CRS fluctuations Канада


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Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS)

All skilled immigration applicants that are eligible for the Express Entry System will be placed into the pool of candidates. Candidates in the pool are then ranked using the Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS). The CRS is used to determine which applicants in the pool will be invited to apply for permanent residence.

For more information on the Pool of Candidates, click here.

The CRS is a points-based system that gives a score to a candidate based on the information in the candidate’s profile. These scores allow candidates in the pool to be ranked against each other. Applicants are given points based on the following factors:

  • Skills
  • Work experience
  • Language ability
  • Language ability and education of the applicant’s spouse or common law partner
  • Possession of a job offer supported by a positive Labour Market Impact Assessment
  • Possession of a provincial government nomination for permanent residence
  • Certain combinations of language skills, education and work experience that result in a higher chance of the applicant becoming employed (skill transferability).

Using these factors, applicants will be given a score out of a maximum of 1,200 points. The highest ranked applicants will be offered an invitation to apply for permanent residence (ITA) during period draws.

For more information on ITAs, click here.

The CRS prioritizes applicants who are likely to successfully settle and have a positive economic impact within Canada. For this reason, having an approved job offer or a provincial nomination for permanent residence will have a very positive impact on an applicant’s score.

Having an approved job offer in a managerial field (National Occupation Classification 00) is worth 200 points, while all other job offers (NOC O, A, B) is worth 50 points. Both points allocations will serve to significantly strengthen a candidate’s profile.

A provincial nomination will automatically result in 600 points being given to an applicant. This allocation of points will almost always guarantee that a candidate will receive an invitation to apply for permanent residence.

Compare previous draws to learn the minimum cut off scores needed to qualify for an ITA here.

For more information on Job Offers, click here.

For more information on Provincial and Territorial Nominee Programs, click here.

For an in-depth description of the CRS, click here.

Interested employers: Kindly contact us here to receive further information.

Interested candidates: Find out whether you qualify to Canada by completing our free on-line evaluation. We will provide you with our evaluation within 1-2 business days.

CRS Points Calculator 2020

With the Canada CRS Calculator you can calculate your Canada Immigration point score in less than a minute. Just select the right option from the drop downs given in the below calculator and calculate your points score by clicking on the Calculate button in the end. After selecting, the essential fields (i.e. regarding age, education, work experience, language skills, marital status, etc.)from the given drop downs, the calculator will show your total express entry CRS score on clicking the calculate button given in the end of the calculator.

Important : To apply Canada PR first check your eligibility through CRS Calculator which given below or talk to an our experts here directly and know about your points.

This tool will help you calculate your Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) score based on the answers you provide below.

Congratulations! You have successfully calculated your points to create your profile on Express Entry System.

To know the suitable immigration program (i.e. Express Entry or PNP) to apply Canada PR, based on this point score, please fill the form given below

Your CRS Score result

The candidates applying in Express entry System, get a points out of 1,200, based on the 4 parts of the CRS (Comprehensive Ranking System) formula

The IRCC invites the top rankingapplicants from the Express entry pool to apply for permanent residency in Canada, through periodicdraws or “rounds of invitations.”

What is CRS score?

The Comprehensive Ranking System or CRS is a point system employed by Canadian government or IRCC (Immigration Refugees and Citizenship Canada) to assess the applicants submitting their profile in Federal Express Entry System. The EE system assess the applicants registered in the system and accordingly, issue invite to the ones, who get selected based on the fortnightly draw.

What is Express Entry system?

Express Entry is the online immigration system through which Canadian government invite the foreign skilled workers to apply for permanent residency in Canada. The IRCC holds periodic draws to select the candidates with top CRS Score from the Express Entry Pool. The Canada CRS calculator is used to determine the point score of the applicants registered in the EE pool. The IRCC announce cut off marks for every express entry draw, and accordingly select the applicants matching or exceeding the cut off marks for each draw. Hence, higher the CRS score, stronger are your chances of receiving the invitation to apply for permanent residency in Canada.

Key Point allocation factors of CRS Point Calculator

Canada CRS Point calculator allocate points to the applicants based on four main factors. Out of the total four factors, cumulative of 3 factors is 600 points, i.e.

A. Core/human capital + B. Spouse or common-law partner + C. Transferability factors = Maximum 600 points.

The fourth factor, i.e. D. Additional points alone has weight age of 600 points. Hence, the total of all four factors make of CRS tool, makes total 1200 points, i.e.

A.Core/human capital + B. Spouse or common-law partner factors + C. Transferability factors + D. Additional points = 1,200 points.

Hence, the marks are allocated to the express entry candidates out of total 1200 points in the Canada CRS Tool. Let’s take a look at the description of all four factors of the CRS calculator.

(1.) Core Human Capital Factors: The core Human Capital factors comprise core aspects of the profile of an applicant, i.e.

  • Age
  • Education level
  • Official Language proficiency
  • Canadian work experience

(2.) Spouse/Common-law partner Factor: Spouse/Common-law partner factor comprise qualification, language Skills and work experience of the spouse or common law partner of the primary applicant.

(3.) Skill Transfer ability Factors: Skill Transfer ability factors comprise transfer ability factors of an applicant in terms of Education and work experience, i.e.

  • With good/strong official languages proficiency and a post-secondary degree
  • With Canadian work experience and a post-secondary degree
  • With good/strong official languages proficiency (Canadian Language Benchmark [CLB] level 7 or higher) and foreign work experience
  • With Canadian work experience and foreign work experience

(4.) Additional Points: an applicant can also win some extra or bonus points up to 600, based on the following factors.

  • Brother or sister living in Canada (citizen or permanent resident)
  • French language skills
  • Post-secondary education in Canada
  • Arranged employment
  • PN nomination

Based on the above mentioned factors of Express entry system, the points of the candidates are calculated in the EE pool based on the Comprehensive Ranking System of evaluating the registered applicant in the pool.

Once the applicant score the eligibility points, i.e. 67 points in FSW Canada immigration points calculator, the applicant finds place in the express entry pool, where he gets the CRS point score based on the same selection factors as mentioned above.

The IRCC opens a draw every fortnight to select the top ranking candidates in the pool and subsequently issue them the Invitation to apply (ITA) for Canadian permanent residency, the applicant then need to submit complete Permanent residency application as well as the essential documents within the period of 60 days from the day when invitation was received by the applicant.

Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) Table for Points Allocation

If you want to obtain Permanent Residency in Canada in 2020, it is crucial to calculate CRS score well in advance. The Express Entry Immigration Points table-2020 provides you the key information, as to how many points you may earn for each factor of your profile, i.e. age, education, work experience, language proficiency, etc.

The IRCC will launch a draw every fortnight to select applicants with top CRS score and subsequently allocate them ITA (Invitation to Apply) for Canada PR. The IRCC announces the cut off marks or minimum CRS SCORE Requirement for every draw, which ranges between 430 and 460 (as per the latest EE draw trend). Hence, if you are planning to apply PR in the maple leaf country and has obtained the necessary documents as well, you must calculate your points on the given CRS Tool on this page.

What is minimum CRS score requirement to get Canada PR in 2020?

As mentioned already, the CRS score requirement is different for every express entry draw, which is announced by the Immigration Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). This year, the CRS score requirement has been moderate this the month of March. It went down to lowest requirement of past one and half year, i.e. 438 CRS, points, however, in next few draws, the point’s requirement increased drastically.

As per the latest EE draw opened on March 6, 2020, the CRS score requirement was 454 CRS Points. Hence, considering the current trend of the EE draws and cut off marks, the applicants, who intend to get the Invitation to Apply (ITA) for Canadian permanent residency, need to have the CRS point score close to the 450 mark. However, if your CRS score is quite low, due to which, you are not receiving the Canada PR invitation from Immigration Refugees and Citizenship Canada, you may increase your CRS point score through various ways. Let’s take a look.

How can you increase your CRS score to get Express Entry Canada PR Invitation?

If you have not been able to receive the Canada PR invitation since long, you don’t need to be disappointed, as you can still increase your CRS score and subsequently, get the invitation for Canada PR. The best option you have is to apply in a Provincial Nominee Program (PNP). Almost every Province in Canada has a PNP, through which, it invite the skilled and talented people to support the labour market and economy of the province. The PNPs also have relatively relaxed points as well as process requirements, compared to federal immigration system, which makes the life easy for the applicants.

How to increase your CRS score through a Provincial Nominee Program?

Every provincial nominee program in Canada has different process, eligibility requirements as well as streams. The express Entry stream of a PNP is highly popular among the immigration applicants. If you apply and get selected in EE stream of a provincial nominee program, you become eligible for nomination to apply Canadian permanent residency. However, you need to have your account registered in federal express entry stream under any of the below three categories of the EE system, i.e.

  • Federal Skilled worker (FSW)
  • Federal Skilled Trades (FST)
  • Canadian Experience Class (CEC)

Based on the provincial nomination, you get 600 additional CRS points in express entry system. Calculate CRS score after receiving such huge additional points, and you will find that you got a massive score (closed to 1000 mark). Such massive Express entry score ensures that you get the Invitation to Apply (ITA) for Canadian permanent residency in the very next draw of federal EE system.

How to apply in the EE stream of a PNP?

As mentioned above, you need to have account in EE system if you are willing to apply in the EE stream of a PNP and also meet the basic eligibility criteria. Now, to apply in the EE stream, there are two pathways, depending on the PNP you have chosen to apply, i.e.

  • Receive NOI first: A PNP access the Express entry pool, explore the submitted EE profiles and subsequently, issue the Notification of Interest to the applicants who meet the basic parameters of the given EE stream of the relevant PNP. On receipt of the NOI, the applicant applies in the EE stream of a PNP by submitting his/her EOI (Expression of Interest). The Ontario Immigrant Nominee Program (OINP) follows this process.
  • Submit EOI: In second pathway, the applicant who has an express entry account can directly submit the EOI (Expression of Interest) in the Express entry stream of a PNP. The Saskatchewan Immigrant Nominee Program (SINP) follows this process. The SINP introduced the EOI (Expression of Interest)

Once you submit the Expression of Interest (EOI), the province assess the submitted EOI profiles, and subsequently, issue the Invitation to Apply for provincial nomination to the selected applicants.

What are the other ways to increase your CRS score?

