Canadian Police Канада

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tabarnak › Блог › About Canadian police and law-court

Прошлым летом ездили на дегустацию вина на местный виноградник. Да, да, Монреаль находится на уровне Крыма, а южнее 50км к США, есть даже сафари-парк с жирафами, горилами и слонами.
В общем день был пригожий, воскресенье. Я первый раз тогда разгонял Челленджер до 140-150кмч на трассе.
Уже на подъезде к месту встретил местных байкеров. Погонялся с ними. Уехал вперед. И тут после съезда с трассы на первом же повороте меня и приняли доблестные полисье. Я с поворота разгонялся, т.к. до этого 90 ограничение было, и тока разогнался вижу знак 50. Ну тормозить не стал выкатывался мимо знака, а там мадам эта и сидела. В общем 75кмч у меня в зоне 50.
Но что самое ОФИГИТЕЛЬНОЕ. Пока меня мадам штрафует, мимо проезжают байкеры и все как один показывают V пальцами. Я там в улыбке и расплылся. Настроение вообще не испортилось. Хотя штраф на 100 баксов выписала. Помигал им фарами в благодарность. Тетенька кстати тоже очень вежливая была.
Опротестовал в суде. Вообще все очень налажено. В штрафе есть секция: ваше видение ситуации. Пишешь как все было, ставишь галочку: нот гилти/анкупабль и отсылаешь в суд (адрес там же). Через полгода, а то и год :)) тебя вызывают в суд. Суд выиграл. При перепаде скоростей больше 30кмч, должен быть знак предупреждающий об этом. Т.е. если лимит 100, то следующее ограничение может быть не ниже 70ти. А если ниже, то должен быть знак типа такого:

В общем, что я хочу сказать. Если ты аргументированно и четко обосновываешь свою позицию, то в Канаде как минимум тебе не поставят пункты в права (15 пунктов и теряешь, мне должны были дать 2). А это сразу удорожает страховку и плату за права (раз в год). Полиция на суд обычно не ходит, а присылает репорт свой. Т.е. у тебя преимущество, что ты их позицию знаешь, а судья слышит только твою. В результате вполне возможно себя оправдать. Я такой не один, знакомая так за парковку отмазывалась. Все цивильно. Без мордобоя на дороге 🙂

CANADIAN POLICE

Canada is famous for its Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). Its peculiarity lies in the fact that it combines international, provincial, federal and municipal components in its structure. Police in Canada is considered as one of the major national symbols. It was established back in 1873. At that time, the Canadians fought for the western part of the state.

Among other items, the everyday uniform of police officers include the mounted police hat and the bright red-and-blue uniform is worn on holidays, for official ceremonies or during trips to other countries. The most memorable and unusual event with Royal Canadian Mounted Police is a parade called the Musical Ride, which takes place in the capital of Canada. Initially, the event was intended to demonstrate a high level of riding of academy graduates, but, after some time, it turned into an ordinary ceremony. The parade was founded in 1876. At that time, the event was held in the city of Regina. Now the ceremony is held in the capital, in the city of Ottawa on Canada Day.

Police in Canada

Article by Clifford D. Shearing, Philip C. Stenning, Tabitha Marshall
Published Online February 7, 2006
Last Edited December 16, 2013

The primary function of police is to preserve order (sometimes referred to as «keeping the peace») between people within a community. In Canada, the two main responsibilities of the police are to keep Canadians safe and to enforce the law. There are several different types of police in Canada. The RCMP enforces federal laws and provides policing services in all territories and most provinces. Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador have provincial police forces. Most cities and many large towns have their own municipal police forces. Many First Nations also have their own police forces. In 2020, there were approximately 68,500 police officers serving in Canada, a rate of 185 officers for every 100,000 people.

Roles and Responsibilities of the Police

Police are responsible to keep Canadians safe and to enforce the law. This can be broken down into three main areas: crime prevention, investigations and emergency response.

Crime Prevention

Police spend much of their time preventing crime. This includes patrolling areas by car, on bikes, on horses and on foot to monitor public places, businesses and homes. Police also work with such organizations as Neighbourhood Watch and Block Parents and attend protests and special events to make sure that crowds stay safe and under control. Police also keep the public safe by enforcing speed limits and other laws.

Investigations

Police also conduct investigations in order to protect Canadians and enforce the law. They investigate theft and financial crimes such as fraud and commercial scams. They also investigate cases involving kidnapping, murder and terrorism. This can include surveillance, gathering evidence and interviewing witnesses, writing reports and providing testimony in court.

Emergency Response

Police also respond to emergencies, including crimes, accidents and natural disasters. They are responsible for helping victims and providing first aid, arresting suspects and directing traffic.

Specially trained police officers are usually called in to deal with more complicated or dangerous situations. This includes subduing and disarming people with weapons and managing hostage situations. Specialists are also called in to handle or defuse bombs and other explosives.

Police Forces and Jurisdiction

Federal Police: RCMP

The federal police force, the RCMP, is the largest single force in the country. It enforces federal laws, investigates financial and organized crime, protects national security and ensures the safety of state officials and foreign dignitaries. The RCMP also provides policing services under contract to all territories and provinces, except Ontario and Quebec. In addition, it provides policing services to more than 150 municipalities and 600 Indigenous communities.

The RCMP also provides services to all Canadian public police forces. This includes the Canadian Police College and the Canadian Police Information Centre, the central police database that provides information on such matters as criminal records. Other specialized services include the Canadian Firearms Program and the National Child Exploitation Coordination Centre.

Provincial Police

Under the Constitution, provinces are responsible for public policing. However, only Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador have their own provincial police force. In all other provinces and territories, the RCMP provides policing services to areas that don’t have municipal police forces.

The Ontario Provincial Police (founded in 1909) has jurisdiction over the entire province, except in municipalities that have their own police force. The Sûreté du Québec (founded in 1870) operates in a similar way. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary (founded in 1871) provides policing services in communities across the province, including the major metropolitan areas: St. John’s Metropolitan Area, Corner Brook, Labrador City and Churchill Falls. In other areas, the province contracts the services of the RCMP.

Municipal Police

Most cities and many large towns have their own police force. Provinces delegate the responsibility of policing to large municipalities through provincial Police Acts. These municipal police forces are usually governed directly by municipal councils or their communities. Many towns and cities also have police boards that oversee the operation of the municipal police force. In addition, most provinces directly supervise municipal forces through police commissions. The provinces pay part of the cost of municipal policing and can penalize municipalities if they don’t meet standards.

First Nations Police

First Nations policing is governed by the First Nations Policing Program (FNPP). Under this policy, First Nations negotiate with the federal government and provincial or territorial government to establish policing agreements. The agreements can include self-administered police services or policing by provincial or federal services. The RCMP, for example, provides policing services to more than 600 Indigenous communities.

In 2020, there were 36 First Nations self-administered police services. In the west, they include the Manitoba First Nations Police, Stl’atl’imx Tribal Police Service, File Hills First Nations Police Service, Blood Tribe Police Service, Lakeshore Regional Police Service and Tsuut’ina Nation Police Service. There are many First Nations police services in central Canada, including the Six Nations Police Service, Anishinabek Police Service, Kahnawá:ke Peacekeepers, Abenaki Police Force and Timiskaming Police Force.

Other Police Forces

Apart from federal, provincial, municipal and First Nations police, governments in Canada authorize other forms of police with legal powers. These powers are limited to specific areas and/or specific groups of people but are like those of the public police. The Harbour Police, Military Police and Railway Police are examples.

Safeguards and Accountability

Police are responsible to obey the law as well as enforce it. The law (including the Canadian Criminal Code and provincial Police Acts) limits police power by defining the circumstances in which the police may act. In some circumstances, governments may pass laws that give the police «special powers.» The most extraordinary example of this in Canada is the War Measures Act, which was invoked during the 1970 October Crisis in Quebec.

If police officers are accused of committing a crime, exceeding their limitations under the law or acting in a way that contravenes police codes of conduct, they will be investigated. Civilian oversight is an important part of this process. All provinces have a public complaint process that is independent from the police. Examples include the Office of the Independent Police Review Director in Ontario, Office of the Police Complaint Commissionerin British Columbia and Public Complaints Commission in Saskatchewan. Complaints about the RCMP are reviewed and managed by the Civilian Review and Complaints Commission for the RCMP. A similar agency reviews complaints made about Military Police.

Members of the public can submit complaints to these organizations, which review and make recommendations but cannot usually investigate or lay charges. If they decide a complaint is legitimate, the case is usually forwarded to the police service in question. In cases of minor misconduct, police officers are usually disciplined informally. By law, more serious cases should be investigated by an independent organization, although this does not always happen.

Cases of criminal misconduct or other serious allegations (e.g., death, serious injury, sexual assault) are investigated by independent civilian agencies. These include Ontario’s Special Investigations Unit (SIU), Nova Scotia’s Serious Incident Response Team (SiRT) and the Alberta Serious Incident Response Team (ASIRT).

Complaints can lead to inquiries and significant change in Canadian policing. For example, the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Certain Activities of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (1977–81) investigated allegations of crimes by the RCMP Security Service. One of its recommendations was the establishment of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS). More recently, complaints of workplace harassment in the RCMP led to several reviews. In May 2020, the Civilian Review and Complaints Commission for the RCMP released its Report on Workplace Harassment in the RCMP. Its recommendations included modernizing RCMP governance and making the organization’s harassment complaints process more independent and effective.

Independent agencies have also investigated allegations of racism among the police. This includes the impact of race in “street checks” or “carding,” when someone is stopped by police on the street in order to collect personal information. Complaints have also been made about police attitudes towards missing person and murder cases involving Indigenous people. In 2020, for example, a complaint was launched against the Thunder Bay police force regarding the way it investigated the deaths of Indigenous people. This launched a two-year review by the Office of the Independent Police Review Director (OIPRD), which revealed systemic racism in the force. In June 2020, the Thunder Bay police force announced that nine deaths would be reinvestigated by a multidisciplinary, multiagency team.

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Canada police employee charged under national security act

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Canada’s top police organisation has charged one of its senior officials with violating national security laws.

Cameron Ortis, a civilian member of the RCMP, is accused of breaching the Security of Information Act and the Criminal Code.

Few other details have been released about the alleged offences. He was reportedly held on Thursday in Ottawa.

The RCMP would only say that the offences occurred «during his tenure as an RCMP employee».

Charges filed against Mr Ortis include the «unauthorised communication of special operational information», possessing a device or software «useful for concealing the content of information or for surreptitiously communicating, obtaining or retaining information», and breach of trust by a public officer.

«I can assure you the authorities are taking this extremely seriously but you might understand I have no comment to make,» Prime Minister Justin Trudeau told journalists, soon after the charges against Mr Ortis were made public.

Global News Canada reports that Mr Ortis is a director general of an intelligence unit within the RCMP. According to CBC News, he has expertise in East Asian affairs.

Mr Ortis had a brief court appearance on Friday afternoon and is due back in court on 20 September.

John MacFarlane, counsel with the Public Prosecution Service of Canada, told journalists outside a courthouse in Ottawa that it is alleged «he obtained, stored, and processed sensitive info, we believe with the intent to communicate it to people that he shouldn’t be communicating it to».

This is not the first time a Canadian has been prosecuted under the Security of Information Act. In 2012, a former naval intelligence officer pleaded guilty to spying for Russia for several years.

Sub Lt Jeffrey Delisle admitted selling Canadian and Nato intelligence to Russia for C$3,000 a month.

He worked at top secret naval military facilities and had clearance to intelligence-sharing systems linked to countries such as the US and UK.

Canadian Police Канада

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) (French: Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal, provincial and municipal policing body. The RCMP prov > [ 4 ]

The RCMP was formed in 1920 by the merger of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP, founded 1873) with the Dominion Police (founded 1868). The former was originally named the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP), and was given the Royal prefix by King Edward VII in 1904. Much of the present-day organization’s symbolism has been inherited from its days as the NWMP, including the distinctive Red Serge uniform, paramilitary heritage, and mythos as a frontier force. The RCMP/GRC wording is specifically protected under the Trade-marks Act. [ 5 ]

As the national police force of Canada, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is primarily responsible for enforcing federal laws throughout Canada, while general law and order including the enforcement of the Criminal Code and applicable provincial legislation is constitutionally the responsibility of the provinces and territories. This responsibility is sometimes further delegated to municipalities which can form their own municipal police departments. This is common in the largest cities.

