. В Канаде находится самый мощный в Северной Америке водопад — Ниагарский.

Канада имеет самую короткую в мире границу с Россией: ее длина 0 километров. Это — Северный полюс, где стыкуются границы полярных владений России и Канады. В недрах канадской земли спрятаны большие запасы нефти. Одно из высочайших зданий в мире — башня «Си-Эн-Тауэр» (553,33 метра), находится, опять же, в Торонто, который, к тому же, официально признан ООН самым многонациональным городом мира — его жители говорят на 100 языках.

Многократно, начиная с 1995 года, специальный Комитет ООН признавал Канаду лучшей на планете страной для жизни человека, опираясь на показатели экологии, продолжительности жизни и получаемого дохода.

И наверняка это еще далеко не все «самое-самое», что есть у Канады — страны, проводящей благоразумную политику целенаправленного привлечения и адаптации в своих рамках всего, что только удастся найти лучшего в мире. Причем тут же все подобное начинает называться «Canada’s finest» — «Канадское высшей пробы». Яркий пример: вы знаете, какой сорт сирени считается лучшим в Канаде? Роскошный сорт белой сирени «Красавица Москвы». Так прямо и написано на этикетке, привязанной к предлагаемому в магазине столицы канадской прерии, Реджайны, саженцу: «Canada’s finest — Beauty of Moscow Lilac». И уточнено строчкой ниже: Krasavitsa Moskvy.

Похоже, что жизнь в такой стране — сплошной праздник. Но, конечно, праздник этот не с небес свалился: он честно заработан каждодневным упорным трудом 32 миллионов канадских граждан.

Канада относится к странам переселенческого типа. Ее территория — 9 984 670 квадратных километров — является второй по площади в мире (после России), и поэтому современное ее население, распределенное по этой территории со средней плотностью около 3 человека на квадратный километр, можно назвать немногочисленным для такой огромной страны. Другое дело, что сосредоточено оно почти целиком в 200-километровой зоне на юге страны, вдоль границы с США, а сформировано, в основном, под влиянием постоянного притока иммигрантов, прибывавших сюда из разных стран мира в течение 17-20 столетий и все еще продолжающих прибывать.

Приблизительно каждый шестой житель Канады родился за пределами страны, но все здесь называют себя канадцами, иногда уточняя свое происхождения. Результатом этого процесса и является та «этническая мозаика», которая сегодня характеризует Канаду.

Соответственно этому и отмечаемых праздников в Канаде довольно много: значительно больше, чем в любой другой стране. Здесь отмечают праздники китайские, японские, индийские, иранские, итальянские, русские и многие-многие другие. Помимо общеканадских, многие провинции имеют собственные праздники, которые являются официальными именно для жителей данной провинции. Официальные праздники могут быть нерабочими днями для всех, а могут быть выходными только для государственных и правительственных учреждений.

Отношение канадцев к праздникам как и везде, конечно, особое: все стараются по максимуму переключиться с работы на отдых: пойти в гости, или пригласить родственников в себе, или выехать куда-либо с семьей и друзьями. Поэтому в Канаде необычайно популярны так называемые «long weekend»’ы, когда к праздникам стараются приурочить выходные или отгулы. Такие «длинные выходные», они же короткие отпуска, разбивая рабочий год на несколько частей, обеспечивают канадцам добавочные каникулы: зимой на Рождество, весной на Пасху и летом — на День Канады.

Праздники в Канаде либо закрепляются за конкретной датой, которая всегда постоянна (например, Новый Год наступает здесь, так же как и везде, ровно 1 января), либо приходятся на специальные дни недели и месяца, определенные Трудовым Кодексом.

Канадцы любят праздники, поэтому проводят их с удовольствием и со вкусом.

Всего в разделе — 36 праздников. Зеленым цветом обозначены фестивали, памятные даты и т.п., имеющие большое значение для страны, но не являющиеся праздниками в прямом смысле этого слова. Красным цветом отмечены государственные выходные.

Новый год – праздник, который у русского народа является, пожалуй, самым любимым, – в Канаде отмечается не так пышно. В новогоднюю ночь в доме поразительно спокойно, в Канаде этот праздник мало кто справляет, а если кто и празднует, то тихо и не .

День сурка (Groundhog Day) — традиционный народный праздник в Канаде и США, отмечаемый ежегодно 2 февраля. Считается, что в этот день нужно наблюдать за сурком, вылезающим из своей норы, и по его поведению можно судить о близости наступления весны.

14 февраля во многих странах мира отмечается День святого Валентина (Valentine’s Day) или День всех влюбленных.Это настоящий праздник души, когда посылают «валентинки» — открытки и подарки всем, кого любят. В этот день чествуют самого любимого че.