Find below the other ways to increase you Express entry CRS point score:

  • Extra points for good French Skills: You can get extra points for your good French skills (NCLC 7 or higher on all 4 French language skills)as per below arrangement:
    • 15 extra points if you scored CLB 4 or lower in English (or you have not had an English test); or
    • 30 extra points if you scored CLB 5 or higher on all four English skills
  • Bonus points for Sibling in Canada: you can get 15 additional points, if you or your spouse have a sibling living in Canada as permanent resident or citizen.
  • Arranged employment: Although, it’s not compulsory these days, however, if you have a job offer from Canadian employer, you can get additional CRS points based on the same.
  • Increase your language proficiency: If your first language proficiency score (i.e. IELTS test score in English) is not very high, you can sit in the test again to increase your band score and hence, get the additional CRS points based on the same.
  • Enhance the Educational Qualification: You can also earn some extra points by enhancing your educational qualification. For instance, if you are graduate, you can get Master’s degree to earn higher points, moreover, Doctoral degree (i.e. PhD you can earn maximum points).
  • More Work Experience: Gaining more Work Experience and adding the same in your resume can help you earn some express entry valuable CRS points.

Now, if you need assistance to enhance your point score through PNP or other pathways, in order to win the Canadian PR invitation from IRCC this year, you may get in touch with a trusted immigration consultant for inclusive process assistance. A consultant uses its experience and expertise to guide you through the process best way.

Get Assistance from Registered Immigration Consultant

In case, you need any help, advice and complete assistance to calculate your CRS score or increase your express entry point score to get the Canada PR invitation from IRCC (Immigration Refugees and Citizenship Canada), you may get in touch with IRCC Registered Migration experts at Visas Avenue Immigration.

Visas Avenue is largely popular and trusted Visa and Immigration Consultancy specialized in Canadian permanent residency process. The VA team has vast experience dealing in all Canada immigration programs and procedures. This is the reason that it plays a vital role in helping applicants get the Canada PR approval. Moreover, it has outstanding annual success rate of more than 90 percent in terms of received client visa approvals.

Lastly, if you are all set to raise your point score and get Canada PR, You may call Visas Avenue migration experts on Toll Free Number-78-18-000-777. Moreover, to get your eligibility checked and subsequently, receive a call from the expert, you may fill the free assessment form.

Вычисление оптического потока методом Лукаса-Канаде. Теория

В системах компьютерного зрения и обработки изображений часто возникает задача определения перемещений объектов в трехмерном пространстве с помощью оптического сенсора, то есть видеокамеры. Имея на входе последовательность кадров, необходимо воссоздать запечатленное на них трехмерное пространство и те изменения, которые происходят с ним с течением времени. Звучит сложно, но на практике зачастую достаточно найти смещения двухмерных проекций объектов в плоскости кадра.

Если мы хотим узнать на сколько тот или иной объект объект сместился по отношению к его же положению на предыдущем кадре за то время, которое прошло между фиксацией кадров, то скорее всего в первую очередь мы вспомним про оптический поток (optical flow). Для нахождения оптического потока можно смело воспользоваться готовой протестированной и оптимизированной реализацией одного из алгоритмов, например, из библиотеки OpenCV. При этом, однако, очень невредно разбираться в теории, поэтому я предлагаю всем заинтересованным заглянуть внутрь одного из популярных и хорошо изученных методов. В этой статье нет кода и практических советов, зато есть формулы и некоторое количество математических выводов.

Существует несколько подходов к определению смещений между двумя соседними кадрами. Например, можно для каждого небольшого фрагмента (скажем, 8 на 8 пикселей) одного кадра найти наиболее похожий фрагмент на следующем кадре. В этом случае разность координат исходного и найденного фрагментов даст нам смещение. Основная сложность тут состоит в том, как быстро отыскать нужный фрагмент, не перебирая весь кадр пиксель за пикселем. Различные реализации этого подхода так или иначе решают проблему вычислительной сложности. Некоторые настолько успешно, что применяются, например, в распространенных стандартах сжатия видео. Платой за скорость естественно является качество. Мы же рассмотрим другой подход, который позволяет получить смещения не для фрагментов, а для каждого отдельного пикселя, и применяется тогда, когда скорость не столь критична. Именно с ним в литературе часто связывают термин “оптический поток”.

Данный подход часто называют дифференциальным, поскольку в его основе лежит вычисление частных производных по горизонтальному и вертикальному направлениям изображения. Как мы увидим далее, одних только производных недостаточно чтобы определить смещения. Именно поэтому на базе одной простой идеи появилось великое множество методов, каждый из которых использует какую-нибудь свою математическую пляску с бубном, чтобы достичь цели. Сконцентрируемся на методе Лукаса-Канаде (Lucas-Kanade), предложенном в 81 году Брюсом Лукасом и Такео Канаде.

Метод Лукаса-Канаде

В основе всех дальнейших рассуждений лежит одно очень важное и не очень справедливое предположение: Предположим, что значения пикселей переходят из одного кадра в следующий без изменений. Таким образом, мы делаем допущение, что пиксели, относящиеся к одному и тому же объекту, могут сместиться в какую либо сторону, но их значение останется неизменным. Конечно же это предположение имеет мало общего с реальностью, потому что от кадра к кадру могут меняться глобальные условия освещения и освещенность самого движущегося объекта. Масса проблем связана с этим допущением, но, как ни странно, вопреки всему оно достаточно хорошо работает на практике.

На математическом языке это допущение можно записать так: . Где I — это функция яркости пикселей от положения на кадре и времени. Другими словами x и y — это координаты пикселя в плоскости кадра, и — это смещение, а t — это номер кадра в последовательности. Условимся, что между двумя соседними кадрами проходит единичный отрезок времени.

Одномерный случай

Для начала рассмотрим одномерный случай. Представим себе два одномерных кадра 1 пиксель в высоту и 20 пикселей в ширину (рисунок справа). На втором кадре изображение немного смещено вправо. Именно это смещение мы и хотим найти. Для этого представим эти же кадры в виде функций (рисунок слева). На входе позиция пикселя, на выходе — его интенсивность. В таком представление искомое смещение (d) видно еще более наглядно. В соответствии с нашим предположением, это просто смещенная , то есть можем сказать, что .

Обратите внимание, что и при желании можно записать и в общем виде: ; где y и t зафиксированы и равны нулю.

Для каждой координаты нам известны значения и в этой точке, кроме того мы можем вычислить их производные. Свяжем известные значения со смещением d. Для этого запишем разложение в ряд Тейлора для :

Сделаем второе важное предположение: Предположим, что достаточно хорошо аппроксимируется первой производной. Сделав это предположение, отбросим всё что после первой производной:

Насколько это корректно? В общем-то не очень, тут мы теряем в точности, если только наша функция/изображение не строго линейна, как в нашем искусственном примере. Зато это существенно упрощает метод, а для достижения требуемой точности можно сделать последовательное приближение, которе мы рассмотрим позже.

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Мы почти у цели. Смещение d — это наша искомая величина, поэтому надо что-то сделать с . Как мы условились ранее, , поэтому просто перепишем:

Двумерный случай

Теперь перейдем от одномерного случая к двумерному. Запишем разложение в ряд Тейлора для и сразу отбросим все старшие производные. Вместо первой производной появляется градиент:

Где — вектор смещения.
В соответствии со сделанным допущением . Обратите внимание, что это выражение эквивалентно . Это то, что нам нужно. Перепишем:

Поскольку между двумя кадрами проходит единичный интервал времени, то можно сказать, что есть не что иное, как производная по времени.
Перепишем:

Перепишем ещё раз, раскрыв градиент:

Мы получили уравнение, которое говорит нам о том, что сумма частных производных должны быть равна нулю. Проблема только в том, что уравнение у нас одно, а неизвестных в нем два: и . На этом моменте начинается полет фантазии и разнообразие подходов.

Сделаем третье предположение: Предположим, что соседние пиксели смещаются на одинаковое расстояние. Возьмем фрагмент изображения, скажем 5 на 5 пикселей, и условимся, что для каждого из 25 пикселей и равны. Тогда вместо одного уравнения мы получим сразу 25 уравнений! Очевидно, что в общем случае система не имеет решения, поэтому будем искать такие и , которые минимизируют ошибку:

Здесь g — это функция, определяющая весовые коэффициенты для пикселей. Самые распространенный вариант — двухмерная гауссиана, которая дает наибольший вес центральному пикселю и все меньший по мере удаления от центра.

Чтобы найти минимум воспользуемся методом наименьших квадратов, найдем её частные производные по и :

Перепишем в более компактной форме и приравняем к нулю:

Перепишем эти два уравнения в матричной форме:

Если матрица М обратима (имеет ранг 2), можем вычислить и , которые минимизируют ошибку E:

Вот собственно и все. Мы знаем приблизительное смещение пикселей между двумя соседними кадрами.

Поскольку в нахождении смещения каждого пикселя участвуют также соседние с ним пиксели, при реализации данного метода целесообразно предварительно посчитать производные кадра по горизонтали и вертикали.

Недостатки метода

Описанный выше метод основан на трех значительных допущениях, которые с одной стороны дают нам принципиальную возможность определить оптический поток, но с другой стороны вносят погрешность. Хорошая новость для перфекционистов состоит в том, что одно допущение нужно нам только для упрощения метода, и с его последствиями мы можем бороться. Мы предполагали, что для аппроксимации смещения нам будет достаточно первой производной. В общем случае это конечно же не так (рисунок слева). Для достижение требуемой точности смещение для каждой пары кадров (назовём их и ) можно вычислять итеративно. В литературе это называется искажением (warping). На практике это означает, что, вычислив смещения на первой итерации, мы перемещаем каждый пиксель кадра в противоположную сторону так, чтобы это смещение компенсировать. На следующей итерации вместо исходного кадра мы будем использовать его искаженный вариант . И так далее, пока на очередной итерации все полученные смещения не окажутся меньше заданного порогового значения. Итоговое смещение для каждого конкретного пикселя мы получаем как сумму его смещений на всех итерациях.

По своей природе данный метод является локальным, то есть при определении смещения конкретного пикселя принимается во внимание только область вокруг этого пикселя — локальная окрестность. Как следствие, невозможно определить смещения внутри достаточно больших (больше размера локальной окрестности) равномерно окрашенных участков кадра. К счастью на реальных кадрах такие участки встречаются не часто, но эта особенность все же вносит дополнительное отклонение от истинного смещения.