The two most populous provinces, Ontario and Quebec, maintain their own provincial forces; the Ontario Provincial Police and Sûreté du Québec. The other eight provinces, however, have chosen to contract most or all of their provincial policing responsibilities to the RCMP. Under these contracts the RCMP provides front-line policing in those provinces under the direction of the provincial governments in regard to provincial and municipal law enforcement. When Newfoundland joined the confederation in 1949, the RCMP entered the province and absorbed the then Newfoundland Rangers and took over responsibilities in that area. Today the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary has reclaimed some of that province to their jurisdiction. In the three territories, the RCMP serves as the sole territorial police force. Additionally, many municipalities throughout Canada contract the RCMP to serve as their police force. The RCMP consequently provides policing services at the federal, provincial and municipal level.

The RCMP is responsible for an unusually large breadth of duties. Under their federal mandate, the RCMP provides policing throughout Canada, including Ontario and Quebec (albeit under smaller scales there). Federal operations include: enforcing federal laws including commercial crime, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, border integrity, organized crime and other related matters; providing counter-terrorism and domestic security; providing protection services for the Monarch, Governor General, Prime Minister, their families and residences, and other ministers of the Crown, visiting dignitaries, and diplomatic missions; and participating in various international policing efforts. Under provincial and municipal contracts the RCMP provides front-line policing in all areas outside of Ontario and Quebec that do not have an established local police force. There are detachments located in small villages in the far north, remote First Nations reserves, and rural towns, but also larger cities such as Surrey, BC (population 394,976). In these provinces the RCMP maintains units that provide investigational support to their own detachments, as well as smaller municipal police forces, including the investigation of major crimes such as homicides, forensic identification services, police dog services, emergency response teams, explosives disposal, undercover operations, and others. Under its National Police Services branch the RCMP provides support to all police forces in Canada through the operation of support services such as the Canadian Police Information Centre, the Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, Forensic Science and Identification Services, the Canadian Firearms Program and the Canadian Police College.

The RCMP Security Service was a specialized political intelligence and counterintelligence branch with national security responsibilities, but was replaced with the Canadian Security Intelligence Service in 1984, following revelations of illegal covert operations relating to the Quebec separatist movement. [ 6 ] CSIS is not part of the RCMP, but is its own entity.

Duties, conduct and operational and reporting guidelines are very specifically laid out in a detailed document known as the Commissioner’s Standing Orders, or CSOs.

Contents

History

North-West Mounted Police

The RCMP has its beginnings in the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP). The police was established by an act of legislation from the Temporary North-West Council the first territorial government of the Northwest Territories. [ 7 ] The Act was approved by the Government of Canada and established on May 23, 1873, by Queen Victoria, on the advice of her Canadian Prime Minister, John A. Macdonald, with the intent of bringing law and order to, and asserting sovereignty over, the Northwest Territories. The need was particularly urgent given reports of American whiskey traders, in particular those of Fort Whoop-Up, causing trouble in the region, culminating in the Cypress Hills Massacre. The new force was initially to be called the North West Mounted Rifles, but this proposal was rejected as sounding too militaristic in nature, which Macdonald feared would antagonize both aboriginals and Americans; however, the force was organized along the lines of a cavalry regiment in the British Army, and was to wear red uniforms.

The NWMP was modelled directly on the Royal Irish Constabulary, a civilian paramilitary armed police force with both mounted and foot elements under the authority of what was then the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] First NWMP commissioner, Colonel George Arthur French visited Ireland to learn its methods. [ 9 ]

The initial force, commanded by Commissioner French, was assembled at Fort Dufferin, Manitoba. They departed on July 8, 1874, on a march to what is now Alberta.

The group comprised 22 officers, 287 men – called constables and sub-constables – 310 horses, 67 wagons, 114 ox-carts, 18 yoke of oxen, 50 cows and 40 calves. [ 10 ] A pictorial account of the journey was recorded in the diary of Henri Julien, an artist from the Canadian Illustrated News, who accompanied the expedition. [ 11 ]

Their destination was Fort Whoop-Up, a notorious whiskey trading post located at the junction of the Belly and Oldman Rivers. Upon arrival at Whoop-Up and finding it abandoned the troop continued a few miles west and established headquarters on an island in the Oldman, naming it Fort MacLeod.

Historians have theorized that failure of the 1874 March West would not have completely ended the Canadian federal government’s vision of settling the country’s western plains, but could have delayed it for many years. [ citation needed ] It could also have encouraged the Canadian Pacific Railway to seek a more northerly route for its transcontinental railway that went through the well-mapped and partially settled valley of the North Saskatchewan River, touching on Prince Albert, Battleford and Edmonton, and through the Yellowhead Pass, as originally proposed by Sandford Fleming. [ 12 ] This would have offered no economic justification for the existence of cities like Brandon, Regina, Moose Jaw, Swift Current, Medicine Hat, and Calgary, which could, in turn, have tempted American expansionists to make a play for the flat, empty southern regions of the Canadian prairies.

The NWMP’s early activities included containing the whiskey trade and enforcing agreements with the First Nations peoples; to that end, the commanding officer of the force arranged to be sworn in as a justice of the peace, which allowed for magisterial authority within the Mounties’ jurisdiction. In the early years, the force’s dedication to enforcing the law on behalf of the First Nations peoples impressed the latter enough to encourage good relations between them and the Crown. In the summer of 1876, Sitting Bull and thousands of Sioux fled from the US Army towards what is now southern Saskatchewan, and James Morrow Walsh of the NWMP was charged with maintaining control in the large Sioux settlement at Wood Mountain. Walsh and Sitting Bull became good friends, and the peace at Wood Mountain was maintained. In 1885, the NWMP helped to quell the North-West Rebellion led by Louis Riel. They suffered particularly heavy losses during the Battle of Duck Lake, but saw little other active combat.

Klondike Gold Rush

In 1896, concerned about the influence of American miners and the ongoing liquor trade, the Canadian government sent inspector Charles Constantine to report on conditions in the Yukon. Constantine correctly forecast a coming gold rush and urgently recommended sending a force to secure Canadian sovereignty there and collect customs duties; he returned the following year with a force of 20 men. Under the command of Constantine, and his successor in 1898, the more famous Sam Steele, the NWMP distinguished itself during the Klondike Gold Rush, which started in 1896, making it one of the most peaceful and orderly such affairs in history. [ citation needed ] The NWMP not only enforced criminal law, but also collected customs duties, established a number of rules such as the «ton of goods» requirement for prospectors to enter the Yukon to avoid another famine, mandatory boat inspections for those wanting to travel the Yukon River, and created the Blue Ticket used to expel undesirables from the Klondike. The Mounties did tolerate certain illegal activities, such as gambling and prostitution, and the force did not succeed in its attempt to establish order and Canadian sovereignty in Skagway, Alaska, at the head of the Lynn Canal, instead creating the customs post at the summit of the Chilkoot Pass. At that same time, the dissolution of the NWMP was being discussed in the House of Commons, but the gold rush prospectors were so impressed by the conduct of the Mounted Police that the force became world famous and its continuation was ensured.

Evolution of the force

The North-West Mounted Police’s jurisdiction was extended northward to the Yukon Territory in 1895 and then again in 1903 to the Arctic coast, with the establishment of a post at Cape Fullerton. In June 1904, the prefix «Royal» was conferred on the NWMP by King Edward VII. [ 13 ] Jurisdiction was extended to the new provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905, and to Manitoba’s new annexation in 1912. During World War I the RNWMP was responsible for «border patrols, surveillance of enemy aliens, and enforcement of national security regulations». [ 13 ] In 1917, provincial policing contracts were terminated, and the RNWMP was responsible only for federal policing in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the Territories. Come 1918, however, enforcement was once again extended to all four Western Provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba). [ 13 ] A squadron was deployed to Vladivostok, Russia in late 1918 as part of the Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force. Six months later, in June 1919, the RNWMP was called in to repress the general strike in Manitoba’s capital, Winnipeg, where officers fired into a crowd of strikers, killing two and causing injury to thirty others. Another strike of that scale was never seen again, but clashes between the RNWMP and strikers continued; Mounties killed three strikers in 1931, when striking coal miners from Bienfait, Saskatchewan demonstrated in nearby Estevan. These incidents did not help the image of the RNWMP, which, since the end of First World War, was being looked at as an outdated institution, more suited to the 19th century frontier than with an industrialising 20th century Canada.

Aylesworth Perry served as Commissioner of the North-West Mounted Police from 1900 to 1922. It was in this period that the force was faced, again, with dissolution, but was saved in 1920 when it merged with the Dominion Police and was renamed as the «Royal Canadian Mounted Police». The new organization was charged with federal law enforcement in all the provinces and territories, and immediately set about establishing its modern role as protector of Canadian national security, as well as assuming responsibility for national counterintelligence.

As part of its national security and intelligence functions, the RCMP was responsible for infiltrating any ethnic or political groups that were cons > [ 14 ] The Chinese community was also targeted because the perceived link to opium dens. Historians estimate that fully two per cent of the Chinese community was deported between 1923 and 1932, largely under the provisions of the Opium and Narcotics Drugs Act (ONDA). [ 15 ] Besides the RCMP’s new responsibilities in intelligence, drugs enforcement, and immigration, the force also provided assistance to numerous other federal agencies, such as enforcing the residential school system for First Nations’ children.

In 1935, the RCMP, collaborating with the Regina Police Service, crushed the On-to-Ottawa Trek by sparking the Regina Riot, in which one city police officer and one protester were killed. The Trek, which had been organized to call attention to the abysmal conditions in the relief camps, therefore failed to reach Ottawa, but nevertheless had profound political reverberations.

The RCMP employed special constables to assist with strikebreaking in the interwar period. For a brief period in the late 1930s, a volunteer militia group, the Legion of Frontiersmen were affiliated with the RCMP. Many members of the RCMP belonged to this organization, which was prepared to serve as an auxiliary force. In later years, special constables performed duties such as policing airports and, in certain Canadian provinces, the court houses.

Очень важная для вас статья:  Канада без знания языка

In 1932, men and vessels of the Preventive Service, National Revenue, were absorbed, creating the RCMP Marine Section. The acquisition of the RCMP schooner St. Roch facilitated the first effective patrol of Canada’s Arctic territory. It was the first vessel to navigate the Northwest Passage from west to east (1940–42), the first to navigate the Passage in one season (from Halifax to Vancouver in 1944), the first to sail either way through the Passage in one season, and the first to circumnavigate North America (1950). [ 16 ]

Counterintelligence work was moved from the RCMP’s Criminal Investigation Department to a specialized intelligence branch, the RCMP Security Service, in 1939.

Post-war

April 1, 1949, Newfoundland joined in full confederation with Canada and the Newfoundland Rangers amalgamated with the RCMP.

Following the 1945 defection of Soviet cipher clerk, Igor Gouzenko and his revelations of espionage, the RCMP Security Service implemented measures to screen out “subversive” elements from the public sector. [ 17 ]

Queen Elizabeth II approved in Regina, Saskatchewan on July 4, 1973 a new badge for the RCMP, in recognition of which the force presented the sovereign with a tapestry rendering of the new design. [ 18 ]

In the late 1970s, revelations surfaced that the RCMP Security Service force had in the course of their intelligence duties engaged in crimes such as burning a barn and stealing documents from the separatist Parti Québécois, and other abuses. This led to the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Certain Activities of the RCMP, better known as the «McDonald Commission,» named for the presiding judge, Mr Justice David Cargill McDonald. The Commission recommended that the force’s intelligences duties be removed in favor of the creation of a separate intelligence agency, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS).

Royal Canadian Mounted Police

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; Template:Lang-fr (GRC), «Royal Gendarmerie of Canada»; colloquially known as the Mounties, and internally as «the Force») is both a federal and a national police force of Canada. The RCMP prov >[1]

Overview Edit

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) was formed in 1920 by the merger of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP, founded in 1873) with the Dominion Police (founded in 1868). The former was originally named the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP), and was given the Royal prefix by King Edward VII in 1904. Much of the present day organization’s symbolism has been inherited from its days as the NWMP and RNWMP, including the distinctive Red Serge uniform, paramilitary heritage, and mythos as a frontier force. The RCMP-GRC wording is protected under the Trade-marks Act. [2]

As Canada’s national police force, the RCMP is primarily responsible for enforcing federal laws throughout Canada while general law and order including the enforcement of the Criminal Code and applicable provincial legislation is constitutionally the responsibility of the provinces and territories. Larger cities may form their own municipal police departments.