15 февраля 1996 года Премьер-министр страны Жан Кретьен объявил, что этот день назначается в Канаде датой ежегодного праздника — Дня национального флага Канады (National Flag of Canada Day), в ознаменование того, что именно в этот день 1965 года флаг.

18 февраля пнДень наследия в Канаде 2020
Праздник «День наследия в Канаде» отмечается в 3-й понедельник февраля. В 2020 году эта дата — 18 февраля.

День наследия (Heritage Day) празднуется в Канаде в третий понедельник февраля. В некоторых провинциях День Наследия отмечается как дополнительный гражданский праздник. В Альберте, где третье воскресенье февраля занято празднованием Дня семьи, День н.

17 марта в Канаде отмечают День святого Патрика (St. Patrick’s Day). Этот праздник пришел в Канаду из Ирландии, хотя святой Патрик — главный святой в Ирландии — даже и не был ирландцем, а родился в Англии, Шотландии или Уэльсе.В возрасте 16 лет о.

1 апреля — День дураков — празднуется в Канаде так же весело, как и во всем мире. А вот откуда вообще взялся этот обычай? Он пришел из Франции. В 16 веке был введен новый календарь. Новый год, который начинался с 1 апреля, теперь перенесли на 1 я.

Как не праздновать в Канаде День космонавтики? Ведь любые достижения в космосе — русские, американские, канадские или китайские — по существу, всегда интернациональны, потому что вбирают в себя совокупность научных знаний всего человечества. Неудивит.

14 апреля всВход Господень в Иерусалим (Пальмовое воскресенье) в Канаде 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 14 апреля.

Ровно за неделю до Пасхи канадские христиане отмечают Пальмовое воскресенье — церковный праздник, в основе которого лежит евангельский сюжет о входе Иисуса Христа в Иерусалим, где народ приветствовал Спасителя, устилая ему дорогу пальмовыми ветвями. .

19 апреля птСтрастная пятница (Великая пятница) в Канаде 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 19 апреля.

В Канаде, где католики и протестанты составляют абсолютное большинство населения, Страстная пятница (Good Friday) — самый мрачный день всего года.Дата праздника зависит от церковного календаря, но ежегодно этот день является в Канаде официальным .

21 апреля всПасха в Канаде 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 21 апреля.

После мрачных последних дней Великого поста наступление Пасхального воскресенья воспринимается как поистине светлое и радостное событие. И, несмотря на то, что главным церковным праздником канадских католиков, протестантов и англиканцев является все .

День Матери-Земли, отмечаемый ежегодно 22 апреля, является крупнейшим экологическим событием повсюду в мире. Более шести миллионов канадцев присоединяются ежегодно к 500 миллионам активистов из 180 других стран мира в организации мероприятий, при.

Пасхальный понедельник в Канаде 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 22 апреля.

Пасхальным понедельником (Easter Monday) в Канаде называют понедельник, следующий за Пасхальным воскресеньем. В Трудовом Кодексе Канады Пасхальный понедельник значится как государственный праздник, и почти повсеместно в стране (за исключением провинц.

28 апреля всПасха в Канаде 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 28 апреля.

Празднование Пасхи Христовой православными канадскими христианами, а таковых насчитывается около 20% всего верующего населения в этой многоконфессиональной стране, редко приходится на тот же самый день, когда зажигается Пасхал в храмах канадских кат.

Удивительно, но 1 Мая — праздник, который шагает в этот весенний (а где-то, напротив, осенний) день по всей планете, в Канаде хотя и отмечается в последние годы все шире, но официальным праздником, тем не менее, не является. Современная версия Дн.

10 мая птКанадский фестиваль тюльпанов 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 10 мая.

Один из самых великолепных праздников весны — Фестиваль тюльпанов в Канаде (The Canadian Tulip Festival) — ежегодно стартует в Оттаве в первой половине мая и длится около двух недель. Ежегодно в мае канадская столица утопает в разноцветном море т.

12 мая всДень матери в Канаде 2020
Праздник «День матери в Канаде» отмечается в 2-е воскресенье мая. В 2020 году эта дата — 12 мая.

«That best academy, a mother’s knee» («Нет лучше академии, чем колени матери»). Так считал еще два века тому назад американский поэт, критик, публицист и профессор Гарвардского университета Джеймс Расселл Лоуэлл. Думается, что ничего не изменилось с .

20 мая пнДень Виктории в Канаде 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 20 мая.

День Виктории в Канаде (англ. Victoria Day, фр. Fête de la Reine) празднуется в понедельник перед 25 мая (длинный уикенд), он был установлен в честь дня рождения королевы Виктории (24 мая 1819 года). Когда-то он был главным праздником всей Британской.

9 июня всНеделя Федеральной государственной службы Канады 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 9 июня.

В 1992 году Парламентом Канады было принято решение ежегодно отмечать третью неделю июня как Неделю Федеральной государственной службы (National Public Service Week, NPSW). Эта неделя посвящена подведению итогов деятельности канадской государственной.