Ещё одна проблема связана с тем, что некоторые текстуры в изображении дают вырожденную матрицу М, для которой не может быть найдена обратная матрица. Соответственно, для таких текстур мы не сможем определить смещение. То есть движение вроде есть, но непонятно в какую сторону. В общем-то от этой проблемы страдает не только рассмотренный метод. Даже глаз человека воспринимает такое движение не однозначно (Barber pole).

Заключение

Мы разобрали теоретические основы одного из дифференциальных методов нахождения оптического потока. Существует множество других любопытных методов, некоторые из которых по состоянию на сегодняшний день дают более надежные результаты. Однако, метод Лукаса-Канаде при своей неплохой эффективности остается достаточно простым для понимания, а потому хорошо подходит для ознакомления с математическими основами.

Хотя проблема нахождения оптического потока изучается уже несколько десятилетий, методы всё ещё продолжают совершенствоваться. Работа продолжается в виду того, что при близком рассмотрении проблема оказывается очень непростой, а от качества определения смещений в обработке видео и изображений зависит устойчивость и эффективность многих других алгоритмов.

На этой пафосной ноте позвольте закруглиться и перейти к источникам и полезным ссылкам.

Конкурсная система оценивания

Система совокупного рейтинга (Comprehensive Ranking System или CRS) являет собой своеобразный механизм оценки кандидата и составления его профиля в экспресс-базе данных, который основан на количестве набранных баллов. С помощью системы совокупного рейтинга (CRS) оценивается информация, предоставленная кандидатом для своего профиля. Профиль или онлайн анкета кандидата включает:

  • навыки и умения,
  • опыт и стаж работы,
  • уровень владения языком,
  • образование и некоторые другие аспекты.

Установлено, что все эти факторы играют важную роль для финансового процветания эмигрантов после приезда в Канаду. Те кандидаты, которые уже имеют предложения на получение рабочего места или являются кандидатами на рабочее место в рамках программ на уровне провинций и других административно-территориальных делений Канады, получают дополнительные баллы. Об этом мы писали в нашей предыдущей статье. Министерство гражданства и иммиграции Канады (CIC) будет регулярно выбирать кандидатов с самым высоким рейтингом из базы данных и приглашать их подать пакет документов на постоянное место жительства в Канаде.

Целью создания списка кандидатов (базы данных) системы Express Entry является обеспечение тесной взаимосвязи между экономической иммиграцией и состоянием рынка труда Канады. По этой причине высококвалифицированные специалисты, которые уже имеют предложения на получение рабочего места, высоко ценятся и получают приглашения на собеседования. Но в этом случае работодатель должен предоставить экспертное заключение о необходимости такого специалиста. Экспертное заключение должно быть одобренно Департаментом Оценки Рынка Труда (Labour Market Impact Assessment — LMIA). Это заключение (LMIA) нужно для того, чтобы подтвердить, что специалиста нужного профиля среди граждан Канады ему найти не удалось. Кандидаты на рабочее место в рамках программ на уровне провинций и других административно-территориальных делений Канады тоже получают дополнительные баллы и имеют более высокий рейтинг.

Формула составления совокупного рейтинга

Все кандидаты, занесенные в базу данных системы Express Entry, оцениваются определенным количеством баллов, максимальное число которых составляет 1200. Формула совокупного рейтинга имеет четыре составляющие:

  • Навыки и опыт работы (они являются ключевыми факторами финансового успеха эмигрантов).
  • Наличие супруги/супруга или партнеров по гражданскому браку (их владение языком и образование, как правило, способствует улучшению финансового благосостояния как кандидата, так и всей семьи).
  • Готовность к переквалификации, дополнительные навыки и умения (фактор, который повышает шансы найти работу).
  • Дополнительные баллы для участников региональных программ или кандидатов с реальными предложениями работы.

Максимальное количество баллов для кандидатов по четырем составляющим:

САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНО С СУПРУГОЙ (СУПРУГОМ)
Навыки, умения, трудовой стаж 500 460
Семейное положение 40
Готовность к переквалификации, дополнительные навыки и умения 100 100
Дополнительные баллы 600 600
Всего 1200 1200

Итак, первый фактор — это возраст, необходимый для иммиграции в Канаду

Возраст Если заявление подаётся с супругой или супругом (максимальное кол-во баллов: 100) Если заявление подаётся в одиночку (максимальное кол-во баллов: 110)
до 18 0 баллов 0 баллов
18 90 99
19 95 105
20-29 100 110
30 95 105
31 90 99
32 85 94
33 80 88
34 75 83
35 70 77
36 65 72
37 60 66
38 55 61
39 50 55
40 45 50
41 35 39
42 25 28
43 15 17
44 5 6
45 и старше

Следующий фактор — образование, необходимое для иммиграции в Канаду

ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Уровень образования С супругой / супругом Иммиграция в одиночку
Нет образования или неполное среднее образование
Аттестат об окончании средней школы 28 + 2 за супр. 30
Один год среднего специального или университетского образования на уровне Бакалавра 84 + 6 за супр. 90
2-х годичное среднее специальное или универститетское образование на уровне Бакалавра 91 + 7 за супр. 98
Более трёх лет среднего специального или университетеского образования 112 + 8 за супр. 120
Несколько образований: два и более дипломов или сертификатов о среднем специальном или высшем образовании (обучение по одному из них длилось минимум 3 года) 119 + 9 за супр. 128
Степень кандидата наук или магистра 126 + 10 за супр. 135
Степень доктора наук 140 + 10 за супр. 150

Следующий критерий — это знание одного или более языков, которые необходимы для иммиграции в Канаду — английского или французского

ЗНАНИЯ ОСНОВНОГО ЯЗЫКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ИЛИ ФРАНЦУЗСКОГО

Тест CLB Если заявление подаётся с супругой или супругом Иммиграция в одиночку
Максимально можно набрать 32 балла + 5 за супр 34 балла
CLB 3 и меньше
CLB 4 6 + 0 за супр. 6
CLB 5 6 + 1 за супр. 6
CLB 6 8 + за супр. 9
CLB 7 16 + 3 за супр. 17
CLB 8 22 + 3 за супр. 23
CLB 9 29 + 5 за супр. 31
CLB 10 и больше 32 + 5 за супр. 34

Если подающий заявление на иммиграцию в Канаду кандидат знает более одного из основных языков Канады, то второй знания второго языка оценивается по дополнительной шкале и даёт дополнительные баллы. Таким образом, тот кто владеет и английским и французским языком получают значительное преимущество и их шансы попасть в Канаду гораздо выше.

Тест CLB Если заявление подаётся с супругой или супругом Иммиграция в одиночку
CLB 4 и ниже
CLB 5 or 6 1 1
CLB 7 or 8 3 3
CLB 9 or higher 6 6

Канадский опыт работы — один из важных критериев отбора:

ОПЫТ РАБОТЫ (СТАЖ), ПОЛУЧЕННЫЙ В КАНАДЕ

Стаж Если заявление подаётся с супругой или супругом Иммиграция в одиночку
Менее 1 года 0 баллов 0 баллов
1 год 35 + 5 за супр. 40
2 года 46 + 7 за супр. 53
3 года 56 + 8 за супр. 64
4 года 63 + 9 за супр. 72
5 лет и более 70 + 10 за супр. 80

Далее учитываются более сложные факторы, такие как способность к адаптации и интеграции в рынок труда Канады:

ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ И ЯЗЫКОВЫЕ ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ

CLB 7-9 суммарно за языки, причём один из языков минимум 7* CLB 9 или выше за языки
Неполное среднее образование
1 год или больше среднего специального или высшего образования 13 25
Несколько образований: два и более дипломов или сертификатов о среднем специальном или высшем образовании (обучение по одному из них длилось минимум 3 года) 25 50
  • Например английский CLB 7 а французский -1
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ И КАНАДСКИЙ ОПЫТ РАБОТЫ

1 год опыта работы в Канаде 2 и более лет опыта работы в Канаде
Неполное среднее образование
1 год или больше среднего специального или высшего образования 13 25
Несколько образований: два и более дипломов или сертификатов о среднем специальном или высшем образовании (обучение по одному из них длилось минимум 3 года) 25 50
ЯЗЫКОВЫЕ ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ И СТАЖ ПОЛУЧЕННЫЙ ВНЕ КАНАДЫ

CLB 7-9 суммарно за языки, причём один из языков минимум 7* CLB 9 или выше за языки
Нет стажа работы вне Канады
1-2 года стажа работы вне Канады 13 25
3 и более лет стажа работы в Канаде 25 50
КОМБИНИРОВАННЫЙ СТАЖ (канадский+полученный вне канады)

1 год опыта работы в Канаде 2 и более лет опыта работы в Канаде
Нет стажа работы вне Канады
1-2 года стажа работы вне Канады 13 25
3 и более лет стажа работы в Канаде 25 50
Квалификационный языковой сертификат выданный провинцией

CLB 5 или выше, причём один из языков CLB 5 или 6 CLB 7 и выше суммарно за языки
Имеется квалификационный языковой сертификат выданный провинцией 25 50

Кроме того огромное количество баллов можно получить за наличие двух документов (но только за один из них даже если есть оба, т.е. максимальное количество баллов по этому разделу будет 600):

Canada Immigration Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS)

What is Canada Comprehensive Ranking system?

The Canada Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) is a points system used by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) to assess and score a candidate’s Express Entry profile, in order to rank the candidate against all other candidates in the Express Entry pool at the time of issuing Invitations to Apply (ITA) for permanent residency.

NOTE: The information on this page is largely reproduced for your convenience and easy access from the IRCC website.

When a candidate creates a profile in their online account, the system automatically assigns the candidate a CRS score based on the information provided in their profile. Candidates can see their CRS score on the “Application/Profile Details” page of their account.

Only top-ranked candidates in the Express Entry pool are issued an Invitation to Apply (ITA) at the time of a round of invitations.

CRS points allocation

There are different Canada express entry minimum points for various programs. For instance, applicants must score 67 points or higher (out of 100) from six selection factors (details later on this page) to qualify to immigrate to Canada as a federal skilled worker.