The two most populous provinces, Ontario and Quebec, maintain provincial forces: the Ontario Provincial Police and Sûreté du Québec. The other eight provinces contract policing responsibilities to the RCMP. The RCMP provides front-line policing in those provinces under the direction of the provincial governments. When Newfoundland joined the confederation in 1949, the RCMP entered the province and absorbed the then Newfoundland Ranger Force, which patrolled most of Newfoundland’s rural areas. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary patrols urban areas of the province. In the territories, the RCMP is the sole territorial police force. Many municipalities throughout Canada contract to the RCMP. Thus, the RCMP polices at the federal, provincial, and municipal level. It is the only police force of any sort in several areas of Canada.

The RCMP is responsible for an unusually large breadth of duties. Under their federal mandate, the RCMP police throughout Canada, including Ontario and Quebec (albeit under smaller scales there). Federal operations include: enforcing federal laws including commercial crime, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, border integrity, organized crime, and other related matters; providing counter-terrorism and domestic security; providing protection services for the Monarch, Governor General, Prime Minister, their families and residences, and other ministers of the Crown, visiting dignitaries, and diplomatic missions; and participating in various international policing efforts.

Under provincial and municipal contracts the RCMP provides front-line policing in all areas outside of Ontario and Quebec that do not have an established local police force. There are detachments located in small villages in the far north, remote First Nations reserves, and rural towns, but also larger cities such as Surrey, British Columbia (population 468,251+). There, support units investigate for their own detachments, and smaller municipal police forces. Investigations include major crimes, homicides, forensic identification, collision forensics, police dogs, emergency response teams, explosives disposal, and undercover operations. Under its National Police Services branch the RCMP supports all police forces in Canada via the Canadian Police Information Centre, Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, Forensic Science and Identification Services, Canadian Firearms Program, and the Canadian Police College.

The RCMP Security Service was a specialized political intelligence and counterintelligence branch with national security responsibilities, replaced by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service in 1984, following revelations of illegal covert operations relating to the Quebec separatist movement. [3] CSIS is not part of the RCMP, but is its own entity.

History Edit

Founding Edit

Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald first began planning a permanent force to patrol the North-West Territories after the Dominion of Canada purchased the territory from the Hudson’s Bay Company. Reports from Army officers surveying the territory led to the recommendation that a mounted force of between 100 to 150 mounted riflemen could maintain law and order. The Prime Minister first announced the force as the North West Mounted Rifles. However, officials in the United States raised concerns that an armed force along the border was a prelude to a military buildup. Macdonald then renamed the force the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) when formed in 1873. [4]

The force added «Royal» to its name in 1904. It merged with the Dominion Police, the main police force for all points east of Manitoba, in 1920 and was renamed as the «Royal Canadian Mounted Police». The new organization was charged with federal law enforcement in all the provinces and territories, and immediately established its modern role as protector of Canadian national security, as well as assuming responsibility for national counterintelligence.

As part of its national security and intelligence functions, the RCMP infiltrated ethnic or political groups cons >[5] The Chinese community was also targeted because of a perceived link to opium dens. Historians estimate fully two per cent of the Chinese community was deported between 1923 and 1932, largely under the provisions of the Opium and Narcotics Drugs Act (ONDA). [6] Besides the RCMP’s new responsibilities in intelligence, drugs enforcement, and immigration, the force also assisted numerous other federal agencies with tasks such as enforcing the residential school system for Aboriginal children.

In 1935, the RCMP, collaborating with the Regina Police Service, crushed the On-to-Ottawa Trek by sparking the Regina Riot, in which one city police officer and one protester were killed. The Trek, which had been organized to call attention to the abysmal conditions in relief camps, therefore failed to reach Ottawa, but nevertheless had profound political reverberations.

The RCMP employed special constables to assist with strikebreaking in the interwar period. For a brief period in the late 1930s, a volunteer militia group, the Legion of Frontiersmen were affiliated with the RCMP. Many members of the RCMP belonged to this organization, which was prepared to serve as an auxiliary force. In later years, special constables performed duties such as policing airports and, in some Canadian provinces, the court houses.

In 1932, men and vessels of the Preventive Service, National Revenue, were absorbed, creating the RCMP Marine Section. The acquisition of the RCMP schooner St. Roch facilitated the first effective patrol of Canada’s Arctic territory. It was the first vessel to navigate the Northwest Passage from west to east (1940–42), the first to navigate the Passage in one season (from Halifax to Vancouver in 1944), the first to sail either way through the Passage in one season, and the first to circumnavigate North America (1950). [7]

Counterintelligence work was moved from the RCMP’s Criminal Investigation Department to a specialized intelligence branch, the RCMP Security Service, in 1939.

Post-war Edit

On April 1, 1949, Newfoundland joined in full confederation with Canada and the Newfoundland Ranger Force amalgamated with the RCMP.

Following the 1945 defection of Soviet cipher clerk, Igor Gouzenko, and his revelations of espionage, the RCMP Security Service implemented measures to screen out «subversive» elements from the public sector. [8]

Queen Elizabeth II approved in Regina, Saskatchewan on July 4, 1973, a new badge for the RCMP, in recognition of which the force presented the sovereign with a tapestry rendering of the new design. [9]

In the late 1970s, revelations surfaced that the RCMP Security Service force had in the course of their intelligence duties engaged in crimes such as burning a barn and stealing documents from the separatist Parti Québécois, and other abuses. This led to the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Certain Activities of the RCMP, better known as the «McDonald Commission,» named for the presiding judge, Mr Justice David Cargill McDonald. The Commission recommended that the force’s intelligences duties be removed in favour of the creation of a separate intelligence agency, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS).

Modern era Edit

In 1993, the Special Emergency Response Team (SERT), were transferred to the Canadian Forces (CF), creating a new unit called Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2). JTF2 inherited some equipment and SERT’s former training base near Ottawa.

In 2006, the United States Coast Guard’s Ninth District and the RCMP began a program called «Shipr >[10]

On June 3, 2013, the RCMP renamed its ‘A’ Division to National Division and tasked it with handling corruption cases «at home and abroad». [11]

On December 6, 2006, RCMP Commissioner Giuliano Zaccardelli resigned after admitting that his earlier testimony about the Maher Arar terrorist case was inaccurate. The RCMP’s actions were scrutinized by the Commission of Inquiry into the Actions of Canadian Officials in Relation to Maher Arar.

Two officers were found guilty of perjury and sentenced to jail for their actions in the 2007 Robert Dziekański Taser incident in Vancouver.

Famous cases Edit

  • The American stagecoach robber Bill Miner was captured by the RCMP in 1906. [13]
  • Albert Johnson, known as the Mad Trapper of Rat River, was killed in a shoot-out with the RCMP in 1932. [13]
  • RCMP officers in Saskatchewan arrested the perpetrator of the Shell Lake murders in 1967.
  • Anarchist militants known as the Squamish Five were arrested by the RCMP in 1983.
  • The suspected driver of the reconnaissance vehicle involved in the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing fled to Canada where he was arrested by the RCMP in the winter of 1997, and was extradited to the United States.
  • Four RCMP officers were fatally shot during an operation in Alberta in March 2005: the Mayerthorpe tragedy was the single worst multiple killing of RCMP officers since the North-West Rebellion. [14]
  • In July 2007, two RCMP officers were shot dead in the Spiritwood Inc >[15]
  • The perpetrator of the 2014 shootings at Parliament Hill, Ottawa was shot and killed at the scene by the RCMP.

History of the RCMP uniform Edit

The RCMP are famous for their distinctive dress uniform, or «Review Order,» popularly known as the «Red Serge.» It has a high collared scarlet tunic, midnight blue breeches with yellow leg stripe, Sam Browne belt with white sidearm lanyard, oxblood riding boots (possibly with spurs), brown felt campaign hat (wide, flat brimmed) with the characteristic «Montana crease», and brown gloves (with brown leather gauntlets for riders). Members wear the Review Order during the Musical Ride, an equestrian drill in which mounted members show their riding skills and handling of the cavalry lance. On normal duties, the RCMP uses standard police methods, equipment, and uniforms. The RCMP uses horses for ceremonial operations such as escorting the Governor General’s open landau to the Opening of Parliament.

Tunic The Red Serge tunic that >[16] ). Originally kitted from militia stores, the NWMP later adopted a standard style that emphasized the force’s British heritage and differentiated it from the blue American military uniforms. In 1904, dark blue shoulder straps and collars replaced the uniform’s scarlet facings [17] when King Edward VII granted the Force «Royal» status for its service in the Second Boer War. Today, RCMP personnel under the rank of inspector wear blue «gorget» patches on the collar, while officers from inspector to commissioner wear solid blue collars and blue pointed-sleeve cuffs. Members once wore a white haversack on top of this jacket and white gauntlets, [16] which contrasted with the red tunic. The modern dress uniform replaces these easily-dirtied items with brown leather riding gloves and carrying pouches on the belt. Hat Although the NWMP contingent at Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee wore the flat-brimmed Stetson, the RCMP did not adopt it until about 1904. The original primary summer headdress was the white British foreign service helmet, also known as a pith helmet. This was an impractical choice for the Canadian west, and RCMP members wore a Stetson type hat on patrol and around camp. Sam Steele is often credited with introducing the Stetson-type hat, and when he left the force to command Lord Strathcona’s Horse in South Africa, his unit adopted the Stetson. During winter, members wore a Canadian military fur wedge cap or busby. In British Columbia, the hat features a black bearskin rim belt. Breeches The NWMP wore buff or steel grey breeches [16] until they adopted dark blue breeches with yellow-gold strapping (stripes). Members often exchanged kit with U.S. cavalry units, and while some believe this was the source for the breeches, the NWMP considered adopting blue breeches with a white strap. Dark blue with yellow-gold strapping is a British cavalry tradition, and most cavalry (later armoured) regiments’ dress uniforms feature yellow stripes. Boots Black riding boots changed to the modern brown style called «Strathcona Boots» or informally as «high browns» (See link to Lord Strathcona’s Horse) and the original crossbelts changed to the brown Sam Browne type. The brown colour of the boots and belt the RCMP wear with the Red Serge are from members who applied coats of polish, often during training at Depot Division. Spurs The RCMP’s original spurs, known as «long shank spurs,» were solid nickel. Their owners occasionally had their regimental number engraved on the inside, and some replaced the rowel with a US buffalo nickel Template:Cn to complement the Mounted Police capbadge and avoid using a Canadian coin that would deface the monarch. The RCMP last issued long shank spurs in 1968.

Sidearms are standard now, but were often not worn in the early years.

File:RCMP in regular uniform.jpg Everyday Uniform The everyday uniform is a grey shirt with dark blue tie, dark blue trousers with gold strapping, regular patrol boots called «ankle boots,» regular duty equipment, and a regular policeman’s style cap. Members on operational duty wear a blue Gore-Tex open-collar jacket (patrol jacket), while sergeants major and certain non-commissioned officers (NCOs) involved in recruit training or media relations wear a dark blue jacket (blue serge). Depending on their duties, officers wear white shirts and the patrol jacket or blue serge. During the summer, officers wear a tie with a short-sleeved shirt, and other members wear short-sleeved shirts. Winter dress is a long-sleeved shirt without tie for all members except officers, who wear a tie with the long-sleeved shirt. In colder weather, members may wear heavier boots, winter coats (storm coats) and a fur cap.

In 1990, Baltej Singh Dhillon became the RCMP’s first Sikh officer to be allowed to wear a turban instead of the traditional Stetson. [18] On March 15, the federal government, despite protests, decided they would allow Sikhs to wear turbans while on duty as RCMP officers as had been the practice for Sikh members of Canadian Forces for decades.

Despite ongoing pressure from groups such as the Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animals, [19] the RCMP uses muskrat fur in their winter dress uniform. The RCMP originally decided not to use fur, but the government overruled them.

Decorations Edit

The RCMP awards its Royal Canadian Mounted Police Long Service Medal to members who have completed 20 years’ service. A clasp is awarded for each successive 5 years to 40 years. Members also receive a Service Badge star for each five years’ service, which is worn on the left sleeve. There are specialist insignia for positions such as first a >[20]

Women in the RCMP Edit

On May 23, 1974, RCMP Commissioner Maurice Nadon announced that the RCMP would accept applications from women as regular members of the force. Troop 17 was the first group of 32 females at Depot in Regina on September 18 and 19, 1974 for regular training. This first all-female troop graduated from Depot on March 3, 1975.

After initially wearing different unflattering uniforms, women officers were finally issued the standard RCMP uniforms. Now all officers are >[21] ) The second exception is the official maternity uniform for pregnant female officers assigned to administrative duties.

The following years saw the first women attain certain positions.