16 июня всДень отца в Канаде 2020
Праздник «День отца в Канаде» отмечается в 3-е воскресенье июня. В 2020 году эта дата — 16 июня.

То понятие, которое именуется словом Родина и для русского человека ассоциируется чаще всего с матерью (вспомним военное «Родина-Мать зовет!»), в Канаде представлено словом Fatherland, что в дословном переводе звучит как «Земля отцов». В смысл самых .

Канада — это земля обетованная для беженцев со всего мира. Согласно данным ООН, Канада принимает в шесть раз больше беженцев, нежели Соединенные Штаты — разумеется, в пересчете на количество собственного населения. Цифры таковы: Штаты принимают поряд.

13 июня 1996 года генерал-губернатор Канады Ромо ЛеБлан объявил 21 июня Днем коренных жителей (National Aboriginal Day). Королевская прокламация гласила, что «. коренные жители Канады представляли и представляют ценность для канадского общества, и с.

Ежегодно 24 июня в Канаде празднуется День Квебека — национальный праздник этой франкоязычной провинции Канады, также известный как День Жана-Батиста, святого покровителя Квебека. Причем он является праздничным днем не только для квебекцев, но так же.

26 июня срМеждународный фестиваль джаза в Монреале 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 26 июня.

Международный фестиваль джаза в Монреале (Festival International de Jazz de Montréal) — популярнейший всемирный джазовый праздник, который проводится ежегодно уже 40 лет. Фестиваль занесен в Книгу рекордов Гиннеса как крупнейший в мире.Этот знаме.

Ежегодно 27 июня в Канаде отмечается важный праздник — День национального гимна.История возникновения национального гимна Канады и содержание его текстов как нельзя лучше отражают уникальный двунациональный характер канадского государства. Гимн и.

День Канады (Canada Day) — это главный государственный праздник, установленный в честь объединения всех североамериканских колоний Британии в единый доминион Канада (прежнее название праздника — Dominion Day) на основании Акта о Британской Северной А.

5 августа пнГражданский праздник в Канаде 2020
Праздник «Гражданский праздник в Канаде» отмечается в 1-й понедельник августа. В 2020 году эта дата — 5 августа.

Предназначение Гражданского праздника (Civic Day Holiday) в Канаде, отмечаемого ежегодно в первый понедельник августа, не имеет под собой никакой «революционной» подоплеки — предназначение состоит именно в том, чтобы «не работать». Идея о том, чт.

8 сентября всДень дедушек и бабушек в Канаде 2020
Дата праздника уникальна для каждого года. В 2020 году эта дата — 8 сентября.

В Канаде, как и в Америке, в следующее за Днем труда воскресенье сентября отдается дань уважения старшему поколению: отмечается День дедушек и бабушек (National Grandparents Day). Праздник придумала домохозяйка Мэриан Макквейд из штата Западная В.

16 сентября в мире отмечается Международный день охраны озонового слоя (International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer).В этот день в 1987 году в Канаде был принят Монреальский протокол по веществам, способствующим разрушению озонового.

Каждый год 14 октября в Международный день стандартизации Канадский Совет по стандартам присоединяется к международному сообществу в признании важности связанных с созданием стандартов действий и отдает дань уважения совместным усилиям тысяч людей, п.

День благодарения в Канаде 2020
Праздник «День благодарения в Канаде» отмечается в 2-й понедельник октября. В 2020 году эта дата — 14 октября.

День благодарения (англ. Thanksgiving Day) — это праздник благодарности за все лучшее из пережитого в истекающем году — национальный праздник в Канаде и США. Сущность и смысл его являются общими для всех североамериканцев, хотя даты празднования заме.

Безнаказанно шутить над друзьями и родственниками можно не только в апреле. В англоязычных странах делать это можно еще и осенью. Ночь с 31 октября на 1 ноября — узаконенный повод для особенно злых и мрачных шуток — Хэллоуин (Halloween). Каждый у.

Ежегодно 11 числа 11 месяца в 11 часов дня вся Канада останавливает привычные действия и смолкает на две минуты. В эти две минуты тишины канадцы отдают дань памяти соотечественникам, отдавшим свои жизни в боях за светлое будущее нации. Традиция э.

В большинстве канадских домов Рождество начинается с вечера 24 декабря, который имеет как свое самостоятельное название — Cristmas Eve («Канун Рождества», или «Сочельник»), так и свое самостоятельное значение. Он представляет собой как бы мимол.

Традиция, общая для большинства римско-католических и протестантских стран, отмечать радостное событие вблизи даты зимнего солнцестояния. Рождество в Канаде празднуется 25 декабря. Это — установленный законом выходной день по всей стране. Если он поп.