Candidates can score a maximum of 1200 points in the CRS, with points allocated as follows:

  • A core set of human capital factors that drive economic outcomes (maximum of 460-500 points):
    • Age
    • Level of education
    • Official language proficiency
    • Canadian work experience
  • Spousal factors (maximum of 40 points)
  • A set of skills transferability or interaction factors that amplify the core set (maximum of 100 points)
  • Additional factors (maximum 600 points):
    • A valid provincial/territorial nomination (maximum of 600 points)
    • A qualifying offer of arranged employment (maximum of 50 points for all occupations in NOC 0, A or B, except NOC 00 with a maximum of 200 points)
    • Canadian educational credential (maximum of 30 points)

The Express Entry Ministerial Instructions contain a full breakdown of the CRS. A summary of the CRS is available on the IRCC website.

Note: The CRS may be changed over time as outcomes data becomes available and refinements are undertaken.

Changes to a candidate’s CRS score

Candidates are responsible for ensuring that their Express Entry profile is accurate and up-to-date at all times. Candidates are warned that, if they submit an application for permanent residence (APR) and, at that time, cannot substantiate the information in their Express Entry profile or their APR, their application will be refused and they may be assessed for misrepresentation.

When a candidate goes into their account and updates the information in their profile (e.g., adds a new credential or deletes a job offer), the candidate’s CRS score will automatically change to reflect the new information. The candidate will be able to see their new CRS score in their account.

In order for IRCC processing offices to assess Express Entry applications on section A11.2 and misrepresentation, an applicant’s CRS score is automatically recorded in the Global Case Management System (GCMS) in the following situations:

  • when the applicant is issued an ITA; and
  • when the applicant submits their APR.

Note: When a candidate is issued an ITA, their profile is “locked”. Candidates may have to manually recalculatetheir scores if there is a change in circumstance after the ITA is issued and before they apply for permanent residence, as it could impact their eligibility.

Express Entry Draw / Rounds of Invitations

IRCC controls how many Express Entry candidates are invited to apply for permanent residence through a system of “rounds of invitations”. Also popularly known as Canada Express Entry draws, these are done at a frequency and in numbers that align to IRCC’s processing capacity and annual levels targets.

IMPORTANT NOTE: At the time of a round of invitations, a candidate’s rank in the Express Entry pool is much more important than the candidate’s total number of CRS points. For example, if IRCC issues an ITA to 1000 candidates from the pool, only the top-ranking 1000 candidates will receive an ITA.

A candidate’s rank changes with every round of invitations, as their rank is relative to that of all other candidates in the pool at the time of the round.

Rounds can be general and include all programs subject to Express Entry (see Express Entry programs), or be program-specific (e.g., top-ranked CEC candidates only). For example:

  • A general round of invitations would mean that all candidates in the list below would be issued an ITA. If CIC invited 500 candidates to apply, and the following list represented the top 10 candidates in the pool, CIC would invite 5 FSWC, 3 CEC and 2 FSTC candidates, all the way down until the 500 th ranked candidate in the pool is invited, regardless of the program(s) to which they appear eligible.
    1. FSWC – 1000 CRS points (has job offer)
    2. CEC – 980 (has job offer)
    3. FSWC – 878 (has job offer)
    4. FSTC – 820 (has job offer)
    5. FSTC – 818 (has job offer)
    6. CEC – 540
    7. CEC – 538
    8. FSWC – 532
    9. FSWC – 531
    10. FSWC – 480
    11. etc.
  • A program-specific round of invitations would mean that only candidates in the list above who are tagged (i.e., found eligible) for a specific program would be issued an ITA. For example, if IRCC were to invite the top 500 FSWC candidates, in the example above, only candidates ranked 1, 3, 8, 9, and 10 would be invited, with additional top-ranked FSWC-tagged candidates invited to apply, up to and including the 500 th ranked FSWC candidate in the pool.

Express Entry rounds of invitations are governed through Ministerial Instructions, which specify the date of the round, the number invitations to be issued, and whether the round of invitations is general or program-specific. The Ministerial Instructions are published when a round is held, but not before.

After a round of invitations is held, IRCC publishes the score of the lowest ranked candidate to be issued an ITA in that round. Candidates who are not issued an ITA can use this information to see where their CRS score stands relative to the lowest score from their round and, therefore, have a general sense of whether they may be invited to apply in future rounds and what to do to improve their scores.

Candidates who have been issued an ITA but whose circumstances have changed can also use this information to determine if they should decline the ITA or submit an APR.

Each invitation round has a set of instructions that are:

  • posted online at the time of the invitation round
  • used by the Express Entry system to invite candidates from the pool

The instructions include:

  • the date and time of the invitation round
  • the number of candidates that will get an invitation to apply
  • which immigration program(s) are included in the round (some invitation rounds may only invite candidates for 1 program, for example only from Federal Skilled Trades)

Check your score and then use this information to see how likely you are to get an invitation in the next round.

Express Entry reports

Ministerial Instructions respecting invitations to apply for permanent residence under the Express Entry system – January 30, 2020

Programs specified

Number of invitations issued: 3,350 *

Rank required to be invited to apply: 3,350 th or above

Date and time of round: January 30, 2020 at 12:09:10 UTC

CRS score of lowest-ranked candidate invited: 438

Tie-breaking rule: April 26, 2020 at 05:00:46 UTC

    If more than one cand >*Candidates eligible for this round of invitations were those in:

CRS Score Range Number of Candidates
601-1200 86
451-600 305
401-450 31,142
441-450 660
431-440 9,522
421-430 6,596
411-420 6,914
401-410 7,450
351-400 38,578
391-400 7,061
381-390 8,118
371-380 8,037
361-370 7,867
351-360 7,495
301-350 22,274
0-300 3,321
Total 95,706

The numbers in this table reflect the total number of people in the pool overall, a few days before an invitation round. The score distribution may change as people submit new profiles and other profiles expire.

The table numbers in italics are a detailed breakdown of the bold number immediately above.

Summary of CRS maximum points per factor for Express Entry candidates

Factors Points per factor – With a spouse or common-law partner Points per factor – Without a spouse or common-law partner
Age 100 110
Level of education 140 150
Official languages proficiency 150 160
Canadian work experience 70 80
Factors Points per factor
(Maximum 40 points)
Level of education 10
Official language proficiency 20
Canadian Work Experience 10

A. Core/human capital + B. Spouse or common-law partner factors = Maximum 500 points (with OR without a spouse or common-law partner)

Education Points per factor
(Maximum 50 points)
With good/strong official languages proficiency and a post-secondary degree 50
With Canadian work experience and a post-secondary degree 50
Foreign work experience Points per factor
(Maximum 50 points)
With good/strong official languages proficiency (Canadian Language Benchmark [CLB] level 7 or higher) and foreign work experience 50
With Canadian work experience and foreign work experience 50
Certificate of qualification (for people in trade occupations) Points per factor
(Maximum 50 points)
With good/strong official languages proficiency and a certificate of qualification 50

A. Core/human capital + B. Spouse or common-law partner + C. Transferability factors = Maximum 600 points

Factor Maximum points per factor
Brother or sister living in Canada (citizen or permanent resident) 15
French language skills 30
Post-secondary education in Canada 30
Arranged employment 200
PN nomination 600

A. Core/human capital + B. Spouse or common-law partner factors + C. Transferability factors + D. Additional points = Grand total – Maximum 1,200 points

Points breakdown, section by section

CRS – A. Core / human capital factors

  • With a spouse or common-law partner: Maximum 460 points total for all factors.
  • Without a spouse or common-law partner: Maximum 500 points total for all factors.
Age With a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 100 points)
Without a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 110 points)
17 years of age or less
18 years of age 90 99
19 years of age 95 105
20 to 29 years of age 100 110
30 years of age 95 105
31 years of age 90 99
32 years of age 85 94
33 years of age 80 88
34 years of age 75 83
35 years of age 70 77
36 years of age 65 72
37 years of age 60 66
38 years of age 55 61
39 years of age 50 55
40 years of age 45 50
41 years of age 35 39
42 years of age 25 28
43 years of age 15 17
44 years of age 5 6
45 years of age or more
Level of Education With a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 140 points)
Without a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 150 points)
Less than secondary school (high school)
Secondary diploma (high school graduation) 28 30
One-year degree, diploma or certificate from a university, college, trade or technical school, or other institute 84 90
Two-year program at a university, college, trade or technical school, or other institute 91 98
Bachelor’s degree OR a three or more year program at a university, college, trade or technical school, or other institute 112 120
Two or more certificates, diplomas, or degrees. One must be for a program of three or more years 119 128
Master’s degree, OR professional degree needed to practice in a licensed profession (For “professional degree,” the degree program must have been in: medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, optometry, law, chiropractic medicine, or pharmacy.) 126 135
Doctoral level university degree (Ph.D.) 140 150

Official languages proficiency – first official language

Maximum points for each ability (reading, writing, speaking and listening):

  • 32 with a spouse or common-law partner
  • 34 without a spouse or common-law partner
Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB) level per ability With a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 128 points)
Without a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 136 points)
Less than CLB 4
CLB 4 or 5 6 6
CLB 6 8 9
CLB 7 16 17
CLB 8 22 23
CLB 9 29 31
CLB 10 or more 32 34

Official languages proficiency – second official language

Maximum points for each ability (reading, writing, speaking and listening):

  • 6 with a spouse or common-law partner (up to a combined maximum of 22 points)
  • 6 without a spouse or common-law partner (up to a combined maximum of 24 points)
Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB) level per ability With a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 22 points)
Without a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 24 points)
CLB 4 or less
CLB 5 or 6 1 1
CLB 7 or 8 3 3
CLB 9 or more 6 6
Canadian work experience With a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 70 points)
Without a spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 80 points)
None or less than a year
1 year 35 40
2 years 46 53
3 years 56 64
4 years 63 72
5 years or more 70 80

Subtotal: A. Core / human capital factors

  • With a spouse or common-law partner – Maximum 460 points
  • Without a spouse or common-law partner – Maximum 500 points

CRS – B. Spouse or common-law partner factors (if applicable)

Spouse’s or common-law partner’s level of education With spouse or common-law partner
(Maximum 10 points)
Without spouse or common-law partner
(Does not apply)
Less than secondary school (high school) n/a
Secondary school (high school graduation) 2 n/a
One-year program at a university, college, trade or technical school, or other institute 6 n/a
Two-year program at a university, college, trade or technical in school, or other institute 7 n/a
Bachelor’s degree OR a three or more year program at a university, college, trade or technical school, or other institute 8 n/a
Two or more certificates, diplomas, or degrees. One must be for a program of three or more years 9 n/a
Master’s degree, or professional degree needed to practice in a licensed profession (For “professional degree”, the degree program must have been in: medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, optometry, law, chiropractic medicine, or pharmacy.) 10 n/a
Doctoral level university degree (PhD) 10 n/a

Note: (n/a) means that this factor does not apply in this case.