  • 1981: corporal, musical ride
  • 1987: foreign post
  • 1990: detachment commander
  • 1992: commissioned officer
  • 1998: Assistant Commissioner

From December 15, 2006, to July 2007, Beverley Busson served as interim Commissioner of the RCMP, making her the first woman to hold the top position in the force. She was replaced by William J. S. Elliott on July 6, 2007, (Elliott was sworn in on July 16—the first civilian to lead the RCMP.) [22] [23]

Military status Edit

Template:Infobox military unit Although the RCMP is a civilian police force, in 1921, following the service of many of its members during the First World War, King George V awarded the force the status of a regiment of dragoons, entitling it to display the battle honours it had been awarded.

Service in wartime Edit

During the Second Boer War, members of the North-West Mounted Police were given leaves of absence to join the 2nd Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles (CMR) and Strathcona’s Horse. The force raised the Canadian Mounted Rifles, mostly from NWMP members, for service in South Africa. For the CMR’s distinguished service there, King Edward VII honoured the NWMP by changing the name to the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP) on June 24, 1904.

During the First World War, the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP) conducted border patrols, surveillance of enemy aliens, and enforcement of national security regulations within Canada. However, RNWMP officers also served overseas. On August 6, 1914, a squadron of volunteers from the RNWMP was formed to serve with the Canadian Light Horse in France. In 1918, two more squadrons were raised, A Squadron for service in France and Flanders and B Squadron for service in the Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force

In September 1939, at the outset of the Second World War, the Canadian Army had no military police. Five days after war was declared the Royal Canadian Mounted Police received permission to form a Provost Company of Force volunteers. It was designated No. 1 Provost Company (RCMP), and became the Canadian Provost Corps. Six months after war was declared its members were overseas in Europe and served throughout the Second World War as military police.

Honours Edit

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police were accorded the status of a regiment of Dragoons in 1921, with its first gu >[24] [25] As a cavalry regiment, the RCMP was entitled to wear battle honours for its war service as well as carry a gu >[26]

  • North West Canada 1885
  • South Africa 1900–02
  • The Great War: France and Flanders 1918, Siberia 1918–19
  • The Second World War: Europe, 1939–45
  • The badge of the Canadian Provost Corps (Military Police), presented September 21, 1957, at a Parliament Hill ceremony for contributions to the Corps during the Second World War

Legacy Edit

In 1975, the RCMP dedicated a memorial bes >[27]

Organization Edit

International Edit

The RCMP International Operations Branch assists the Liaison Officer (LO) Program to deter international crime relating to Canadian criminal laws. The IOB is a section of the International Policing, which is part of the RCMP Federal and International Operations Directorate. Thirty-seven Liaison Officers are placed in 23 other countries and are responsible for organizing Canadian investigations in other countries, developing and maintaining the exchange of criminal intelligence, especially national security with other countries, to prov >[28] Liaison Officers are located in:

The RCMP was a member agency in the Afghan Threat Finance Cell, and RCMP officers were embedded with military units in Afghanistan. [29]

National Edit

The RCMP is organized under the authority of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act. In accordance with the Act, it is headed by the Commissioner, who, under the direction of the Minister of Public Safety, has the control and management of the Force and all matters connected therewith.

The Commissioner is assisted by Deputy Commissioners in charge of: [30]

  • Federal and International Policing
  • Police Support Services
  • Contract and Aboriginal Policing
  • Human Resources
  • East
    • Ontario («O» Division)
    • National Division (Formerly «A» Division)
    • National Headquarters
    • Quebec («C» Division)
    • New Brunswick («J» Division)
    • Nova Scotia («H» Division)
    • Prince Edward Island («L» Division)
    • Newfoundland and Labrador («B» Division)
  • West
    • British Columbia («E» Division)
    • Alberta («K» Division)
    • Saskatchewan («F» Division)
    • Manitoba («D» Division)
    • Yukon («M» Division)
    • Northwest Territories («G» Division)
    • Nunavut («V» Division)

Divisions Edit

The RCMP div >[31] at Innisfail, Alberta. The RCMP headquarters are located in Ottawa, Ontario.

File:»N» Division, Stable Building.JPG

  • National Division (formerly A Division): National Capital Region (Ottawa, Ontario, and Gatineau, Quebec) [32]
  • B Division: Newfoundland and Labrador [33]
  • C Division: Quebec [34]
  • D Division: Manitoba [34]
  • E Division: British Columbia [35]
  • F Division: Saskatchewan [36]
  • G Division: Northwest Territories [37]
  • H Division: Nova Scotia [38]
  • J Division: New Brunswick [39]
  • K Division: Alberta [40]
  • L Division: Prince Edward Island [41]
  • M Division: Yukon [42]
  • O Division: Ontario [43]
  • V Division: Nunavut [44]
  • Depot Division at Regina and the Police Dog Service Training Centre [31] at Innisfail.

Detachments Edit

The RCMP formerly had many single-officer detachments in small, isolated rural communities, [45] [46] but in 2012 the RCMP announced that it would be closing these detachments as it moves to have all detachments with a minimum of three Mounties. [46]

The largest single RCMP detachment is in the City of Surrey in British Columbia, with over a thousand employees. Surrey has contracted with the RCMP for policing services since 1951. [47] The second-largest RCMP detachment is in Burnaby, also in British Columbia. [48]

Personal Protection Group Edit

The Personal Protection Group or PPG is a 180-member group responsible for security details for VIPs, the prime minister, and the governor general. [49] It was created after the 1995 inc >[50]

Units under the PPG consists of:

    Prime Minister Protective Detail prov >Personnel Edit

Template:As of, the RCMP employed 28,461 men and women, including police officers, civilian members, and Public Service Employees. [51]

Actual personnel strength by ranks:

  • Commissioner 1
  • Deputy commissioner 7
  • Assistant commissioner 26
  • Chief superintendent 58
  • Superintendent 179
  • Inspector 345
  • Corps sergeant major 1
  • Sergeants major 1
  • Staff sergeants major 13
  • Staff sergeants 812
  • Sergeants 1,923
  • Corporals 3,377
  • Constables 11,491
  • Special constables 55
  • Civilian members 3,838
  • Public servants 6,331
  • Total 28,461

Regular members Edit

The term regular member, or RM, originates from the RCMP Act and refers to the 18,988 regular RCMP officers who are trained and sworn as peace officers, and include all the ranks from constable to commissioner. They are the police officers of the RCMP and are responsible for investigating crime and have the authority to make arrests. RMs operate in over 750 detachments, including 200 municipalities and more than 600 Aboriginal communities. RMs are normally assigned to general policing duties at an RCMP detachment for a minimum of three years. These duties allow them to experience a broad range of assignments and experiences, such as responding to alarms, foot patrol, bicycle patrol, traffic enforcement, collecting evidence at crime scenes, testifying in court, apprehending criminals and plain clothes duties. Regular members also serve in over 150 different types of operational and administrative opportunities available within the RCMP, these include: major crime investigations, emergency response, forensic identification, forensic collision reconstruction, international peacekeeping, bike or marine patrol, explosives disposal and police dog services. Also included are administrative roles including human resources, corporate planning, policy analysis and public affairs.

Auxiliary constables and other staff Edit

Besides the regular RCMP officers, several types of designations exist which give them assorted powers and responsibilities over policing issues.

Currently, there are:

  • Community Constables: not reported
  • Reserve Constables : not reported
  • Auxiliary Constables: 2,400+ [52]
  • Community Safety Officers: 16
  • Aboriginal Community Constables: 7 [53]
  • Special Constables: 78 [51]
  • Civilian Members: 3,760 [51]
  • Public servants: 6,194 [51]

Community Constables (CC) A new designation introduced in 2014 as a replacement to the Community Safety Officers & Aboriginal Community Constables pilot programs. [54][55] Community Constables are armed, pa >[56] They are to prov >[57] They will mostly be focused on crime prevention, liaison with the community, and to prov >[58] Reserve Constables (R/Cst.) A program reinstated in 2004 in British Columbia to allow for retired, regular RCMP members or other provincially trained officers to prov >[59] R/Cst. are appointed under Section 11 of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act as pa >[60] However, they are not allowed to carry force-issued s >[59] They generally carry out community policing roles but may also be called upon if an emergency occurs. [59][61]Auxiliary constables (A/Cst.) Volunteers within their own community, appointed under provincial police acts. [52] They are not police officers and can not identify themselves as such. However, they are given peace officer powers when on duty with a regular member (RM). Their duties consist mainly of assisting the RM in routine events, for example cordoning off crime scene areas, crowd control, participating in community policing, assistance during situations where regular members might be overwhelmed with their duties (e.g., keep watch of a backseat detainee while RM interviews a victim). They are identified by the wording of «RCMP Auxiliary» on cars, jackets and shoulder flashes. Community Safety Officers (CSO) In 2008, a new pilot designation within the RCMP in British Columbia was created based on the UK Police Community Support Officer program. Community safety officers are pa >[62][63] CSOs work with regular members in five areas: community safety; crime prevention; traffic support; community policing and investigation support. [64] They are peace officers but are not police officers. [65] CSOs are appointed as special constable under the RCMP Act. [66] The CSO program is scheduled to be dismantled in 2015. [55] Aboriginal Community Constables (ACC) A pilot program that began in April 2011 where ACCs are armed, uniformed peace officers who are engaged in policing activities in their home First Nations and Inuit communities in Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Alberta, and Nunavut. [66] Their function is to engage their communities in active crime prevention/reduction activities, and building positive relationships between their communities and the RCMP but can also prov >[66][67] The program is scheduled to be merged into the Community Constable program in 2015. [54]Special constables (S/Cst.) Employees of the RCMP, they have varied duties depending on where they are deployed, but are often given this designation because of an expertise they possess which needs to be applied in a certain area. For example, an Aboriginal person might be appointed a special constable in order to assist regular members as they police an Aboriginal community where English is not well understood, and where the special constable speaks the language well. From the early years of policing in northern Canada, and well into the 1950s, local aboriginal people were hired by the RCMP as special constables and were employed as guides and to obtain and care for sled dog teams. Many of these former special constables still reside in the North to this day and are still involved in regimental functions of the RCMP. Civilian members of the RCMP While not delegated the powers of police officers, they are instead hired for their specialized scientific, technological, communications and administrative skills. Since the RCMP is a multi-faceted law enforcement organization with responsibilities for federal, provincial and municipal policing duties, it offers employment opportunities for civilian members as professional partners within Canada’s national police force.

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Civilian members represent approximately 14% of the total RCMP employee population, and are employed within RCMP establishments in most geographical areas of Canada. The following is a list of the most common categories of employment that may be available to interested and qualified individuals.

  • Operations
    • Telecommunications Operator (Dispatcher) [68]
  • Scientific
    • Toxicology
    • Chemistry
    • Biology – DNA
    • Law
  • Technical
    • Forensic Identification Services
    • Instrument Technology
    • Document Examination
    • Counterfeit Analysis
    • Firearms Technology
    • Electronics Technology
    • Information Technology
    • Communications
    • Computer Systems Development
    • Telecommunications
    • Information Services/Public Affairs
  • Administrative
    • Policy Development and Analysis
    • Staff Development and Training
    • Human Resource Management
    • Translation
    • Police Records Information Management Environment (PRIME-BC)

Public Service Employees Also referred to as Public Servants, PSes or PSEs, they provide much of the administrative support for the RCMP in the form of detachment clerks and other administrative support at the headquarters level. They are not police officers, do not wear a uniform, have no police authority and are not bound by the RCMP Act. Municipal Employees

Abbreviated as «ME» they are found in RCMP detachments where a contract exists with a municipality to provide front-line policing. MEs are not actually employees of the RCMP, but are instead employed by the local municipality to work in the RCMP detachment. They conduct the same duties that a PSE would and are required to meet the same reliability and security clearance to do so. Many detachment buildings house a combination of municipal and provincially funded detachments, and therefore there are often PSEs and MEs found working together in them.

Ranks Edit

The rank system of the RCMP illustrates their origin as a paramilitary force. The insignia were based upon the Canadian Army (and British Army) of the time, which is almost >[69]

The numbers are current as of September 1, 2015: [51]

Canadian Police Канада

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) is one of the most emblematic and iconic symbols of Canada. They are known for their bright red uniforms and the horses they ride, and are affectionately called The Mounties. They work as the national police force, providing law enforcement in all three territories and eight of the ten provinces (although they are present throughout the entire country, they do not provide municipal policing services in Ontario nor Quebec).

The RCMP is the maximum Law Enforcing agency in Canada and, therefore, are in charge of enforcing federal law throughout the entire country. In Ontario and Quebec, they usually work closely with the provincial police offices (the Ontario Provincial Police and the Sûreté du Québec). Other provinces also have their own municipal Police Forces working in tandem with the RCMP. The operations they undertake include enforcing federal law regarding organized crime, drug trafficking, border protection, and anti-terrorism and domestic security affairs.