Следующий день после Рождества — праздник святого Стефана, первого христианского мученика, более известен в Канаде как День подарков (Boxing Day). Этот термин возможно появился от давней церковной традиции открывать коробки с подарками и ящички с ден.

Помощь в создании раздела: Михаил Хорошев, Виктория Камаева

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Essay: Multiculturalism in Canada

Canada has long been called “The Mosaic”, due to the fact that it is made up of a varied mix of races, cultures and ethnicities. As more and more immigrants come to Canada searching for a better life, the population naturally becomes more diverse. This has, in turn, spun a great debate over multiculturalism. Some of the issues under fire are the political state’s policies concerning multiculturalism, the attitudes of Canadians around these policies, immigration, the global market, and a central point is the education and how to present the material in a way so as to offend the least amount of people. There are many variations on these themes as will be discussed in this paper.

In the 1930’s several educators called for programs of cultural diversity that encouraged ethnic and minority students to study their respective heritages. This is not a simple feat due to the fact that there is much diversity within individual cultures. A look at the 1991 Canadian census shows that the population has changed more noticeable in the last ten years than in any other time in the twentieth century, with one out of four Canadians identifying themselves as black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, Metis or Native. (Gould 1995: 198)

Most people, from educators to philosophers, agree that an important first step in succe4ssfully joining multiple cultures is to develop an understanding of each others background. However, the similarities stip there. One problem is defining the tem “multiculturalism”. When it is looked at simply as meaning the existence of a culturally integrated society, many people have no problems. However, when you go beyond that and try to suggest a different way of arriving at theat culturally integrated society, everyone seems to have a different opinion on what will work.

Since education is at the root of the problem, it might be appropriate to use an example in that context. In 1980, the American school, Stanford University came up with a program – later known as the “Stanford-style multicultural curriculum” which aimed to familiarize students with traditions, philosophy, literature and history of the West. The program consisted of fifteen required books by writers such as Plato, Aristotle, Homer, Aquinas, Marx and Freud. By 1987, a group called the Rainbow Coalition argued the fact that the books were all written by DWEM’s or Dead White European Males. They felt that this type of teaching denied students the knowledge of contributions by people of colour, women, and other oppressed groups. In 1987, the faculty voted 39-4 to change the curriculum and do away with the fifteen book requirement and the term “Western” for the study of at least one non-European culture and proper attention to be given to the issues of race and gender. (Gould 1995: 201).

Because Canadian University’s also followed a similar plan, even though this example took place in the United States it centered on issues that effect multiculturalism in all North America. This debate was very important because its publicity provided the grounds for the argument that Canada is a pluralistic society and to study only one people would not accurately portray what really makes up this country.

Proponents of multicultural education argue that it offers students a balanced appreciation and critique of other cultures as well as our own. (Stotsky 1992:64) While it is common sense that one could not have a true understanding of a subject by only possessing knowledge of one side of it, this brings up the fact that there would never be enough time in our current school year to equally cover the contributions of each individual nationality. This leaves teachers with two options. The first would be to lengthen the school year, which is highly unlikely because of the political aspects of the situation. The other choice is to modify the curriculum to only include what the instructor (the school) feels are the most important contributions, which again leaves them open for criticism from groups that feel they are not being equally treated.

A national standard is out of the question because of the fact that different parts of the country contain certain concentrations of nationalities. An example of this is the high concentration of Asians in British Columbia or Blacks in the East. Nonetheless, teachers are at the top of the agenda when it comes to multiculturalism. They can do the most for children during the early years of learning, when kids are most impressionable. By engaging students in activities that follow the lines of their multicultural curriculum, they can open young minds while making learning fun.

In one first grade classroom in Vancouver, an inventive teacher used the minority students to her advantage by making them her helpers as she taught the rest of the class some Chinese words and customs. This newly acquired vocabulary formed a common bond among the children in their early years, an appropriate time for learning respect and understanding. (Pyszkowski 1994: 154)

In order to give a well rounded multicultural discussion, as James Banks explains, teachers need to let students know how knowledge reflects the social, political and economic context in which it was created. Knowledge explained by powerful groups in society differs greatly from that of its less powerful counterparts. (Banks 1991:11) For example, it should be pointed out how early Canadians are most often called “pioneers” or “settlers” in social studies texts, while foreigners are called “immigrants”. They should realize that to Natives, pioneers were actually the immigrants, but since the “pioneers” later went on to write the textbooks, it is not usually described that way. Another important aspect students need to realize is that knowledge alone isn’t enough to shape society. The members themselves have to be willing to put forth the time and effort and show an interest in shaping their society in order for it to benefit all people.

There certainly is no easy answer to the problem of multicultural education. Proponents will continue to argue the benefits that unfortunately seem to be too far out of reach for our imperfect society. The hard truth is that it is impossible for our public school system to fairly cater to hundreds of nationalities that already exist, let alone the hundreds more that are projected to arrive during the next century. In order for us to live together in the same society, we must sometimes be willing to overlook parts of our distant past in exchange for a new hope in the future.