Spouse’s or common-law partner’s official languages proficiency – first official language

Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB) level per ability (reading, writing, speaking and listening ) Maximum 20 points for section
Maximum 5 points per ability
Without spouse or common-law partner
(Does not apply)
CLB 4 or less n/a
CLB 5 or 6 1 n/a
CLB 7 or 8 3 n/a
CLB 9 or more 5 n/a

Note: (n/a) means that this factor does not apply in this case.

Spouse’s Canadian work experience Maximum 10 points Without spouse or common-law partner
(Does not apply)
None or less than a year n/a
1 year 5 n/a
2 years 7 n/a
3 years 8 n/a
4 years 9 n/a
5 years or more 10 n/a

Note: (n/a) means that this factor does not apply in this case.

Subtotal : A. Core / human capital + B. Spouse or common-law partner factors = Maximum 500 points

CRS – C. Skill transferability factors (Maximum 100 points for this section)

Education

With good official language proficiency (Canadian Language Benchmark Level [CLB] 7 or higher) and a post-secondary degree Points for CLB 7 or more on all first official language abilities, with one or more under CLB 9
(Maximum 25 points)
Points for CLB 9 or more on all four first official language abilities
(Maximum 50 points)
Secondary school (high school) credential or less
Post-secondary program credential of one year or longer 13 25
Two or more post-secondary program credentials AND at least one of these credentials was issued on completion of a post-secondary program of three years or longer 25 50
With Canadian work experience and a post-secondary degree Points for education + 1 year of Canadian work experience
(Maximum 25 points)
Points for education + 2 years or more of Canadian work experience
(Maximum 50 points)
Secondary school (high school) credential or less
Post-secondary program credential of one year or longer 13 25
Two or more post-secondary program credentials AND at least one of these credentials was issued on completion of a post-secondary program of three years or longer 25 50

Foreign work experience – With good official language proficiency (Canadian Language Benchmark Level [CLB] 7 or higher)

Years of experience Points for foreign work experience + CLB 7 or more on all first official language abilities, one or more under 9
(Maximum 25 points)
Points for foreign work experience + CLB 9 or more on all four first official language abilities
(Maximum 50 points)
No foreign work experience
1 or 2 years of foreign work experience 13 25
3 years or more of foreign work experience 25 50

Foreign work experience – With Canadian work experience

Years of experience Points for foreign work experience + 1 year of Canadian work experience
(Maximum 25 points)
Points for foreign work experience + 2 years or more of Canadian work experience
(Maximum 50 points)
No foreign work experience
1 or 2 years of foreign work experience 13 25
3 years or more of foreign work experience 25 50
Certificate of qualification (trade occupations) – With good official language proficiency (Canadian Language Benchmark Level [CLB] 5 or higher) Points for certificate of qualification + CLB 5 or more on all first official language abilities, one or more under 7
(Maximum 25 points)
Points for certificate of qualification + CLB 7 or more on all four first official language abilities
(Maximum 50 points)
With a certificate of qualification 25 50

Subtotal: A. Core / human capital + B. Spouse or common-law partner + C. Skill transferability factors – Maximum 600 points

CRS – D. Additional points (Maximum 600 points)

Additional points Maximum 600 points
Brother or sister living in Canada who is a citizen or permanent resident of Canada 15
Scored NCLC 7 or higher on all four French language skills and scored CLB 4 or lower in English (or didn’t take an English test) 15
Scored NCLC 7 or higher on all four French language skills and scored CLB 5 or higher on all four English skills 30
Post-secondary education in Canada – credential of one or two years 15
Post-secondary education in Canada – credential three years or longer 30
Arranged employment – NOC 00 200
Arranged employment – any other NOC 0, A or B 50
Provincial or territorial nomination 600

Subtotal: D. Additional points – Maximum 600 points

Grand total: A. Core / human capital + B. Spouse or common-law partner + C. Skill transferability factors + D. Additional points = Maximum 1,200 points

FLUXNET Canada Research Network — Canadian Carbon Program Data Collection, 1993-2014

Documentation Revision Date: 2020-12-06

Data Set Version: V1

Summary

This data set contains the contents of the Fluxnet-Canada/Canadian Carbon Program Data Information System (DIS) which was previously distributed as an internet based warehouse for all FLUXNET Canada and the CCP until the website was closed in 2014.

The eddy covariance method was used at individual network tower sites to measure mass and energy exchange across a horizontal plane between vegetation and the free atmosphere. The spatial scales of observations at each tower extended through the flux footprint around the tower (ranging between 100 and 1000 m). Ground plots were studied to gain an overview of the state of ecological and site variables and were established and surveyed according to Canada’s National Forest Inventory ground plot protocols (NFI 2004 A-F).

There are 35 files with this data set. This includes 33 compressed files (*.zip), one for each tower site (when opened these directories contain a total of 21,494 files in various formats). There is also one compressed shapefile (.zip) which contains spatial information about these sites, and one comma-separated file (.csv) which provides the site locations, FLUXNET identifiers, and investigator contact information from the shapefile.

Figure 1. Locations of the 32 Eddy-Covariance towers of FLUXNET Canada included in this data set.

Citation

FLUXNET CANADA TEAM. 2020. FLUXNET Canada Research Network — Canadian Carbon Program Data Collection, 1993-2014. ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1335

Table of Contents

Data Set Overview

FLUXNET Canada is comprised of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network (FCRN) and the Canadian Carbon Program (CCP). It was a national research network of university and government scientists studying the influence of climate and disturbance on carbon cycling along an east-west transect of Canadian forest and peat land ecosystems.

The data provided are measured and modeled results as obtained from the site investigators. They were not standardized and quality-controlled. Data include: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor fluxes, and many ancillary meteorological variables; soil CO2 efflux and soil moisture; stable carbon isotopes; site soil and vegetation characteristics surface water, plus documentation and descriptions for the 32 tower sites across 12 flux research stations. The time period is from 1993 — 2014; most reported data for a site does not cover the entire period.

The eddy covariance method was used at individual network sites to measure mass and energy exchange across a horizontal plane between vegetation and the free atmosphere. Information collected at a site encompassed sensor measurements, field observations, laboratory analysis of field samples, as well as anecdotal descriptions. Ground Plots were studied to gain an overview of the state of ecological and site variables and included measurements of trees, understory, woody debris, forest floor, vegetation dominant species, leaf characteristics, carbon, biomass, and soil measurements within each plot (Baldocchi, 2008).

This data set contains the contents of the Fluxnet-Canada/Canadian Carbon Program Data Information System (DIS) which was previously distributed as an internet based warehouse for all FLUXNET Canada and the CCP until the website was closed in 2014. The data are presented in a structure that mirrors that of the FLUXNET Canada Web Site and are provided in their original distribution format. They have been repackaged as zip files for distribution purposes.

Related Data:

Updated standardized and quality-controlled data from many of the Fluxnet-Canada sites is available from the Ameriflux group at http://ameriflux.lbl.gov/

User Note:

Please acknowledge the appropriate Site Contact when using these data; this information is provided in the shapefile (FLUXNET-Canada_file_site_investigators.zip), as well as in the text and Word files associated with site-specific data.

Table 1. Fluxnet Canada Tower Site Contacts for Acknowledgement

Tower Sites

Site Contact

AB-Grassland Larry Flanagan AB-WPeatland-TreedFen Larry Flanagan AB-WPeatland-MayPoorFen Larry Flanagan AB-WPeatland-TonysRichFen Larry Flanagan BC-DFir1949 Andy Black BC-HarvestDFir1988 Andy Black BC-HarvestDFir2000 Andy Black MB-NOldBlackSpruce Allison Dunn (1994-2006), Brian Amiro (2007-2008) NB-BFir1967-NashwL01 Charles Bourque NB-BFir1975-CharlieL01 Charles Bourque ON-BordenMixedWood Ralf Staebler ON-Deciduous-TP M. Altaf Arain ON-EPeatland-MerBleue Peter Lafleur On-HarvestMixedWood1989 Harry McCaughey ON-OldMixedWood-GhogR Harry McCaughey ON-PlantnWPine1939-TP Altaf Arain ON-PlantnWPine1974-TP Altaf Arain ON-PlantnWPine1989-TP Altaf Arain ON-PlantnWPine2002-TP Altaf Arain QC-BSpruceJPineCut Hank Margolis QC-MatureBSpruce Hank Margolis QC-HarvestBS1975 Hank Margolis SK-Fen Andy Black and Alan Barr SK-Fire1977 Brian Amiro SK-Fire1989 Brian Amiro SK-Fire1998 Brian Amiro SK-HarvestJP1975 Alan Barr SK-HarvestJP1994 Shohei Murayama (2001-2003, Alan Barr (2004-2012) SK-HarvestJP2002 Andy Black and Alan Barr SK-OldAspen Andy Black and Alan Barr SK-OldBlackSpruce Andy Black and Alan Barr SK-OldJackPine Harry McCaughey, Andy Black, and Alan Barr

Data Characteristics

Spatial Coverage: Fluxnet Canada tower sites on an east-west transect of Canadian forest and peat land ecosystems.

Spatial Resolution: Point data

Temporal Coverage: Data covers 1993 to 2014

Temporal Resolution: Varies from 30-minute meteorological and flux measurements to one-time synoptic soil and biological site characterization data.