Here’s a non-exhaustive list of common tasks Royal Canadian Mounted Police Officers are required to complete.

  • Enforcing the law:
  • Arresting and detaining criminals;
  • responding to emergencies, confrontations, and protests;
  • conducting patrols on motorized vehicles, bicycles, or on horseback; and
  • enforcing traffic laws and fining offenders.
  • Running criminal investigations:
  • Collecting evidence from crime scenes;
  • interviewing suspects, witnesses, and other people involved;
  • analyzing crime scenes and accidents;
  • providing testimony in a court of law when necessary; and
  • documenting and filing reports.
  • Ensuring the safety of civilians:
  • Responding to emergencies in a timely manner;
  • providing assistance to victims; and
  • assessing and responding to national emergencies, evacuating civilians if required.
  • Maintaining community safety awareness:
  • Using a wide range of lethal and non-lethal weapons (e.g. handguns, shotguns, batons, and pepper spray).
  • Investigating federal crimes (e.g. drug trafficking, terrorist activity, grand-scale financial fraud, and other matters of national security):
  • Combating drug trafficking;
  • preventing and responding to terrorist attacks; and
  • investigating grand-scale financial frauds.
  • Driving several motorized vehicles:
  • Pursuing criminals when necessary.
  • Maintaining order during public events:
  • Watching over public meetings, manifestations, protests, and strikes; and
  • assessing and handling potentially volatile situations.

Daily Tasks

  • Patrolling the city on foot, car, motorcycles, bicycles, and on horseback.
  • Helping citizens when necessary.
  • Deterring crime by making themselves visible.
  • Looking out for suspicious activity.
  • Preventing threats to national security by collecting intelligence on possible terrorist attacks or other breaches of national sovereignty.
  • Writing reports and doing paperwork.
  • Enforcing the law and maintaining civil order.

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  • Excellent communication skills:
  • Being able to interview and interrogate criminals and victims so as to retrieve as much information as possible;
  • writing reports; and
  • having enough tact to deal with sensitive situations and emotionally disturbed people.
  • Outstanding problem-solving skills:
  • Being able to promptly and accurately assess situations;
  • staying calm and focused in chaotic and potentially violent situations; and
  • acting according to protocol.
  • Excellent physical condition:
  • Possessing great overall health;
  • being in good shape;
  • possessing acute senses of hearing and vision; and
  • having high levels of stamina.
  • Exceptional weapon skills:
  • Being proficient in the use of non-lethal and lethal weapons.
  • Highly analytical:
  • Possessing strong observational skills, being able to assess different situations and to identify possible threats.
  • Excellent driving skills:
  • Driving different types of vehicles;
  • riding horseback when necessary; and
  • having an understanding of basic mechanics.
  • Good computer skills:
  • Using computer programs to analyze and document evidence; and
  • writing extensive reports of investigations.
  • Excellent leadership and decision-making skills:
  • Being capable of commanding a task force of officers;
  • assessing different situations; and
  • deciding on the best course of action in stressful situations.
  • Outstanding levels of integrity, morality, honesty, and responsibility.
  • Handling sensitive or confidential information.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is always looking for new recruits to bring all sorts of skills and knowledge to their force, reflecting and upholding the Canadian ideals of diversity and multiculturalism. There are, however, certain conditions that need to be met in order to join the force. All applicants must be at least 19 years of age and be Canadian citizens or have had permanent resident status in Canada for at least 10 consecutive years. All applicants are subject to physical and psychological evaluations prior to entering the force. The results of these tests can be used to exclude or prevent applicants from joining.

Candidates are required to have completed secondary school education. Professionals with at least 2 years of college or university education will have a better chance of being recruited. Some degrees that will be an asset to aspirants are in Law Enforcement, Police Science, Social Science, and Criminology.

Like with most police forces in the country, applicants wishing to enter the RCMP must have a clean criminal record, or at least one with no major offences (e.g. homicide, manslaughter, sexual assault, participation with organized crime or drug trafficking, arson, or robbery). Minor offences can be overlooked or considered not relevant. [1]

Once accepted, all applicants must go through special training. They are assigned to a troop of 32 Cadets and sent to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Academy in Depot, located in the city of Regina in Saskatchewan. Training at Depot is 26 weeks long and covers all the necessary skills and knowledge RCMP Officers will require. During this period, Cadets are also required to participate in evening and weekend training activities. [2]

The RCMP works 24 hours a day to maintain and ensure peace and safety throughout the country, therefore, all RCMP Officers are expected to serve nights, weekends, and national holidays whenever necessary. They are also required to relocate to any part of Canada to serve at their post, special considerations can be taken, but it depends mainly on the Force’s needs. [3]

How to Become a Canadian Police Officer

Updated: March 28, 2020

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If you’re a Canadian considering a career in policing, you have the opportunity to join the national police force called the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or join a provincial police force. Each Canadian law enforcement agency has its own requirements and standards for police recruits, but you will see some basic requirements across the agencies. Once the agency has verified you meet all the requirements, the recruit will need to complete an extensive hiring process to become a Canadian police officer.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Gendarmerie royale du Canada
The Mounties
Abbreviation RCMP/GRC
220x140px
Motto Maintiens le droit
«Defending the Law» [1][2] Agency overview Formed December 1, 1920 [3] Preceding agencies
  • Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP) (1904)
  • Dominion Police (1868)
  • North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) (May 23, 1873) Employees

29,235 Volunteers Approximately 2,400 Auxiliary Constables [4] Legal personality Governmental: Government agency Jurisdictional structure Federal agency Canada Constituting instruments

  • Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act
  • Provincial Police Acts General nature
  • Federal law enforcement
  • Gendarmerie Operational structure Headquarters

M. J. Nadon Government of Canada Building, 73 Leikin Drive, Ottawa, Ontario [5] Sworn members

    • Commissioner 1
    • Deputy Commissioner 9
    • Assistant Commissioner 25
    • Chief Superintendent 51
    • Superintendent 186
    • Inspector 440
    • Corps Sergeant Major 1
    • Sergeants Major 3
    • Staff Sergeants Major 16
    • Staff Sergeants 942
    • Sergeants 2,140
    • Corporals 3,672
    • Constables 11,717
    • Special Constables 78
Unsworn members
    • Civilian Members 3,760
    • Public Servants 6,194
Elected officer responsible The Honourable Steven Blaney, Minister of Public Safety Agency executives
  • Queen Elizabeth II, Commissioner-in-Chief
  • Charles, Prince of Wales, Honorary Commissioner
  • Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, Honorary Deputy Commissioner
  • Bob Paulson, Commissioner Parent agency

Public Safety Canada Divisions

  • National Division: Nationwide
  • B Division: Newfoundland and Labrador
  • C Division: Quebec
  • D Division: Manitoba
  • E Division: British Columbia
  • F Division: Saskatchewan
  • G Division: Northwest Territories
  • H Division: Nova Scotia
  • J Division: New Brunswick
  • K Division: Alberta
  • L Division: Prince Edward Island
  • M Division: Yukon
  • O Division: Ontario
  • T Division: Depot
  • V Division: Nunavut
Facilities Detachments 680 Vehicles
  • Cars: 5,600
  • Trucks: 2,350
  • Motorcycles: 34
  • Snowmobiles: 481
  • All-terrain vehicles: 181
Patrol vessels 5 Fixed-wings 32 Helicopters 10
  • Battle honours
  • Canadian Newsmaker of the Year (2007)
  • Notables
    Significant incidents
    • Mayerthorpe tragedy
    • Spiritwood Incident
    Awards
    Website

    www.rcmp-grc.ca Footnotes While a federal agency, the RCMP also provides direct policing to dependant territories.

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) (French: Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is both a federal and a national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal, provincial, and municipal policing body. The RCMP prov >[7]

    Overview Edit

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) was formed in 1920 by the merger of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP, founded 1873) with the Dominion Police (founded 1868). The former was originally named the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP), and was given the Royal prefix by King Edward VII in 1904. Much of the present-day organization’s symbolism has been inherited from its days as the NWMP and RNWMP, including the distinctive Red Serge uniform, paramilitary heritage, and mythos as a frontier force. The RCMP/GRC wording is specifically protected under the Trade-marks Act. [8]

    RCMP in everyday uniform

    As the national police force of Canada, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is primarily responsible for enforcing federal laws throughout Canada while general law and order including the enforcement of the Criminal Code and applicable provincial legislation is constitutionally the responsibility of the provinces and territories. Largest cities commonly form their own municipal police departments.

    The two most populous provinces, Ontario and Quebec, maintain provincial forces: the Ontario Provincial Police and Sûreté du Québec. The other eight provinces contract policing responsibilities to the RCMP. The RCMP provides front-line policing in those provinces under the direction of the provincial governments. When Newfoundland joined the confederation in 1949, the RCMP entered the province and absorbed the then Newfoundland Ranger Force. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary has reclaimed some responsibilities. In the territories, the RCMP is the sole territorial police force. Many municipalities throughout Canada contract to the RCMP. Thus, the RCMP polices at the federal, provincial, and municipal level.

    The RCMP is responsible for an unusually large breadth of duties. Under their federal mandate, the RCMP police throughout Canada, including Ontario and Quebec (albeit under smaller scales there). Federal operations include: enforcing federal laws including commercial crime, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, border integrity, organized crime, and other related matters; providing counter-terrorism and domestic security; providing protection services for the Monarch, Governor General, Prime Minister, their families and residences, and other ministers of the Crown, visiting dignitaries, and diplomatic missions; and participating in various international policing efforts.

    Under provincial and municipal contracts the RCMP provides front-line policing in all areas outside of Ontario and Quebec that do not have an established local police force. There are detachments located in small villages in the far north, remote First Nations reserves, and rural towns, but also larger cities such as Surrey, British Columbia (population 394,976). There, support units investigate for their own detachments, and smaller municipal police forces. Investigations include major crimes, homicides, forensic identification, collision forensics, police dogs, emergency response teams, explosives disposal, and undercover operations. Under its National Police Services branch the RCMP supports all police forces in Canada via the Canadian Police Information Centre, Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, Forensic Science and Identification Services, Canadian Firearms Program, and the Canadian Police College.

    The RCMP Security Service was a specialized political intelligence and counterintelligence branch with national security responsibilities, replaced by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service in 1984, following revelations of illegal covert operations relating to the Quebec separatist movement. [9] CSIS is not part of the RCMP, but is its own entity.

    History Edit

    Founding Edit

    Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald first began planning a permanent force to patrol the North-West Territories after the Dominion of Canada purchased the territory from the Hudson’s Bay Company. Reports from Army officers surveying the territory led to the recommendation that a mounted force of between 100 to 150 mounted riflemen could maintain law and order. The Prime Minister first announced the force as the North West Mounted Rifles but concern from the United States of America fearing a military build up led the Prime Minister to rename the force the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) when formed in 1873. [10]

    The force was merged with the Dominion Police in 1920 and was renamed as the «Royal Canadian Mounted Police». The new organization was charged with federal law enforcement in all the provinces and territories, and immediately set about establishing its modern role as protector of Canadian national security, as well as assuming responsibility for national counterintelligence.

    As part of its national security and intelligence functions, the RCMP was responsible for infiltrating any ethnic or political groups that were cons >[11] The Chinese community was also targeted because of a perceived link to opium dens. Historians estimate that fully two per cent of the Chinese community was deported between 1923 and 1932, largely under the provisions of the Opium and Narcotics Drugs Act (ONDA). [12] Besides the RCMP’s new responsibilities in intelligence, drugs enforcement, and immigration, the force also provided assistance to numerous other federal agencies, such as enforcing the residential school system for Aboriginal children.

    In 1935, the RCMP, collaborating with the Regina Police Service, crushed the On-to-Ottawa Trek by sparking the Regina Riot, in which one city police officer and one protester were killed. The Trek, which had been organized to call attention to the abysmal conditions in relief camps, therefore failed to reach Ottawa, but nevertheless had profound political reverberations.

    RCMP patrolling with sled dogs, 1957.

    The RCMP employed special constables to assist with strikebreaking in the interwar period. For a brief period in the late 1930s, a volunteer militia group, the Legion of Frontiersmen were affiliated with the RCMP. Many members of the RCMP belonged to this organization, which was prepared to serve as an auxiliary force. In later years, special constables performed duties such as policing airports and, in certain Canadian provinces, the court houses.