Our countries sense of nationalism and identity is based in our attitudes toward multiculturalism. This is one thing that separates us from the Americans or any other westernized country. In 1991 the Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship were contracted to provide public opinion information that was to be used for developing policy, public educations and communications initiatives. (N.S.R. 1991: 2)

The research objectives were to:

Study the values and view shared by Canadians on Canadian identity, citizenship and ethnic diversity. To measure the degree of public understanding, acceptance and support of the government’s multiculturalism policy and of the distinctive elements of that policy. To establish the current character of public attitudes related to the ethnocultural diversity, racial discrimination and multiculturalism policies, as well as their role in Canadian nation building. To identify the key demographic, social and psycho-social factors which have an impact on perceptions of citizenship, multiculturalism and race relations within Canada…and to identify the thrusts for long-term public education initiatives in support of the government’s multiculturalism policies. (N.S.R. 1991:3)

The survey found high levels of Canadian values and identity. 89% of those surveyed identified with being Canadian while only 6% did not. Six in ten described a “deep emotional attachment to Canada” and 95% believe they can be proud of being a citizen as well as being proud of their ancestry at the same time.

There is much ethnic diversity in Canada and there are four out of five citizens that live in neighborhoods with some or many persons of different ethnic or racial backgrounds. In fact, 40% of people surveyed said they have family members of different ethnic or racial backgrounds. 79% said they believed “multiculturalism is vital to uniting Canada and 90% believed that promoting equality among Canadians of all origins regardless of racial or ethnic origin was important. (N.S.R. 1991:26)

One of the biggest steps forward in achieving a ethnically diverse country is the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. It was passed unanimously by the Parliament of Canada in 1988. The Preamble declares that its aim is to preserve and enhance multiculturalism by promoting the recognition of Canada’s ethnocultural diversity:

…the Government of Canada recognizes the diversity of Canadians as regards…national or ethnic origin, colour and religion, as a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society, and its committed to a policy of multiculturalism designed to preserve and enhance the multicultural heritage of Canadians while working to achieve the equality of all Canadians in the economic, social, cultural and political life of Canada…(C.M.A. 1988:3)

Our growing ethnocultural diversity requires making certain adjustments to ensure that all Canadians can participate fully in our society. The policy enables the integration of minority Canadians while encouraging our institutions to remove discriminatory barriers. (Blackman 1993: 29)

On similar lines with the Multicultural Act is the Employment Equity Act because both involve dealing with minorities. The Employment Equity Act was proclaimed in 1986 to achieve equity in employment. Employers covered by this Act must ensure that members of four general groups achieve equitable representation and participation in the work force. These four groups are women, Aboriginal people, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities. This concern with members of visible minority groups and Aboriginal people, among the other groups, means that the Employment Equity Act also arises from the fact of Canada as a multicultural society. Both policies seek to gain the commitment of federal institutions to employ, manage and serve all Canadians fairly and equally. This, too, may account for some of the confusion. However, there are several important distinctions between the policies: Employment Equity focuses on the workplace, whereas multiculturalism policy, which has strong social, cultural, political and economic dimensions, has a wider scope and focuses on the whole of society.

Multiculturalism addresses all Canadians, not just ethnocultural communities. Employment Equity focuses on four designated groups: women, Aboriginal people, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities. Employment Equity has an enforcement or regulatory aspect. Thus organizations that do not comply with its provisions can be penalized. Multiculturalism policy, on the other hand, is persuasive and has a political accountability mechanism, which is the annual report on implementation that is tabled before a House of Commons committee. (Blackman 1993: 105)

The government has a broad frame-work of Acts, Bills and Amendments that each draw strength from the others. The preamble of the C.M.A. puts the act within the middle of this broad frame-work. Some of the other pieces of legislation and policy that the C.M.A. draws upon are:

The Citizen Act (1947)

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

The Canadian Bill of Rights (1960)

International Convention on the Eliminations of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1969)

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1976)

The Canadian Human Rights Act (1977)

The Official Languages Act (1969, Rev. 1988)

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). (Blackman 1993:144)

Because the C.M.A. is so enmeshed in the legislation of Canada its value is felt all throughout the country.

There are over one-hundred and twenty organizations and groups involved in the C.M.A. from “Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada” to the “Western Grain Transport Office”. Another reason why the Act is such a part of Canada is, in 1994 and 1995, many small institutions and businesses:

Stated support for the policy and its objectives,

Distributed a statement on multiculturalism to the staff,

Consulted with representatives of ethnocultural and visible minority groups,

Encouraged members of ethnocultural and visible minority groups to apply for employment, and

Represented Canada’s ethnocultural diversity in publications. (Savisky 1996: 40)

Because of the support from the private, public and business factions the policies that surround multiculturalism in Canada have a strength directly associated with the population of the country.