Study Area (All latitudes and longitudes are given in decimal degrees)

Site Westernmost Longitude Easternmost Longitude Northernmost Latitude Southernmost Latitude
Fluxnet Canada — various sites -125.3336 -67.0993 55.8800 42.6609

Table 2. Fluxnet Canada Tower Site Locations

Tower Site Description Lat Long
AB-Grassland Alberta — Mixed Grass Prairie 49.70919 -112.9403
AB-WPeatland-TreedFen Alberta — Western Peatland — LaBiche River, Black Spruce/Larch Fen 55.5375 -112.4470
AB-WPeatland-MayPoorFen Alberta — Western Peatland — Poor Fen (Sphagnum moss) 55.5375 -112.3343
AB-WPeatland-TonysRichFen Alberta — Western Peatland — Rich Fen (Carex) 54.4700 -113.3200
BC-DFir1949 British Columbia — 1948 Douglas-fir Stand 49.8673 -125.3336
BC-HarvestDFir1988 British Columbia — Pole sapling Douglas-fir Stand 49.5346 -124.9004
BC-HarvestDFir2000 British Columbia — Clearcut Douglas-fir Stand (harvested winter 1999/2000) 49.8705 -125.2909
MB-NOldBlackSpruce Manitoba — Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area) 55.8800 -98.4810
NB-BFir1967-NashwL01 New Brunswick — 1967 Balsam Fir — Nashwaak Lake Site 01 (Mature Balsam fir forest) 46.4738 -67.0993
NB-BFir1975-CharlieL01 New Brunswick — Charlie Lake site 01 (immature balsam fir forest to be thinned in year 3) 45.8850 -67.3570
ON-BordenMixedWood Ontario — Mixed Deciduous, Borden Forest Site 44.3185 -79.9342
ON-Deciduous-TP Ontario — Turkey Point Deciduous Forest Site 42.6353 -80.55757
ON-EPeatland-MerBleue Ontario — Eastern Peatland, Mer Bleue 45.4094 -75.5187
On-HarvestMixedWood1989 Ontario — Childerhose Juvenile Boreal Mixedwood Forest harvested in 1989 48.1330 -81.6280
ON-OldMixedWood-GhogR Ontario — Groundhog River, Boreal Mixedwood Forest 48.2173 -82.1555
ON-PlantnWPine1939-TP Ontairo — Turkey Point 1939 Plantation White Pine 42.7098 -80.3574
ON-PlantnWPine1974-TP Ontario — Turkey Point 1974 Plantation White Pine 42.7068 -80.3483
ON-PlantnWPine1989-TP Ontario — Turkey Point 1989 Plantation White Pine 42.7744 -80.4588
ON-PlantnWPine2002-TP Ontario — Turkey Point 2002 Plantation White Pine 42.6609 -80.5595
QC-BSpruceJPineCut Quebec — Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce / Jack Pine Cutover 49.2671 -74.0365
QC-MatureBSpruce Quebec — Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce 49.6925 -74.3420
QC-HarvestBS1975 Quebec — Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce forest harvested in 1975 49.7598 -74.5711
SK-Fen Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, wetland 53.8021 -104.6180
SK-Fire1977 Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, forest burned in 1977 54.4850 -105.8176
SK-Fire1989 Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, forest burned in 1989 54.2539 -105.8775
SK-Fire1998 Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998 54.0916 -106.0053
SK-HarvestJP1975 Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, Jack Pine forest harvested in 1975 (BOREAS Young Jack Pine) 53.8758 -104.6453
SK-HarvestJP1994 Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, Jack Pine forest harvested in 1994 53.9084 -104.6559
SK-HarvestJP2002 Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, Jack Pine forest harvested in 2002 53.9447 -104.6493
SK-OldAspen Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, Mature Aspen 53.6289 -106.1978
SK-OldBlackSpruce Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, Mature Black Spruce 53.9872 -105.1178
SK-OldJackPine Saskatchewan — Western Boreal, mature Jack Pine forest 53.9163 -104.692

Data file information

There are 35 total data files provided with this data set, 34 (*.zip) files and one comma-separated (.csv) file.

  • There are 32 files (*.zip) with site-specific data and documentation which when uncompressed contain the original data as distributed by the FLUXNET Canada web site.
  • The 0-Fluxnet-Canada.zip file contains a complete description of the Fluxnet Canada data management plan, standard measurements, metadata documentation guidelines, plus multi-site data compilations, plant nutrients, and stable isotope data for plants and air samples.
  • There is one compressed shapefile (provided in FLUXNET-Canada_file_site_investigators.zip) that contains spatial information about each of the 32 research sites, including FLUXNET nework identifiers.
  • One comma-separated (FLUXNET-Canada_file_site_investigators.csv) file which provides site and investigator information for each of the compressed directories.

The total file count is 21,494 data and documentation files when all directories are uncompressed.

The data are presented in a structure that mirrors that of the FLUXNET Canada Web Site and are provided in their original distribution format. They have been repackaged as zip files for distribution purposes.

Note that this section does not describe the contents of each specific file, but the descriptions below provide a good overview of all zip file contents. Data dictionaries and site descriptions are provided in text and/or MS Word files with each compressed directory.

Data files (*.zip)

Each zip file, when opened, contains one or more text or Word document files and data file folders. Many of the data files are in comma-separated (.csv) format; the first row in the files have the variable names and the second row provides the units under the variable name. There are also files in xls, .txt, .doc, .html, .pdf, and .rar formats.

Measured and modeled data are included. The data provided include carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes, ancillary meteorological, soil, groundwater, surface water, vegetation, file documentation, and site descriptions. Most data are monthly or annual and the time periods vary from 1993 — 2014.

Coded values

Missing and no data values: -999 and NaN represent missing and no data values—there are files where all values are -999 or NaN except for the site information There are not a large number of these files and they are generally at the beginning of a time series, for example, the first month or year.

Quality assurance: The last two columns in the data files are for Certification and Revision information. Certification Code will either be «CPI» or «PRE». «CPI» means that data have been checked by the principal investigator and «PRE» means that the data are preliminary. «RevisionDate» is the date when the data were last revised by the principal investigator.

Data file names and descriptions.

Note: The time periods listed are for general reference; within each year listed, there may or may not be data provided for the entire year. The periods do not reflect the year of any revisions made to the data. Consult the associated metadata documents (.txt and/or .doc) files for additional information on data revisions and known errors.

Table 3. Fluxnet Canada Tower Site Data Files

*.ZIP file name Number of files Time period
0-Fluxnet-Canada 147 1994-2014
AB-Grassland 129 1998-2008
AB-WPeatland-TreedFen 259 2003-2009
AB-WPeatland-MayPoorFen 54 2004-2006
AB-WPeatland-TonysRichFen 52 2004-2006
BC-DFir1949 1,452 1997-2010
BC-HarvestDFir1988 1,033 1995-2010
BC-HarvestDFir2000 1,078 2000-2010
MB-NOldBlackSpruce 18 1994-2008
NB-BFir1967-NashwL01 109 2002-2005
NB-BFir1975-CharlieL01 41 2004-2005
ON-BordenMixedWood 91 1995-2012
ON-Deciduous-TP 253 2012-2014
ON-EPeatland-MerBleue 1,533 1998-2010
On-HarvestMixedWood1989 248 2006-2010
ON-OldMixedWood-GhogR 1,337 2002-2010
ON-PlantnWPine1939-TP 1,305 2002-2014
ON-PlantnWPine1974-TP 1,106 2002-2014
ON-PlantnWPine1989-TP 602 2002-2008
ON-PlantnWPine2002-TP 1,106 2002-2014
QC-BSpruceJPineCut 1,032 2001-2010
QC-MatureBSpruce 866 2003-2010
QC-HarvestBS1975 392 2007-2010
SK-Fen 373 2002-2010
SK-Fire1977 22 2002-2006
SK-Fire1989 23 2001-2006
SK-Fire1998 22 1993-2006
SK-HarvestJP1975 598 1993-2010
SK-HarvestJP1994 804 2001-2010
SK-HarvestJP2002 795 2002-2010
SK-OldAspen 1,629 1993-2010
SK-OldBlackSpruce 1,553 1993-2010
SK-OldJackPine 1,432 1993-2010

Data file naming conventions for individual files in the site-level *.zip files.

There are text and Word files which describe the data file naming conventions for the files within the *.zip files. The following are general data file naming conventions.

Flux data files

Most files are named by site_FlxTwr_Flx_YYYY_MM_DD

Example file name: AB-WPL_FlxTwr_Flx3_2005-06-00.csv

— AB-WPL: is the Alberta Western Peatland Treed Fen Flux Tower site.

— FlxTwr: is subsite where data was collected, in this case the main fluxtower.

— Flx3: files include NEE, R and GPP.

— 2005-06-00: year, month, day.

Soil moisture and soil CO2 efflux data files

Soil moisture and soil CO2 efflux data are included for many sites. These file names contain additional abbreviations such as _SMx (soil moisture files) or SR2 (soil CO2 efflux files) .

Example file name: ON-WPP39_FlxTwr_SM2_2002-01-00.csv

Site Characteristics data file

Folders named X__Site_Characteristics contain a file named NACP_X__Ameriflux_Biological_Data_X.xls. These are excel files that provide site characteristics, vegetation data, biomass, carbon, data, etc. The files include the site name (represented as X).

Readme files and Word doc files provide data dictionaries, vegetation information, and additional information on file naming structure as well as related publications.

Data file aggregation and quality assessment

There are three levels of data aggregation and quality assessment for the flux and meteorological data.

Flux data:

  1. Ancillary: contains raw data used to derive Carbon, Water and Energy fluxes and ultimately Net Ecosystem Productivity information. Includes profile, tree bole and soil heat flux data.
  2. Computed Fluxes: contains Carbon, Water and Energy flux data.
  3. NEP: contains Net Ecosystem Productivity, Gross Ecosystem Productivity and Respiration information.

Meteorology data:

  1. Ancillary: contains a subset of Meteorological variables that were used to derive and quality assure some variables in the Main directory. These are «extra» variables that may be useful to only a few people.
  2. Main: contains the most complete sub set of meteorological variables where most have been corrected and some have been derived, but none have been gap-filled.
  3. Summarized: contains data that have been summarized from the Main subset. Variables have been aggregated (eg., 4 tower top temperature measurements have become one) and gaps have been filled. This summarized subset is to be standard for all sites.

Shapefile and comma-separated file

The shapefile (.shp) is provided in FLUXNET-Canada_file_site_investigators.zip. The following information is provided in the file. Site-specific information was obtained from the FLUXNET database at https://fluxnetweb.ornl.gov/.