    In 1932, men and vessels of the Preventive Service, National Revenue, were absorbed, creating the RCMP Marine Section. The acquisition of the RCMP schooner St. Roch facilitated the first effective patrol of Canada’s Arctic territory. It was the first vessel to navigate the Northwest Passage from west to east (1940–42), the first to navigate the Passage in one season (from Halifax to Vancouver in 1944), the first to sail either way through the Passage in one season, and the first to circumnavigate North America (1950). [13]

    Counterintelligence work was moved from the RCMP’s Criminal Investigation Department to a specialized intelligence branch, the RCMP Security Service, in 1939.

    Post-war Edit

    On April 1, 1949, Newfoundland joined in full confederation with Canada and the Newfoundland Ranger Force amalgamated with the RCMP.

    Following the 1945 defection of Soviet cipher clerk, Igor Gouzenko, and his revelations of espionage, the RCMP Security Service implemented measures to screen out «subversive» elements from the public sector. [14]

    Queen Elizabeth II approved in Regina, Saskatchewan on July 4, 1973, a new badge for the RCMP, in recognition of which the force presented the sovereign with a tapestry rendering of the new design. [15]

    In the late 1970s, revelations surfaced that the RCMP Security Service force had in the course of their intelligence duties engaged in crimes such as burning a barn and stealing documents from the separatist Parti Québécois, and other abuses. This led to the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Certain Activities of the RCMP, better known as the «McDonald Commission,» named for the presiding judge, Mr Justice David Cargill McDonald. The Commission recommended that the force’s intelligences duties be removed in favour of the creation of a separate intelligence agency, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS).

    Modern era Edit

    An RCMP Toyota Prius school liaison car in Ottawa.

    Ford Crown Victoria RCMP car in Vancouver.

    In 1993, the Special Emergency Response Team (SERT), were transferred to the Canadian Forces, creating a new unit called Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2). JTF2 inherited some equipment and SERT’s former training base near Ottawa.

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police have been involved in training and logistically supporting the Haitian National Police since 1994, a controversial matter in Canada cons >[16] The RCMP has also provided training overseas in Iraq and other peace-keeping missions.

    The suspected driver of the reconnaissance vehicle involved in the Khobar Towers bombing fled to Canada where he was arrested by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in the winter of 1997, and was extradited to the United States.

    On March 3, 2005, four RCMP officers were fatally shot during an operation to recover stolen property and investigate a possible marijuana grow-op and serve an arrest warrant just outside of Mayerthrope, Alberta. Shooter James Roszko, 46, then killed himself. It was the single worst multiple killing of RCMP officers since the North-West Rebellion. One of the four Mounties killed had been on the job for only 17 days. The victims were:

    On October 29, 2005, constable Paul Koester shot and killed Ian Bush while he was in custody. An internal investigation resulted in no action being taken against the constable, [ citation needed ] and, as a result, a public inquest was commissioned. The inquest recommended that the RCMP refrain from carrying out internal investigations with regard to fatal inc >[ citation needed ]

    On July 7, 2006, two RCMP officers were shot dead near Mildred, Saskatchewan. The killer, Curtis Dagenais, 41, was missing until July 18, when he turned himself in. The victims were:

    • Const. Robin Cameron, 29: Spiritwood Detachment
    • Const. Marc Bourdages, 26: Spiritwood Detachment

    Dagenais was subsequently convicted of two counts of murder and one count of attempted murder of a third Mountie who arrived shortly after the initial firefight.

    In 2006, the United States Coast Guard’s Ninth District and the RCMP began a program called «Shipr >[18]

    On December 6, 2006, RCMP Commissioner Giuliano Zaccardelli resigned one day after informing the House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security that his earlier testimony about the Maher Arar case was inaccurate. The RCMP had improperly given information to the US that resulted in Arar, a Canadian returning to Montreal via the US, being sent to Syria where he was imprisoned for 10 months and tortured into signing a false confession of links to terrorists. [ citation needed ] Earlier, on September 28, 2006, and before the same Commons committee, Commissioner Zaccardelli had issued a carefully worded public apology to Arar and his family:

    Mr. Arar, I wish to take this opportunity to express publicly to you and to your wife and to your children how truly sorry I am for whatever part the actions of the RCMP may have contributed to the terrible injustices that you experienced and the pain that you and your family endured. [19]

    On January 26, 2007, after months of negotiations between the Canadian government and Arar’s Canadian legal counsel, Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a formal apology «for any role Canadian officials may have played in what happened to Mr. Arar, Monia Mazigh and their family in 2002 and 2003» [ citation needed ] and announced that Arar would receive $10.5 million settlement for his ordeal and an additional $1 million for legal costs.

    On October 6, 2007, Constable Christopher John Worden of Hay River Detachment, Northwest Territories was shot and killed in Hay River while on duty in that community. A nationwide arrest warrant was issued for Emrah Bulatci. Bulatci was apprehended on October 12 in Edmonton, Alberta.

    On October 14, 2007, Robert Dziekański, an emigrant from Poland, died at Vancouver International Airport. Dziekański had failed to clear Customs and after eight hours of loitering became agitated, perhaps because he spoke no English and therefore was unable to ask for assistance. Four RCMP officers were summoned after he threw a computer and a small table. During his arrest, he was Tasered at least twice within 25 seconds of the officers’ arrival. After dropping to the floor, he was held down and handcuffed by the officers. Paramedics pronounced him dead at the scene. The incident was videotaped and eventually released to the public, resulting in outrage over the RCMP’s handling of the unarmed man. The Dziekański confrontation has provoked considerable debate about the use of Tasers in policing.

    On November 6, 2007, Constable Doug Scott, 20, was killed in Kimmirut, Nunavut when responding to a report of a possible impaired driver. He had been with the service for only six months. [20]

    In 2007, the RCMP was named Newsmaker of the Year by The Canadian Press. [21]

    On June 3, 2013, the RCMP renamed its A Division to National Division. [22]

    History of the RCMP uniform Edit

    The RCMP are famous for their distinctive Red Serge, referred to as «Review Order» (of dress uniform), consisting of: high collared scarlet tunic, midnight blue breeches with yellow leg strip, Sam Browne belt with white sidearm lanyard, oxblood riding boots (possibly with spurs), brown felt campaign hat (wide, flat brimmed) with the characteristic «Montana crease», and brown gloves (with brown leather gauntlets for riders). Review Order is worn by the mounted troop performing the Musical Ride, an equestrian drill in which mounted members demonstrate their riding skills and handling of the cavalry lance. On normal duties, the RCMP uses standard police methods, equipment, and uniforms. Horses are still used for such ceremonial operations as escorting the Governor General’s open landau to the Opening of Parliament.

    The Red Serge tunic that >[23] when King Edward VII granted the Force «Royal» status for its service in the Second Boer War, replacing the scarlet facings of the earlier uniform. Currently, RCMP personnel under the rank of inspector wear blue «gorget» patches on the collar, while officers from inspector to commissioner have solid blue collars, along with blue pointed-sleeve cuffs.

    Reenactors portraying the NWMP K Troop.

    Initially the NWMP wore buff breeches. Later dark blue breeches with yellow-gold strapping (stripes) were adopted. Members of the NWMP were known to exchange kit with U.S. cavalry units along the border and it is suggested that this was the initial source for the breeches; however, blue breeches were considered early on, although with a white strap. Dark blue with yellow-gold strapping is another British cavalry tradition.

    The wide, flat-brimmed Stetson hat was not adopted officially until about 1904. Although the NWMP contingent at Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee wore the Stetson, it was an unofficial item of dress. The primary official summer headdress at the time was the white British foreign service helmet, also known as a pith helmet. This was not particularly practical as headdress in the Canadian west, and members wore a Stetson type hat on patrol and around camp. Sam Steele is often credited with introducing the Stetson-type hat, and when he left the force to command Lord Strathcona’s Horse and took the regiment to South Africa he also adopted the Stetson for this unit. For winter a Canadian military fur wedge cap or busby was worn.

    Black riding boots were later changed to the modern brown style called «Strathcona Boots» or informally as «high browns» (See link to Lord Strathcona’s Horse). The original crossbelts were later changed to the brown Sam Browne type currently worn. The brown colour of the boots and belt worn with the Red Serge come from the individual member applying numerous coats of polish, often during their time in training at Depot Division.

    Original spurs, referred to as «long shank spurs» were solid nickel, and often had the rowell replaced with a US «buffalo» nickel by the wearer, as using a Canadian nickel would be considered defacing the Monarch (the buffalo being associated to the Mounted Police capbadge). Owners of long shank spurs occasionally had their regimental number engraved on the inside. Long shank spurs have not been issued since 1968.

    Sidearms are standard now, but were often not worn in the early years.

    The everyday uniform consists of a grey shirt with dark blue tie, dark blue trousers with gold strapping, regular patrol boots called «ankle boots,» regular duty equipment, and a regular policeman’s style cap. A blue Gore-Tex open-collar jacket (patrol jacket) is worn by members on operational duty, while a dark blue jacket (blue serge), is worn by sergeant majors and certain non-commissioned officers (NCOs) usually involved in aspects of recruit training or media relations. Officers wear white shirts and the patrol jacket or blue serge, depending on their duties. Short-sleeved shirts with no tie are worn in the summer by all members except officers, who wear a tie with the short-sleeded shirt. Winter dress consists of a long-sleeved shirt without tie for all members except officers, who wear a tie with the long-sleeded shirt. Depending on the climate of the detachment area, heavier boots, winter coats (storm coats) and a fur cap are worn.

    In British Columbia the hat features a black bearskin rim belt.

    In 1990, Baltej Singh Dhillon became the first Sikh officer in the RCMP to be allowed to wear a turban instead of the traditional Stetson. On March 15, the federal government, despite protests, decided that Sikhs would be permitted to wear turbans while on duty as RCMP officers.

    Despite ongoing public pressure from groups such as the Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animals, [24] the RCMP continues to use muskrat fur in their winter dress uniform.

    Women in the RCMP Edit

    A female member of the RCMP rides at the 2008 Calgary Stampede

    On May 23, 1974, RCMP Commissioner Maurice Nadon announced that the RCMP would accept applications from females as regular members of the force. Troop 17 was the first group of 32 females at Depot in Regina on September 18 and 19, 1974 for regular training. This first all-female troop graduated from Depot on March 3, 1975.

    After initially wearing different unflattering uniforms, women officers were finally issued the standard RCMP uniforms. Now all officers are identically attired, with two exceptions. The ceremonial dress uniform, or «walking-out order», for female members has a long, blue skirt and higher-heeled slip-on pumps plus small black clutch purse. The second exception is the official maternity uniform for pregnant female officers assigned to administrative duties.

    The following years saw the first female attain certain positions.

    From December 15, 2006, to July 2007, Beverley Busson served as interim Commissioner of the RCMP, making her the first woman to hold the top position in the force. She was replaced by William J. S. Elliott on July 6, 2007, (Elliott was sworn in on July 16—the first civilian to lead the RCMP.) [26] [27]

    A regiment of dragoons Edit

    Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    150px
    Cap badge of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    Country Canada
    Service history
    Active 1873–present
    Role Federal, National & Paramilitary Police Force
    Size 15 divisions
    Nickname The Mounties
    Motto Maintiens le droit (Defend the law) [2] [28]
    Commanders
    Commanders Bob Paulson (Commissioner)HM The QueenHRH The Prince of Wales [29]
    Insignia
    Insignia 100px

    Although the RCMP is a civilian police force, in 1921, following the service of many of its members during the First World War, King George V awarded the force the status of a regiment of dragoons, entitling it to display the battle honours it had been awarded.

    Service in wartime Edit

    During the Second Boer War, members of the North-West Mounted Police were given leaves of absence to join the 2nd Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles (CMR) and Strathcona’s Horse. The force raised the Canadian Mounted Rifles, mostly from NWMP members, for service in South Africa. For the CMR’s distinguished service there, King Edward VII honoured the NWMP by changing the name to the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP) on June 24, 1904.

    During the First World War, the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP) conducted border patrols, surveillance of enemy aliens, and enforcement of national security regulations within Canada. However, RNWMP officers also served overseas. On August 6, 1914, a squadron of volunteers from the RNWMP was formed to serve with the Canadian Light Horse in France. In 1918, two more squadrons were raised, A Squadron for service in France and Flanders and B Squadron for service in the Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force

    In 1939, No. 1 Provost Company (RCMP), Canadian Provost Corps, was raised for service in Europe and served throughout the Second World War as military police.

    Honours Edit

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police were accorded the status of a regiment of Dragoons in 1921, with its first gu >[30] [31] As a regiment of dragoons, the RCMP was entitled to wear battle honours for its war service as well as carry a guidon. The RCMP mounted the King’s Life Guard at Horse Guards Parade in 1937 leading up to the coronation of King George VI.