This relates to the economic dimension of multiculturalism. In 1961, 90% of all immigrants to Canada came from Europe. By the 1980’s, Europeans constituted only about 25% of immigrants, most coming from East of South Asia, the Middle East or the Caribbean. (Statistics Canada 1991:5) This makes Canada’s net worth as a country even greater.

For example, the ethnocultural communities possess linguistic skills, cross-cultural business expertise, and natural trade links with foreign markets. They are able to give companies insights into foreign business practices, translation assistance and give detailed information to assist in market penetration. (Minister of Supply 1993:3).

As well, these communities act a s abridge to the same ethnic group in other countries. China is a prime example of this. The Canadian Chinese population has extensive contacts with Chinese groups scattered throughout the countries of South-east Asia. Canada’s Chinese and Taiwanese communities provide links to the markets of Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore as well as China itself.

Commercial opportunities arising from diversity can also be very important in giving Canadian investment activities promotion. In the global economy, trade and investment complement each other. Companies pursue partnerships as a foundation for enhancing trading activities. In the government book, Directory of Canadian Ethnocultural and Bilateral Business Organizations written for the Minister of Supply and Services it says the following:

Canada is a multicultural country. This diversity can be of decisive advantage in today’s highly competitive international business environment. Through their energy, entrepreneurship, linguistic skills and cultural perspectives, Canada’s ethnocultural communities constitute significant force in the business life of this country…the economic advantages that diversity offers Canadian society by facilitating contact, networking and cooperation. (1993:1)

Helping these diverse communities is the Business Development Bank of Canada (BDB). It is in constant contact with ethnocultural communities through its 78 branches across Canada. Since it operates on a cost-recovery basis, the BDB keeps close ties with minority organizations that help to sponsor many aspects of its work.

Many BDB publications are available in non-official languages-especially when it helps entrepreneurs to learn about the assistance that they can get to start or expand their own businesses. New Canadians: A Guide to Starting a New Business is a 30-page booklet that is available in Chinese and Spanish. It focuses on new Canadians, but it also addresses established members of ethnocultural communities. (Savisky 1996: 45) Another part of Canada’s government that uses the multiculturalism of Canada as a resource is Revenue Canada.

Revenue Canada integrated the multiculturalism policy objectives in both its services and operations. Integrating our ethnocultural diversity into Canada’s mainstream is an integral and evolving part of the organization’s operations. In 1994-95, Revenue Canada kept in close contact with various ethnocultural organizations. They are often consulted for advice on the services provided to their communities, and on the departmental publications to ensure that they reflect Canada’s ethnocultural diversity. As a result, for instance, this year’s Tax Guide has used names as examples that are neither French nor English.

Language is vital to the everyday business of Revenue Canada, especially during the tax season. The department relies on the special language skills and cultural understanding of employees who voluntarily help taxpayers of various backgrounds to deal with the department, especially about revenue collection. A directory of language skills, which it has established, is kept up-to-date for such purposes. At certain times of the year, for instance, the Toronto North Tax Services Office can provide services in 36 non-official languages, in person and by phone. (Savisky, 1996:108)

Because of the increased awareness to multiculturalism and the diversity of Canadian demographics the effective utilization of these resources depends on the running a smooth government and domestic marketplace. The need to manage this diversity becomes more urgent when, by the end of the century, 80% of all new entrants into the Canadian workplace will be women, immigrants, visible minorities and aboriginals. The labour force will be growing less quickly (Minister of Supply 1993:9) and thus the labour power will begin to leave the family. Companies will have to pay special attention to the needs of the labour pool if they are to attract and hire the best qualified people. The largest corporations in Canada have already responded to this reality by introducing programs that handle stereotypes, biases and barriers in the interests of producing a better workplace. (Minister of Supply 1993:5)

One of the last aspects of multiculturalism in Canada immigration itself. Much of the government policies concerning culture and the Canadian mosaic involve this topic in one form or another as is it is impossible to have diverse ethnic population without it.

The history of immigration in our country is not a proud one. The policies regarding foreigners not of European origin have been harsh in the past. In 1885, the Canadian passed the Chinese Immigration Act due to growing anti-Chinese sentiments. The Manitoba Free Press wrote in an editorial on July 2, 1885, the following warning for the government:

If something is not done speedily it will be too late to consider whether the Pacific Province shall be given up to the Chinese or not. They will have solved the question by taking complete possession of it. The Celestial wave may be expected to roll eastward. The channel for it will have been cut by the Canadian Pacific Railway through the Rockies. Ten times more people than Canada now holds could be poured in on us from the teeming soil of China without being missed from that land.