Table 4. Shapefile contents

Field Name Description
file_name File name-corresponds to each of the zip files listed in Table 1.
num_files Number of zip files
siteid FLUXNET site id
fluxnetid FLUXNET id
sitename FLUXNET site name
Desc Description of the site
Lat Latitude
Lon Longitude
Start_Year First year of data
End_Year Last year of data
PI Lead investigator
PI_Email Lead investigator email

Table 5. File contents of FLUXNET-Canada_file_site_investigators.csv.

Field Name Description
file_name File name-corresponds to each of the zip files listed in Table 1.
num_files Total number of files provided in the zip file when unzipped.
siteid FLUXNET site id (https://fluxnetweb.ornl.gov/)
fluxnetid FLUXNET id (https://fluxnetweb.ornl.gov/)
sitename FLUXNET site name (https://fluxnetweb.ornl.gov/)
site_desc Description of the site
lat Latitude
lon Longitude
start_Year First year of data
end_Year Last year of data
pi Lead investigator
pi_email Lead investigator email

Application and Derivation

FLUXNET data could be used in climate models.

Quality Assessment

The data from the FLUXNET sites are quality assessed and gap-filled using techniques described in (Papale et al., 2006, Reichstein et al., 2005, Moffat et al., 2007, and Papale and Valentini 2003).

The equipment and methodology were standardized among sites by using common software and instrumentation.

Data Acquisition, Materials, and Methods

These are examples of the sampling and analysis methods employed by the investigators. The numerous Readme files and Word documentation files provided with the data contain detailed method and data descriptions and reference related publications.

Flux and Meteorology Data

Information collected at a site encompassed sensor measurements, field observations, laboratory analysis of field samples, as well as anecdotal descriptions. Each network site deploys a number of sensors measuring micro-meteorology such as precipitation or wind speed and carbon flux. The field data were processed to generate 1/2 hourly flux-met data files. The other, ancillary data include relatively infrequent measurements. An important aspect of the ancillary data is that each measurement is often annotated. For more information about ancillary data and related reporting protocol see (Law et al., 2008).

The eddy covariance method was used at individual network sites to measure mass and energy exchange across a horizontal plane between vegetation and the free atmosphere. Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat were determined by measuring the covariance between fluctuations in vertical velocity (w) and the mixing ratio of trace gases of interest (c) (Aubinet et al., 2000; Baldocchi, 2003); negative covariance values of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (FN) represent a loss of CO2 from the atmosphere and a gain by the surface. The temporal information produced at each network site varied. The spatial scales of observations at each tower extends through the flux footprint around the tower (ranging between 100 and 1000 m) (Gockede et al., 2004).

The 1/2 hourly flux-met data was passed from the sites to their regional networks and then on to FLUXNET. It was then quality assessed and gap-filled using techniques described in (Papale et al., 2006, Reichstein et al., 2005, Moffat et al., 2007, and Papale and Valentini 2003). The goal of gap filling is the reproduction of the NEE time series.

Figure 2. The QC-2000 harvested Black Spruce/Jack Pine site, Quebec, Canada. Image is from the https://fluxnet.ornl.gov/ site gallery.

Figure 3. Canadian Carbon Program (CCP) FLUXNET Stations in 2008.

Ground Data

Ground Plots were studied to gain an overview of the state of ecological and site variables. Plots were established and surveyed according to Canada’s National Forest Inventory ground plot protocols (NFI 2004), which were adopted by FRCN for these measurements. These protocols call for the establishment of 400-m2 circular plots and measurement of trees, understory, woody debris, forest floor, vegetation dominant species, leaf characteristics, carbon, biomass, and soil measurements within each plot. The individual files contain the documentation for site measurements (Baldocchi 2008).

Leaf Sample Nutrient Content and Carbon Isotope Composition

Leaves from each dominant tree species were sampled for nutrient content and carbon isotope composition. The leaf samples were collected in late August or early September 2005, from live, green leaves that were near the top of the trees and exposed to full sunlight. For conifer trees only current year’s needles were collected. Leaf samples were collected from 6 individuals of each tree species. After collection the leaves were placed in paper bags, dried at 60°C, and then ground to a fine powder in a coffee grinder and/or in a mortar and pestle. The total nitrogen and total carbon contents were analyzed on N2 and CO2 gases, respectively, that were generated from combustion/reduction of the dried leaf tissue in an elemental analyzer and quantified using a gas isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The other nutrient analysis (Ca, P, K, Mg, S) was conducted on tissue that was dry-ashed and then digested using a dilute HNO3 and HCl mixture and then quantified using an Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectroscopic analysis technique at Norwest Labs, Lethbridge.

d 13 C Measurements

The dried and ground leaf samples were prepared for measurements of carbon isotopic composition by combustion. A 3-4 mg subsample of ground organic material was sealed in a tin capsule and loaded into an elemental analyzer for combustion (Carla Erba). The carbon dioxide generated from the combustion was purified in a gas chromatographic column and passed directly to the inlet of a gas isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Delta Plus, Finnigan Mat, San Jose, CA, USA).

Atmospheric CO2 – Flask Samples

The data files contain information on the concentration of CO2 and the stable carbon ( 13 C/ 12 C) isotope composition of CO2 in flask samples of air collected at different Fluxnet-Canada Carbon Cycle Stations during 2003-2005. Most atmospheric CO2 samples were collected during nighttime sample periods. Air samples were collected in order to use a modified Keeling plot technique to calculate the isotope composition of CO2 respired by the ecosystem.

Data Access

These data are available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Contact for Data Center Access Information:

References

Aubinet, M., A. Grelle, A. Ibrom, Ü. Rannik, J. Moncrieff, T. Foken, A.S. Kowalski, P.H. Martin, P. Berbigier, Ch. Bernhofer, R. Clement, J. Elbers, A. Granier, T. Grünwald, K. Morgenstern, K. Pilegaard, C. Rebmann, W. Snijders, R. Valentini, T. Vesala. Advances in Ecological Research 30, 113-175.

Baldocchi, D.D . 2008. ‘Breathing’ of the Terrestrial Biosphere: Lessons Learned from a Global Network of Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems. Australian Journal of Botany. 56, 1-26.

Baldocchi, D.D . 2003. Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems: past, present and future. Global Change Biology (2003) 9, 479-492.

Gockede M., C. Rebmann, and T. Foken. (2004). A combination of quality assessment tools for eddy covariance measurements with footprint modelling for the characterisation of complex sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 127, 175-188.

Law, B. E., T. Arkebauer, J.L. Campbell, J. Chen, O. Sun, M. Schwartz ,C. van Ingen, and S. Verma. (2008). Terrestrial Carbon Observing Protocols for Vegetation Sampling and Data Submission. http://www.fao.org/gtos/doc/pub55.pdf

Moffat, A., D. Papale, M. Reichstein, D.Y. Hollinger, A.D. Richardson, A.G. Barr, C. Beckstein, B.H. Braswell, G. Churkina, A.R. Desai, E. Falge, J.H. Gove, M. Heimann, D. Hui, A.J. Jarvis, J. Kattge, A. Noormets, and V.J. Stauch. (2007). Comprehensive comparison of gap-filling techniques for eddy covariance net carbon fluxes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (147) 209-232.

NFI 2004A. v4.1.1. Canada’s National Forest Inventory National Standard for Ground Plots: Data Dictionary.

NFI 2004B. v1.0. Canada’s National Forest Inventory National Standard for Ground Plots: Ground Plot Appendices.

NFI 2004C. v3.2. Canada’s National Forest Inventory: Design Overview.

NFI 2004D. v1.4. (Draft) Canada’s National Forest Inventory National Standard for Ground Plots: Compilation Procedures.

NFI 2004E. v4.1. Canada’s National Forest Inventory: Ground Sampling Guidelines.

NFI 2004F. v3.0. Canada’s National Forest Inventory: Ground plot data upload and metadata specifications.

Papale, D., M. Reichstein, M. Aubinet, E. Canfora, C. Bernhofer, W. Kutsch, B. Longdoz, S. Rambal, R. Valentini, T. Vesala, and D. Yakir. (2006). Towards a standardized processing of Net Ecosystem Exchange measured with eddy covariance technique: algorithms and uncertainty estimation, Biogeosciences, (3), 571-583.

Papale D., Valentini R. (2003) A new assessment of European forests carbon exchanges by eddy fluxes and artificial neural network spatialization. Global Change Biology (9) 525-535.

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29. ВЗАИМНЫЕ ФОНДЫ. MUTUAL FUNDS. ИНВЕСТИЦИИ В КАНАДЕ. MoneyIns >

Канада является часто забытым рынком для инвесторов из США, ищущих немного международного воздействия. С его крупными горнодобывающими и энергетическими отраслями страна является 11-м самым богатым в мире и одним из немногих нетто-экспортеров энергии. Его высокий уровень жизни и доход на душу населения также делают его очень политически стабильным. Инвесторы, желающие получить доступ к этой редкой комбинации, могут рассмотреть возможность инвестирования в канадские ETF.

Биржевые фонды («ETFs») предлагают разнообразие индекса с простотой справедливости. Инвесторы могут инвестировать в канадские ETF, чтобы получить доступ к всей экономике страны, конкретным отраслям или даже определенным классам активов. Эти канадские ETF можно обменять на брокерский счет в США, как обычный капитал, что делает их намного проще, чем американские депозитарные расписки («АДР») или пытается купить иностранные акции.

Топ-10 самых популярных канадских ETFs

Канадские ETFs стали популярными за последние несколько десятилетий, учитывая стабильность и значительную энергетическую и сырьевую промышленность страны, хотя из-за слабости цен на сырьевые товары к распродаже. От своих золотых приисков до нефтяных песков до лесозаготовительной отрасли Канада может быть наиболее известна в этих активах, но ее отрасль внутренних услуг использует около трех четвертей своего населения. И страна также является одним из крупнейших экспортеров сельскохозяйственной продукции в мире.

Самый популярный канадский ETF, подверженный всей экономике страны, — это MSCI Canada Index Fund (NYSE: EWC), в котором хранится более 100 канадских акций с общей стоимостью чистых активов почти в 2 миллиарда долларов. Тем не менее, инвесторы также могут выбрать канадские ETF, которые сосредоточены на определенных секторах или классах активов, а также на более общих ETF, которые, как правило, удерживают много канадских акций.