    Battle honours

    • North West Canada 1885
    • South Africa 1900–2
    • The Great War: France and Flanders 1918, Siberia 1918–19
    • The Second World War: Europe, 1939–45

    Honorary distinction

    • The badge of the Canadian Provost Corps (Military Police), presented September 21, 1957, at a Parliament Hill ceremony for contributions to the Corps during the Second World War

    Legacy Edit

    In 1975, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police dedicated a memorial bes >[32]

    Organization Edit

    International Edit

    The RCMP International Operations Branch assists the Liaison Officer (LO) Program to deter international crime relating to Canadian criminal laws. The IOB is a section of the International Policing, which is part of the RCMP Federal and International Operations Directorate. Thirty-seven Liaison Officers are placed in 26 other countries and are responsible for organizing Canadian investigations in other countries, developing and maintaining the exchange of criminal intelligence, especially national security with other countries, to prov >[33] Liaison Officers are located in:

    • Amman
    • Bangkok
    • Beijing
    • Berlin
    • Bogotá
    • Brasília
    • Caracas
    • Dubai
    • The Hague
    • Hong Kong
    • Islamabad
    • Kingston
    • Kuala Lumpur
    • London
    • Mexico City
    • Miami
    • New Delhi
    • New York City
    • Paris
    • Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
    • Pretoria
    • Rabat
    • Rome
    • Santo Domingo
    • Seattle
    • Washington, D.C.

    The RCMP was a member agency in the Afghan Threat Finance Cell, and RCMP officers were embedded with military units in Afghanistan. [34]

    National Edit

    RCMP Corporal with LTL shotgun in Vancouver

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is organized under the authority of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act. In accordance with the Act, it is headed by the Commissioner, who, under the direction of the Minister of Public Safety, has the control and management of the Force and all matters connected therewith.

    The Commissioner is assisted by Deputy Commissioners in charge of: [35]

    • Federal and International Policing
    • Police Support Services
    • Contract and Aboriginal Policing
    • Human Resources
    • East
      • Ontario («O» Division)
      • National Division (Formerly «A» Division)
      • National Headquarters,
      • Quebec («C» Division)
      • New Brunswick («J» Division)
      • Nova Scotia («H» Division)
      • Prince Edward Island («L» Division)
      • Newfoundland and Labrador («B» Division)
    • West
      • British Columbia («E» Division)
      • Alberta («K» Division)
      • Saskatchewan («F» Division)
      • Manitoba («D» Division)
      • Yukon («M» Division)
      • Northwest Territories («G» Division)
      • Nunavut («V» Division)

    Regional Edit

    In 1996, the RCMP began moving towards a more regional management system under the direction of deputy commissioners. These are: Pacific, Northwestern, Central and Atlantic. This was done to allow greater grass-roots involvement in decision-making and also allows the RCMP to invest more resources into frontline services.

    The RCMP div >[36] at Innisfail, Alberta. The RCMP headquarters are located in Ottawa, Ontario.

    Mountie in Banff, Alberta

    • National Division (Fomerly A Division): National Capital Region (Ottawa, Ontario, and Gatineau, Quebec) [37]
    • B Division: Newfoundland and Labrador [38]
    • C Division: Quebec [39]
    • D Division: Manitoba [40]
    • E Division: British Columbia [41]
    • F Division: Saskatchewan [42]
    • G Division: Northwest Territories [43]
    • H Division: Nova Scotia [44]
    • J Division: New Brunswick [45]
    • K Division: Alberta [46]
    • L Division: Prince Edward Island [47]
    • M Division: Yukon [48]
    • O Division: Ontario [49]
    • V Division: Nunavut [50]
    • Depot Division at Regina and the Police Dog Service Training Centre [36] at Innisfail.

    Personal Protection Group Edit

    The Personal Protection Group or PPG is a 180 member group responsible for security details for VIPs, the Prime Minister, and the Governor General. [51] It was created after the 1995 inc >[52]

    Units under the PPG consists of:

    • Prime Minister Protective Detail provides bodyguards to protect the Prime Minister of Canada in Canada and abroad. This unit is based in Ottawa with operations at 24 Sussex Drive and Harrington Lake near Chelsea, Quebec.

    Governor General’s Protection Detail provides bodyguards to protect the Governor General of Canada in Canada and abroad. This unit is based in Ottawa with operations at Rideau Hall.

    Very Important Persons Security Section (VIPSS) provides security details to VIP (including the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, federal ministers, and diplomats) and others under the direction of the Minister of Public Safety.

    Personnel Edit

    RCMP Officer in service

    As of August 2, 2014 ( 2014-08-02 ) [update] , the RCMP employed 28,641 men and women, including police officers, civilian members, and Public Service Employees. [6]

    Actual personnel strength by ranks:

    • Commissioner 1
    • Deputy commissioner 6
    • Assistant commissioner 27
    • Chief superintendent 58
    • Superintendent 170
    • Inspector 380
    • Corps sergeant major 2
    • Sergeants major 3
    • Staff sergeants major 15
    • Staff sergeants 862
    • Sergeants 2,015
    • Corporals 3,586
    • Constables 11,566
    • Special constables 68
    • Civilian members 3,794
    • Public servants 6,088
    • Total 28,641

    Regular members Edit

    RCMP in everyday uniform

    The term regular member, or RM, originates from the RCMP Act and refers to the 18,988 regular RCMP officers who are trained and sworn as peace officers, and include all the ranks from constable to commissioner. They are the police officers of the RCMP and are responsible for investigating crime and have the authority to make arrests. RMs operate in over 750 detachments, including 200 municipalities and more than 600 Aboriginal communities. RMs are normally assigned to general policing duties at an RCMP detachment for a minimum of three years. These duties allow them to experience a broad range of assignments and experiences, such as responding to alarms, foot patrol, bicycle patrol, traffic enforcement, collecting evidence at crime scenes, testifying in court, apprehending criminals and plain clothes duties. Regular members also serve in over 150 different types of operational and administrative opportunities available within the RCMP, these include: major crime investigations, emergency response, forensic identification, forensic collision reconstruction, international peacekeeping, bike or marine patrol, explosives disposal and police dog services. Also included are administrative roles including human resources, corporate planning, policy analysis and public affairs.

    Auxiliary constables and other staff Edit

    Besides the regular RCMP officers, several types of designations exist which give them assorted powers and responsibilities over policing issues.

    Currently, there are:

    • Auxiliary Constables: 2,400+ [53]
    • Community Safety Officers: 16
    • Reserve Constables : not reported
    • Aboriginal Community Constables: 7 [54]
    • Special Constables: 78 [6]
    • Civilian Members: 3,760 [6]
    • Public servants: 6,194 [6]

    Auxiliary constables (A/Cst.) Volunteers within their own community, appointed under provincial police acts. [53] They are not police officers and can not identify themselves as such. However, they are given peace officer powers when on duty with a regular member (RM). Their duties consist mainly of assisting the RM in routine events, for example cordoning off crime scene areas, crowd control, participating in community policing, assistance during situations where regular members might be overwhelmed with their duties (e.g., keep watch of a backseat detainee while RM interviews a victim). They are identified by the wording of «RCMP Auxiliary» on cars, jackets and shoulder flashes. Community Safety Officers (CSO) In 2008, a new designation within the RCMP in British Columbia was created based on the UK Police Community Support Officer program. Community safety officers are pa >[55][56] CSOs work with regular members in five areas: community safety; crime prevention; traffic support; community policing and investigation support. [57] They are peace officers but are not police officers. [58] CSOs are appointed as special constable under the RCMP Act. [59] Reserve Constables (R/Cst.) A program reinstated in 2004 in British Columbia to allow for retired, regular RCMP members or other provincially trained officers to prov >[60] R/Cst. are appointed under Section 11 of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act as pa >[61] However, they are not allowed to carry force-issued s >[60] They generally carry out community policing roles but may also be called upon if an emergency occurs. [60][62] Aboriginal Community Constables (ACC) A pilot program that began in April 2011 where ACCs are armed, uniformed peace officers who are engaged in policing activities in their home First Nations and Inuit communities in Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Alberta, and Nunavut. [59] Their function is to engage their communities in active crime prevention/reduction activities, and building positive relationships between their communities and the RCMP but can also prov >[59][63]Special constables (S/Cst.) Employees of the RCMP, they have varied duties depending on where they are deployed, but are often given this designation because of an expertise they possess which needs to be applied in a certain area. For example, an Aboriginal person might be appointed a special constable in order to assist regular members as they police an Aboriginal community where English is not well understood, and where the special constable speaks the language well. From the early years of policing in northern Canada, and well into the 1950s, local aboriginal people were hired by the RCMP as special constables and were employed as guides and to obtain and care for sled dog teams. Many of these former special constables still reside in the North to this day and are still involved in regimental functions of the RCMP.

    A row of uniforms

    Civilian members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police While not delegated the powers of police officers, they are instead hired for their specialized scientific, technological, communications and administrative skills. Since the RCMP is a multi-faceted law enforcement organization with responsibilities for federal, provincial and municipal policing duties, it offers employment opportunities for civilian members as professional partners within Canada’s national police force.

    Civilian members represent approximately 14% of the total RCMP employee population, and are employed within RCMP establishments in most geographical areas of Canada. The following is a list of the most common categories of employment that may be available to interested and qualified individuals.

    • Operations
      • Telecommunications Operator (Dispatcher) [64]
    • Scientific
      • Toxicology
      • Chemistry
      • Biology – DNA
      • Law
    • Technical
      • Forensic Identification Services
      • Instrument Technology
      • Document Examination
      • Counterfeit Analysis
      • Firearms Technology
      • Electronics Technology
      • Information Technology
      • Communications
      • Computer systems development
      • Telecommunications
      • Information Services/Public Affairs
    • Administrative
      • Policy Development & Analysis
      • Staff Development & Training
      • Human Resource Management
      • Translation
      • Police Records Information Management Environment (PRIME-BC)

    Public Service Employees Also referred to as Public Servants, PSes or PSEs, they provide much of the administrative support for the RCMP in the form of detachment clerks and other administrative support at the headquarters level. They are not police officers, do not wear a uniform, have no police authority and are not bound by the RCMP Act. Municipal Employees

    Abbreviated as «ME» they are found in RCMP detachments where a contract exists with a municipality to provide front-line policing. MEs are not actually employees of the RCMP, but are instead employed by the local municipality to work in the RCMP detachment. They conduct the same duties that a PSE would and are required to meet the same reliability and security clearance to do so. Many detachment buildings house a combination of municipal and provincially funded detachments, and therefore there are often PSEs and MEs found working together in them.

    Ranks Edit

    The rank system of the RCMP illustrates their origin as a paramilitary force. The insignia were based upon the Canadian Army of the time, which is almost >[65]

    The numbers are current as of September 1, 2011 [6]

    Rank Structure of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    Commissioned officers
    Commissioner
    Commissaire
    1
    Crown over Bath star over crossed sword and baton
    Deputy Commissioner
    Sous-commissaire
    9
    Assistant Commissioner
    Commissaire adjoint
    25
    Crown over crossed sword and baton Crown over three Bath stars
    Chief Superintendent
    Surintendant principal
    51
    Superintendent
    Surintendant
    186
    Crown over two Bath stars Crown over a Bath star
    Inspector
    Inspecteur
    440
    Crown
    Non-commissioned officers
    Corps Sergeant Major
    Sergent-major du corps
    1
    Sergeant Major
    Sergent-major
    3
    Staff Sergeant Major
    Sergent-major d’état major
    16
    Staff Sergeant
    Sergent d’état-major
    942
    Sergeant
    Sergent
    2,140
    1957 version of the Royal Arms of Canada upon a wreath Crown over four downward-pointing chevrons Wreathed crown Four upward-pointing chevrons crown over three downward-pointing chevrons
    Corporal
    Caporal
    3,672
    Constable
    Gendarme
    11,717
    Two downward-pointing chevrons No insignia

    The ranks of inspector and higher are commissioned ranks and are appointed by the Governor-in-Council. Depending on the dress, badges are worn on the shoulder as slip-ons, on shoulder boards, or directly on the epaulettes. The lower ranks are non-commissioned officers and the insignia continues to be based on British army patterns. Since 1990, the non-commissioned officers’ rank insignia has been embroidered on the epaulette slip-ons. Non-commissioned rank badges are worn on the right sleeve of the scarlet/blue tunic and blue jacket. The constables wear no rank insignia. There are also special constables, auxiliary constables, and students who wear identifying insignia.

    The Bath star represents the military Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath.