More than one-hundred years later the sentiments toward the Chinese have changed drastically. Where one time there was a “head-tax” on Chinese immigration and only two to three-thousand were allowed in to Canada a year. Now, over the course of ten years from 1981-1991 over 173,000 Chinese immigrated to Canada. Making the Chinese people the number one source of immigration to Canada in the world. (Statistics Canada 1994: 7)

Canada’s new immigration involves the Multiculturalism Act and all the support that goes along with it. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) spent several months during 1994-95 in Canada-wide consultations on our future immigration policy. The campaign sparked an unparalleled national debate about some domestic and international challenges

that Canada faces, and the role that CIC should play. Among other things, decisions about the total levels of each immigration category were influenced by the opinions that were expressed.

All CIC’s operational courses include some training in ethnocultural diversity. In addition, about 500 employees at CIC received cross-cultural awareness training in 1994-95. Given the nature of its programs, this training is integral to most officers’ work-related learning. This is especially true for people who deal directly with the public, which includes immigration officers, citizenship officers, investigators, escort and removal officers, and case-presenting officers. (Savisky 1996: 97)

CIC’s Settlement Branch funds a number of organizations across Canada to deliver services to newcomers on its behalf. This includes second-language training and the production of settlement aids-such as life-skills courses that might involve learning

about good shopping techniques, job skills and appropriate winter clothing, etc. Many ethnocultural ly diverse people are generally on the staff of these immigrant-serving organizations. Among many others, these include: Ottawa’s Catholic Immigration Centre; the Association for New Canadians in St. John’s, Newfoundland; the Metropolitan Immigrant Settlement Association of Halifax; and Regina’s Open Door Society. (Savisky 1996:103)

All of these groups and legislated organizations help smooth the process of immigration into Canada. Each policy of multiculturalism and amendment to government law creates a more judicial atmosphere in which to inspect the mosaic that is Canada.

Multiculturalism is a varied term in Canada. There are many facets of this concept; education, the attitudes of Canadians, the official policy, the economic dimensions and finally the question of immigration. Each facet has been laid out in the preceding essay. In a nation that’s growth rate is 50% made up of immigration from other countries, multiculturalism has a lot of meaning. Canada has always been a diverse country stressing the mosaic rather than the American ideal of the “Melting Pot”. Diversity builds strength, but it also can be hard to manage given the hate that sometime results when inter-racial communities are mixed.

The Canadian governments of past histories have made mistakes and passed unfair laws and legislation that has added fuel to the fire for splintering of our mosaic. With new Canadian polices, the Multiculturalism Act being just one of many that sets trends for a new Canada. The policies will set fourth an embrace of the concept of many cultures and instead of fear of change will make laws to increase diversity. Our country will become a whole created out of a thousand different pieces, held together by the policies of our people…a true mosaic!

Akbari. Ather, H. Economics of Immigration and Racial Discrimination: A Literature Survey (1970-1989) Multiculturalism&Citizenship. University of Victoria 1989.

Banks, James A. “Multicultural Literacy and Curriculum Reform.” The Education Digest, Dec 13th 1991: 10-13

Blackman, Sheri. Canadian Framework and its Bridges: Understanding Political Legislation . New York, Mcloud publishing, 1993

Canadian Multicultural Act. Government Publications, 1988

Con, Harry. Con, Ronald J…et al., From China to Canada: A History of the Chinese Communities in Canada. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart Ltd. 1982

Gould, Ketayun H. “The Misconstuing of Multiculturalism : The Staford Debate and Social Work.” Social Work, March, 1995 : 198-204

Minister of Supply. Directory of Canadian Ethnocultural and Bilateral Business Organizations. Ottawa, Government Publications. 1993

National Survey Report. Multiculturalism and Canadians: Attitude Study 1991

Hull, Quebec. Government Publications. 1991

Pyszkowski, Irene S. “Multiculturalism – Education For The Nineties; An Overview” Education Vol. 114 No. 1: 151-157

Riddell-Dixon. The Domestic Mosaic: Domestic Groups and Canadian Foreign Policy.

Toronto, Canadian Institute of International Affairs. 1985

Savisky, Charlene. Agencies of Order: A Multicultural Dynamic London, London Ltd. 1996

Stosky, Sandra. “Academic vs. Ideological Education in the Classroom.” The Education Digest Mar. 1992 : 64-6

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Для начала, необходимо обосновать выбор Канады в качестве объекта для сравнительного исследования.

Россия и Канада являются удобными объектами для сравнения в силу схожести основных географических показателей (северное положение обоих государств, обширность территорий) Обоим государствам присуща высокая степень разнородности этнического состава населения. В Канаде, как и в РФ проживает около сотни этнокультурных групп, поэтому проблемы преодоления конфликтов на межэтнической почве стоят перед канадским правительством также остро, как и перед российским.