Три ETF с наибольшим канадским влиянием:

  • Канадский энергетический доход ETF (NYSE: ENY)
  • Индексный фонд MSCI Canada (NYSE: EWC)
  • IQ Canada Small Cap ETF (NYSE: CNDA)

Пять дополнительных ETF с более чем 50-процентным воздействием включают в себя:

  • Векторы рынка Junior Gold Miners (NYSE: GDXJ)
  • Исследователи золота ETF (NYSE: GLDX)
  • Рыночные векторы TR Gold Miners (NYSE: GDX )
  • Серебряные шахтеры ETF (NYSE: SIL)
  • Uranium ETF (NYSE: URA)

Преимущества и риски канадских ETF

Есть много преимуществ для инвестиций в канадские ETF. Страна является независимой от энергетики и занимает более высокие позиции, чем США и большинство E. U. по индексу экономической свободы Фонда «Наследие». Центральный банк страны также активно реализовал свободную денежно-кредитную политику, чтобы помочь экономике преодолеть экономические трудности, возникшие в 2008/2009 году и во время глобальной распродажи в 2015 году.

Но есть также много рисков, которые инвесторы должны учитывать при инвестировании в канадских ETF.Самый большой риск — это воздействие канадской экономики на энергию и сырьевые товары, которые, как правило, являются очень нестабильными рынками, особенно во время спадов, подобных тем, которые наблюдаются в 2014 и 2015 годах. Хотя светская тенденция может повышаться в долгосрочной перспективе, замедляя развивающийся рынок или глобальный спрос может быстро обратить вспять эти тенденции в краткосрочной и среднесрочной перспективе.

Альтернативы инвестированию в канадские ETF

Инвесторы, желающие более прямого воздействия на канадские компании, могут захотеть рассмотреть Американские депозитарные расписки («АДР»). Торговля этими ценными бумагами на фондовых биржах США и представляет собой определенное количество акций в иностранной корпорации. В отличие от канадского ЕФО эти АДР представляют собой единую компанию вместо корзины акций.

Популярные канадские АДР и торгуемые акции США включают в себя:

  • Банк Монреаля (NYSE: BMO)
  • Корпорация TELUS (NYSE: TU)
  • Sun Life Financial Inc. (NYSE: SLF)
  • BCE Inc. (NYSE: BCE)
  • TransCanada Corporation (NYSE: TRP)

В качестве альтернативы, инвесторы также могут приобретать иностранные акции на Фондовой бирже Торонто (TSE) или TSX Venture Exchange (TSX). Так как Канада имеет крепкие связи с США, многие популярные брокеры США имеют возможность совершать сделки на этих биржах без существенной дополнительной работы.

Однако есть некоторые юридические и налоговые последствия, которые могут применяться.

The Difference Between Seasonal Economic Fluctuations & Cyclical Economic Fluctuations

Rising rates are usually a negative for investments.

3d line chart image by Pos Dmitry from Fotolia.com

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Economic fluctuations are periodic lows and highs in measures of economic activity, such as unemployment and inflation. These fluctuations affect wages, consumer demand, and the prices of raw materials. Seasonal fluctuations are short-term, but cyclical fluctuations could last for years. Small and large businesses should be prepared to manage changes in expenses and revenues through these fluctuations.

Indicators

Economic indicators provide early warning signs for business managers. For example, income growth usually signals higher consumer spending, which leads to increases in business spending. High unemployment means low consumer spending, which means lower business revenues and profits. Inflation drives up the prices of raw materials and wages, which increases costs. In a competitive environment or in a sluggish economy, businesses may not be able to offset rising input costs with price increases, and the limitation adversely affects profits. Inflation may lead to higher interest rates, which usually increases borrowing costs and decreases consumer spending.

Seasonal Fluctuations

Seasonal economic fluctuations refer to short-term movements in economic indicators that generally follow a consistent pattern each year. For example, farm and fishing income may rise during the summer months when there is activity in those sectors. Retail inventories commonly rise during the Christmas selling period as stores prepare for holiday shoppers. Activity in the construction industry also shows seasonal fluctuations. In areas with harsh winters, construction slows down during the winter months and picks up during the summer. Businesses that supply to these industries have to plan for these seasonal fluctuations and build up enough cash reserves to get them through the slow seasonal periods.

Cyclical Fluctuations

Cyclical fluctuations are alternating periods of contraction and expansion than can last 18 months or longer from the peak to the trough of the cycle. Consumer and business demand falls during contraction and rises during expansion. Businesses respond to contractions by cutting back on staff, reducing operating expenses and delaying capital investment decisions. For example, a manufacturer may reduce the number of production shifts, while a retailer may delay opening a second store. During economic expansion, consumer spending increases, which leads to higher demand for cars and other big-ticket items. Manufacturers respond by increasing production and hiring new staff, which may lead to higher prices and supply shortages.

Irregular Fluctuations

Irregular economic fluctuations result from unusual events, such as floods, strikes, civil strife, large bankruptcies and terrorist incidents. The impact of these fluctuations is usually limited to a certain industry or market. For example, a flood may affect the distribution capability within a specific region. Major natural disasters, such as the 2011 Japanese earthquake, can affect the supply chains of several industries.

May 4 Express Entry Draw: CRS Cut-Off Threshold of 423

A total of 3,796 cand >

This CRS cut-off threshold is broadly in line with other draws that have taken over recent weeks and months, which have seen thresholds move from the mid-400s down to the low-400s. The lowest ever threshold, 415, was in the April 19 draw, while the draw preceding that one (April 12) also saw a threshold of 423.

Today’s draw brings the total number of ITAs issued so far in 2020 to 39,769, and the total since Express Entry was first launched in 2015 to 104,614.

The total number of ITAs issued so far this year nearly equals the total number of principal applicants who landed in Canada through Express Entry (43,202) over the first two years of the system’s operation. Consequently, it is likely that the rate of admissions to Canada through Express Entry will increase through 2020 as more candidates are invited to apply, and already invited candidates have their applications approved.

A recent report from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) provides insights into the history of Express Entry, and how this fits into the growth in invitations issued and a decrease in the CRS cut-off threshold so far this year.

In this report, IRCC stated an expectation that the CRS cut-off threshold should become ‘progressively lower’ as ‘the Express Entry pool is now the main source of permanent residence applications in the economic category of the Immigration Levels Plan.’ And while the threshold increased slightly this time around, relative to the previous draw, the general trend over recent months is towards large draws and a decreasing threshold.

For more on this report, see:

How are candidates getting an ITA?

The following hypothetical scenarios show how candidates in the Express Entry pool are obtaining their ITA.

Isabela is 39 years old, and has worked as a nutritionist for more than six years following the completion of her Master’s degree. She has never worked or studied in Canada, although she did visit for a short holiday after her degree. She achieved an advanced level on her IELTS test in each ability, except speaking, in which she achieved an initial advanced level. Her CRS score is 423, enough to secure an ITA this time around.

Enrique is 32 years old. He has worked as an accountant for three years in his home country. Although English isn’t his first language, he pursued a Bachelor’s degree and has been working on his English, so he achieved an advanced level in all categories on his recent IELTS test. He entered the pool with a CRS score of 425, enough to obtain an ITA in the most recent draw.

Elsa and Alvin are married and have very similar credentials. Each partner is 30 years old, has a Bachelor’s degree, three years of skilled work experience, and an initial advanced proficiency in English. Neither has ever been to Canada, but their CRS score of 426 was enough for them to obtain an ITA.

Danny is 31 and has been working as an IT consultant for four years. Danny has a Bachelor’s degree and wrote the IELTS, scoring an 8 in each category. Danny has visited Canada before but has never lived or worked in Canada. His CRS score of 427 is enough for him to be invited in the May 4 draw.

Syed is 26 years old, and has been working in Canada as a welder for a year, after completing a one-year college diploma in Ontario. He has IELTS test results of 8.5 in Speaking and Listening, and 7 in Reading and Writing, and has no foreign work experience. His age, Canadian educational credential, year of skilled work experience, and language results give him 423 CRS points – enough to obtain an ITA in the most recent draw.

Lynn is 35 years old and completed a Bachelor’s degree in Vancouver, British Columbia. She worked abroad for two years before coming to Canada, and has been working as a management consultant in Canada for two years. She got a 6 in each section of her IELTS, giving her a CRS score of 424.

Stefan is 39 years old, and has a Master’s degree in journalism, obtained in his home country. He has been working for eight years, also in his home country. Stefan has an initial advanced level of English in each category, except for speaking, where he obtained an advanced score on his IELTS test. His wife Cristina has a Bachelor’s degree and an initial advanced level of English. Together, they obtain 423 points, and have received an ITA in the latest draw.

A transitional stage

The current period in the history of Express Entry is a transitional one, coming as it does between two sets of improvements to the system. The first set, introduced last November, altered the number of CRS points awarded for a job offer, from 600 down to either 50 or 200, depending on the position offered. IRCC stated that ‘a reduction of points to candidates with arranged employment means the CRS cut-off will decline, and, taken with the increase in ITAs issued over recent months, these have been the two major contributory factors to the decrease in the CRS threshold.

The next set of improvements are scheduled to come into force on June 6. Candidates with proof of French ability, as well as candidates with a sibling in Canada, will be awarded additional points, and registration in the Canada Job Bank will become voluntary.

Although the changes already introduced have had a significant effect on the make-up of the pool, the upcoming changes are not expected to have the same weight of effect.

“With IRCC have revealed that Express Entry is now the main driver of economic immigration to Canada, it is perhaps no surprise that the department continues to conduct draws that are larger than those that took place just a few months ago,” says Attorney David Cohen.

“More and more candidates, even those who enter the pool with scores below the lowest score drawn, are realizing their Canadian immigration goals through Express Entry, but the first step is to get in the pool. Only then can a candidate pursue a provincial nomination, as well as other ways to improve his or her ranking, and be in line for selection by IRCC.”

To find out if you are eligible to immigrate to Canada permanently, fill out a free online assessment form.
Candidates who have received an ITA and want to learn more about the next steps may complete this short form.

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