    Equipment and vehicles Edit

    Land fleet Edit

    An emergency command vehicle in Burnaby, British Columbia

    RCMP truck at the G20 summit in Toronto

    RCMP Land Transport Fleet Inventory includes: [66]

    • Cars: 5,330
    • Unmarked vehicles: 2,811
    • Light Trucks: 2,090
    • Heavy Trucks: 123
    • SUV’s: 616
    • Motorcycles: 34
    • Small snowmobiles: 481
    • All-terrain vehicles: 181
    • Gas railway car: 1
    • Tractors: 27
    • Buses: 3
    • Total: 11,697

    Marine craft Edit

    RCMP-CCG vessel Simmonds with CCGS Cape Hurd

    The RCMP is responsible for policing in Canadian Internal Waters, including the territorial sea and contiguous zone as well as the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence Seaway; such operations are provided by the RCMP’s Federal Services Directorate and includes enforcing Canada’s environment, fisheries, customs and immigration laws. In provinces and municipalities where the RCMP performs contract policing, the force is also responsible for policing on freshwater lakes and rivers.

    To meet these challenges, the RCMP operates what is known as the Marine Division, with five Robert Allan Ltd.–designed high-speed catamaran patrol vessels; Inkster and the Commissioner— >[67] The boats have the RCMP badge, but are painted with Canadian Coast Guard colours and marking Coast Guard Police.

    The RCMP owns and operates 377 smaller boats at various locations across Canada, this number comprising all vessels less than 9.2 m (30 ft) long. This category ranges from canoes and car toppers [ Clarification needed ] to rig >[67]

    RCMP Ship Fleet

    Ship Name Type Class Base Specifications Propulsion Top Speed Builder Year Commissioned Crew
    Inkster Patrol vessel n/a Prince Rupert, BC 19.75 m (64.8 ft)
    fast patrol aluminum catamaran
    25 kn (46 km/h; 29 mph)+ Allied Shipbuilders Limited of North Vancouver, BC 1996 4
    Nadon Patrol vessel Commissioner Class PV (Raven Class) Nanaimo, BC 17.7 m (58 ft)
    fast patrol catamaran
    2 × 820 hp (610 kW) D2840 LE401 V-10 MAN Diesel engines 36 kn (67 km/h; 41 mph) Robert Allan Ltd. 1991 4
    Higgitt Patrol vessel Commissioner Class PV Campbell River, BC 17.7 m (58 ft)
    fast patrol catamaran
    2 × 820 hp (610 kW) D2840 LE401 V-10 MAN Diesel engines 36 kn (67 km/h; 41 mph) Robert Allan Ltd. 1992 4
    Lindsay Patrol vessel Commissioner Class PV Patricia Bay, Victoria, BC 17.7 m (58 ft)
    fast patrol catamaran
    2 × 820 hp (610 kW) D2840 LE401 V-10 MAN Diesel engines 36 kn (67 km/h; 41 mph) Robert Allan Ltd. 1993 4
    Simmons Patrol vessel Commissioner Class PV South coast Newfoundland 17.7 m (58 ft)
    fast patrol catamaran
    2 × 820 hp (610 kW) D2840 LE401 V-10 MAN Diesel engines 36 kn (67 km/h; 41 mph) Robert Allan Ltd. 1995 4

    Aircraft fleet Edit

    Royal Canadian Mounted Police Pilatus PC-12, Winnipeg c. 2007

    Royal Canadian Mounted Police Cessna Caravan on floats at Vancouver International Airport.

    As of January 2011 the RCMP had 42 aircraft (10 helicopters and 32 fixed-wing aircraft) registered with Transport Canada (TC). [68] and 41, the Quest Kodiak is not shown, listed on the RCMP Air Services website. [69] All aircraft are operated and maintained by the Air Services Branch. Only the Twin Otter and the Avanti are twin-engine aircraft, all the others, including the helicopters, are single engine.

    RCMP Fleet

    Aircraft Number
    (TC) [68]
    Variants Notes
    Aérospatiale AS350 8 AS 350B3 Helicopter, AStar 350 or «Squirrel»
    Cessna 206 Stationair 6 U206G, T206H Fixed wing, Stationair (Station wagon of the Air), general aviation aircraft
    Cessna 208 Caravan 3 208, 208B Fixed wing, Caravan, short-haul regional airliner and utility aircraft
    Cessna 210 Centurion 4 210R Fixed wing, Centurion, high-performance general aviation aircraft
    Twin Otter 2 300 Series Fixed wing, 20-passenger STOL feederliner and utility aircraft
    Eurocopter EC120 Colibri 2 EC 120B Light helicopter, «Hummingbird»
    Piaggio P180 Avanti 1 P180 Fixed wing, business aircraft, pusher configured
    Pilatus PC-12 15 PC-12/45, PC-12/47, PC-12/47E Fixed wing, turboprop passenger and cargo aircraft
    Quest Kodiak 1 100 Fixed wing, un-pressurized, turboprop-powered fixed-tricycle-gear, STOL

    Equipment Edit

    RCMP issue Smith & Wesson Model 5946 service pistol with Hogue grip

    Past equipment Edit

    • Fabrique Nationale (FN) C1A1 variant of the FN FAL
    • .30-30 Winchester
    • Lee-EnfieldNo.4 Mk1
    • Winchester ’76 rifle
    • Enfield Mark II revolver
    • Adams revolver
    • Webley & ScottBull Dog revolver [70]
    • Colt New Service revolver
    • Smith & Wesson Model 10 revolver
    • Smith & Wesson Model 3 revolver
    • Sn >Popular awareness of the RCMP Edit

    A collection of RCMP souvenirs from around Canada.

    The Mounties have been immortalized as symbols of Canadian culture in numerous Hollywood Northwestern movies and television series, which often feature the image of the Mountie as square-jawed, stoic, and polite, yet with a steely determination and physical toughness that sometimes appears superhuman. Coupled with the adage that the Mountie «always gets his man,» the image projects them as fearsome, incorruptible, dogged yet gentle champions of the law. The RCMP’s motto is actually Maintiens le droit, French for «Defending the Law». [1] [2] The Hollywood motto derives from a comment by a Montana newspaper, the Fort Benton Record: «They fetch their man every time». [71]

    Early depictions Edit

    In 1912, Ralph Connor’s Corporal Cameron of the North-West Mounted Police: A Tale of the MacLeod Trail appeared, becoming an international best-selling novel. Mounties fiction became a popular genre in both pulp magazines and book form. Among the best-selling authors who specialized in tales of the Mounted Police were James Oliver Curwood, Laurie York Erskine, James B Hendryx, T Lund, Harwood Steele (the son of Sam Steele), and William Byron Mowery.

    In other media, a famous example is the radio and television series, Sergeant Preston of the Yukon. Dudley Do-Right (of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show) is a 1960s example of the comic aspect of the Mountie myth, as is Klondike Kat, from Total Television. The Broadway musical and Hollywood movie Rose-Marie is a 1930s example of its romantic side. A successful combination were a series of Renfrew of the Royal Mounted boy’s adventure novels written by Laurie York Erskine beginning in 1922 running to 1941. In the 1930s Erskine narrated a Sgt Renfrew of the Mounties radio show and a series of films with actor-singer James Newill playing Renfrew were released between 1937 and 1940. In 1953 portions of the films were mixed with new sequences of Newill for a Renfrew of the Mounted television series.

    A former Mounted Police corporal (1919–1923), Bruce Carruthers, served as an unofficial technical advisor to Hollywood in many films with RCMP characters. [72]

    Modern culture Edit

    In 1959, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation aired R.C.M.P., a half hour dramatic series about an R.C.M.P. detachment keeping the peace and fighting crime. Filmed in black and white, in and around Ottawa by Crawley Films, the series was co-produced with the BBC and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and ran for 39 episodes. It was noted for its pairing of Québécois and Anglo officers.

    Canadians also poke fun at the RCMP with Sergeant Renfrew and his faithful dog Cuddles in various sketches produced by the Royal Canadian Air Farce comedy troupe. On That ’70s Show Mounties were played by SCTV alumni Joe Flaherty and Dave Thomas. The British have also exploited the myth: the BBC television series Monty Python’s Flying Circus featured a group of Mounties singing the chorus in The Lumberjack Song in the lumberjack sketch.

    The Mounties on parade in Iqaluit, Canada Day, 1999.

    The 1972–90 CBC series The Beachcombers featured a character named Constable John Constable who attempted to enforce the law in the town of Gibsons, British Columbia.

    In comic books, the Marvel Comics characters of Alpha Flight were described on several occasions as «RCMP auxiliaries,» and two of their members, Snowbird and the second Major Mapleleaf were depicted as serving members of the force. In the latter case, due to trademark issues, Major Mapleleaf was described as a «Royal Canadian Mountie» in the opening roll call pages of each issue of Alpha Flight he appeared in.

    Charles Bronson and Lee Marvin starred in the 1981 movie Death Hunt that fictionalized the RCMP pursuit of Albert Johnson.

    In the early 1990s, Canadian professional wrestler Jacques Rougeau utilized the gimmick of «The Mountie» while wrestling for the WWF. He typically wore the Red Serge to the ring, and carried a shock stick as an illegal weapon. As his character was portrayed as an evil Mountie, the RCMP ultimately won an injunction preventing Rougeau from wrestling as this character in Canada, though he was not prevented from doing so outside the country. He briefly held the Intercontinental Championship in 1992.

    The 1998 swan song of Nick Berry’s time on UK drama Heartbeat featured his character, Sergeant Nick Rowan, transferring to Canada and taking the rank of constable in the Mounties. The special telemovie was titled Heartbeat: Changing Places.

    In the 1994–98 TV series Due South paired a Mountie, (and his deaf half-wolf) with a streetwise American detective cleaning up the streets of Chicago, mainly deriving its entertainment from the perceived differences in attitude between these two countries’ police forces.

    A pair of Mounties staffed the RCMP detachment in the fictional town of Lynx River, Northwest Territories, in the CBC series North of 60. The series, which aired from 1992 to 1998, was about events in the mostly native community, but the Mounties featured prominently in each episode.

    Another TV series from the 1990s, Bordertown featured a NWMP corporal paired with a U.S. marshal securing law and order on a frontier U.S.-Canadian bordertown. In the ABC TV mini-series Answered by Fire, at least three mounties are featured.

    The 1987 Brian De Palma film The Untouchables featured cooperation between the Treasury Department task force, led by Eliot Ness, and the Mounties against liquor smuggling across the American-Canadian border.

    The 1995 album C’est Cheese by Canadian musical comedy group The Arrogant Worms includes «The Mountie Song», which tells the story of a dissatisfied Mountie.

    In his 1999 album Soiree Newfoundland musician A. Frank Willis included «Savage Cop in Savage Cove» which was based on a true story & went on to become a big hit. [73]

    Mountie merchandise Edit

    There are products and merchandise that are made in the image of the RCMP, like Mounties statues or hats. Before 1995, the RCMP had little control over these products.

    The RCMP Heritage Centre is a multi-million dollar museum designed by Arthur Erickson that opened May 2007 in Regina, Saskatchewan at the RCMP Academy, Depot Division. It replaced the old RCMP museum and is designed to celebrate the role of the force in Canada’s history.

    Trademark Edit

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police received an international license on April 1, 1995, requiring those who use the RCMP to pay a licensing fee. Proceeds from the fees is used for community awareness programmes. [74] Those that do not pay the licensing fee are legally unable to use the name of the RCMP or their correct uniforms, though a film such as Canadian Bacon used the name «Royal Mounted Canadian Police» (RMCP) and the character in the Dudley Do-Right film did not wear accurate insignia.

    Through a Master Licensing Agreement (MLA) with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the RCMP Foundation is responsible for managing the commercial use of the RCMP name, image, and protected marks. [75] The Foundation issues selected companies a royalty-based agreement allowing them to produce and market high quality official RCMP merchandise. Walt Disney Co. (Canada) Ltd. was contracted to a >[76] but contrary to popular belief, Disney never owned or controlled any of the RCMP’s protected marks.

    Following the expiration of the Disney contract in 2000, all responsibilities and activities were taken over by the then Executive Director and his staff, reporting to the Foundation President and Board of Directors. In 2007, through a decree signed by Commissioner Beverley Busson, the operating name was changed to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Foundation.

    Criticism Edit

    American historian Andrew Graybill has argued that the Mounted Police closely resemble the Texas Rangers in many ways. He argues that each protected the established order by confining and removing Indians, by tightly controlling the mixed blood peoples (the African Americans in Texas and the Métis in Canada), assisted the large-scale ranchers against the small-scale ranchers and farmers who fenced the land, and broke the power of labor unions that tried to organize the workers of industrial corporations. [77]

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