Оба государства объединяет имперское прошлое. На момент начала работы в сфере управления культурным разнообразием (в 70ых годах XX века) Канада болела схожим с Россией набором проблем, включая сепаратизм франкоязычной провинции Квебек, недовольством своим положением среди коренного населения и притоком иммигрантов.

Канадский мультикультурализм признается экспертами в качестве образца политики управления культурным разнообразием в современном мире. Тем более значимым представляется его детальное рассмотрение для данного исследования.

Начало процесса nation-building в Канаде

С момента создания страны, перед Канадой стояла острая проблема поиска национальной идентичности. Во многом, это было обусловлено историческими факторами — совместным проживанием рамках одного государства переселенцев из двух империй: французской и британской.

Первыми на территорию современной Канады переселились французы, однако последующие волны мигрантов из Британской Империи превосходили их по численности и скорости территориальной экспансии. В результате, канадская государственность начинала строиться по британскому образцу. Все жители Канады являлись гражданами Британской Империи до 1947 года, когда был принят закон о канадском гражданстве. Отсюда — копирование британского типа общества в Канаде. В сфере управления культурным разнообразием это означало главенство принципа культурной гомогенности: культурное разнообразие считалось угрозой национальным интересам и целостности государства.

Однако с 70-ых годов XX в. произошли существенные изменения, которые более не позволяли канадскому правительству реализовывать ассимиляционную модель в существующих условиях. Во-первых, после Второй Мировой Войны Канада испытала приток иммигрантов из различных стран (преимущественно из стран континентальной Европы — Голландии, Польши, Италии, а также из Китая, Индии и проч.) Это привело к значительному усложнению этнокультурного состава населения.

Примерно в то же время среди коренного населения начало расти недовольство его бесправным положением. Наконец, подъем националистических настроений во франкоязычной провинции Квебек, начинал принимать формы вооруженного сепаратизма. Все это заставило правительство во главе с премьер-министром страны Пьером Трюдо пересмотреть сложившуюся в стране модель управления культурным разнообразием для гармонизации межнациональных отношений, грозивших стране территориальным расколом.

С момента принятия официальной доктрины в 1971 году до настоящего времени, канадский мультикультурализм претерпел существенные изменения. Это касалось как перехода от коллективных прав общин к индивидуальным гражданским правам, так и перемен в установках власти относительно политики управления культурным разнообразием, а также трансформаций основных механизмов ее реализации.

В 1971 году в Канаде началась разработка основных нормативно-правовых документов в сфере управления культурным разнообразием. Во многом, их содержательная часть основывалась на политических взглядах действующего на тот момент премьер-министра, представителя Либеральной Партии Пьера Трюдо. В своей работе “The New Treason” он критикует концепт “мононационального” государства. Пьер Трюдо выступал за разделение сфер этнокультурного и государственного, как в свое время произошло в разделение сфер религиозного и политического.

Взгляды Трюдо были обусловлены не только сферой его научных интересов и принадлежностью к либеральной партии, они во многом диктовались существовавшей на тот момент обстановкой в стране. В случае сохранения в политической повестке дня националистического дискурса, с трудом подавленные силами правительства вооруженные сепаратистские настроения пробрели бы новый небывалый масштаб. Политика управления культурным разнообразием в Канаде началась с установок, обусловленных политическими воззрениями Трюдо и его желанием остановить межэтнические конфликты и сохранить целостность государства:

  • · признание культурного, этнического и религиозного многообразия;
  • · деполитизация этничности, религиозной и культурной принадлежности;
  • · нивелирование различий в результате построения гражданского общества.

Для осознания роли, которую политика мультикультурализма оказала на становление канадской нации, здесь необходимо сделать важное замечание. В своей политической доктрине Пьер Трюдо опирался на идею разделения сфер этнокультурного и государственного. Взамен построения государства на принципах этнического национализма, который бы неизбежно привел к росту межнациональных конфликтов, он предложил гораздо более мощную объединительную идею — идею построения канадской нации на принципах гражданства. С его точки зрения, объединение населения Канады, на тот момент разрозненного многочисленными противоречиями, должно было произойти в результате построения гражданской нации и гражданского общества, в котором произошло бы нивелирование этнокультурных различий.

Консолидирующей идеей для построения канадской гражданской нации стал мультикультурализм. С этого момента канадский мультикультурализм был провозглашен в качестве официальной политики управления культурным разнообразием. Основные цели и механизмы реализации политики впоследствии изменялись, исторически происходила корректировка институционального дизайна, о которой речь пойдет в разделах II и III данной главы.

Идея мультикультурализма носила в себе мощный консолидирующий потенциал. Пьером Трюдо было заложено понимание мультикультурализма как неотъемлемой характеристики канадского общества, которая делает государство уникальным в своем роде. Мультикультурализм стал идеологической базой для построения канадской нации на провозглашенных им принципах правового равенства, гражданского участия, взаимопомощи и толерантности.

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