Economic impact of immigration to Canada Канада

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ANALYSIS: Election unlikely to have major impact on Canada’s immigration system Despite rhetoric, recent history shows Canada’s Liberals and Conservatives have much in common when it comes to immigration

September 11, 2020 by Kareem El-Assal

With the federal election campaign now underway, a popular question is how the October 21 vote might affect Canada’s immigration system.

One way of answering this question is by evaluating recent history to get a sense of what Canada’s immigration system could look like in the coming years.

Public opinion polling shows that the Liberals and Conservatives are effectively tied for the lead. Drawing upon their immigration policies dating to the late 1980s, it is reasonable to infer that major components of the immigration system will remain stable after October 21 should either party win the election.

Immigration Levels

Canada’s immigrant intake is poised to remain above 300,000 per year irrespective of the election result. Since the late 1980s, when the Conservatives decided to double immigration levels to above 200,000 newcomers annually, both parties have used their time in power to continue the policy of increasing levels. This is due to the bipartisan consensus that high levels of immigration are needed to alleviate the economic and fiscal strain caused by Canada’s ageing population and low birth rate.

When they last governed between 2006 and 2015, the Conservatives steadily increased immigration levels to about 260,000 newcomers per year—compared with the roughly 225,000 newcomers welcomed by the Liberals per year between 1996 and 2005.

The major difference today, however, is that Canada’s retirement rate is accelerating due to the over 9 million baby boomers set to reach the age of retirement (65 years old) within the next decade. This means the need to sustain high levels of immigration is even more important to Canada’s economy than it was in the past.

Newcomer Composition

A notable area of divergence between the two parties pertains to the composition of Canada’s newcomers. Under the previous Conservative government, about 63 per cent of Canada’s immigrants arrived under the economic class, 27 per cent under the family class, and 10 per cent as refugees.

Since 2015, the Liberals have placed a greater emphasis on the refugee class by increasing its share to about 15 per cent while reducing the share of the economic class to about 58 per cent (while keeping the family class share unchanged).

As per Canada’s 2020-2021 Immigration Levels Plan, the Liberals are aiming to maintain this composition for at least the next two years.

Based on their record when they last governed, and their public statements, the Conservatives would probably increase the economic class share to above 60 per cent while reducing the refugee class share. The official Conservative campaign platform, for instance, states they will “safeguard and emphasize economic immigration” if they win the election.

Settlement Funding

Both parties have overseen a massive increase to Canada’s settlement funding over the past 20 years. The funding goes towards services that help newcomers integrate into Canada’s economy and society such as English and French language training and employment supports.

The federal settlement envelope now stands at about $1.5 billion annually, which is a fivefold increase compared with the 2000-01 fiscal year. The Liberals began the policy of increasing settlement funding at the turn of the millennium, which the Conservatives continued during their nine years in power.

Both parties are poised to maintain high levels of immigration moving forward which suggests that settlement funding will be largely unaffected. The Conservatives are campaigning to balance the federal budget within five years of attaining power, which may result in concerns that settlement supports will be cut. However, it is worth observing that the Conservatives increased settlement funding even as they balanced the budget leading up to the 2015 election.

Expect Stability

There is no question that the Liberals and Conservatives differ on substantive immigration matters such as citizenship policy and how to handle asylum claims. But for the most part, they have far more in common on immigration.

This leads one to believe that Canada’s immigration system will continue the pattern of recent decades that has seen the country increase newcomer levels and its investment in global talent.

Kareem El-Assal is the Director of Policy & Digital Strategy at Canadavisa.

© 2020 CIC News All Rights Reserved

Economic impact of immigration to Canada Канада

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The economic impact of immigration to Canada is a much-debated topic in Canada. Over the years, federal government initiatives have fostered a higher per-capita immigration rate than most industrialized nations. One of the core principles of these policies is the theory that it results in a stronger Canadian economy. Several recent studies have contradicted this economic benefit rationale. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. . Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). . Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. .

Contents

Economic rationale for immigration

According to Canada’s Immigration Program (October 2004), Canada has the highest per capita immigration rate in the world, [1] although statistics in the CIA World Factbook shows that a number of city states and small island nations, as well as some larger countries in regions with refugee movements, have higher per capita rates. [2] There are three main official reasons given for the high level of immigration to Canada, one specific to each immigration category: Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. .

A. The social component – which relates to family class immigrants. B. The humanitarian component – which relates to refugees. C. The economic component – which relate to economic class immigrants. Canada wishes to attract skilled workers and business immigrants who will contribute to the economic life of the country and fill labour market needs. Objective 3(1)(c) states the goal of “… support[ing] the development of a strong and prosperous Canadian economy ….”

One of the supporting factors the government points to is Canada’s low birth rate (see List of countries by birth rate). The theory is that new res > Image File history File links Download high resolution version (911×623, 6 KB) Summary Graph created by Luigi Zanasi using Microsoft Excel and Irfanview to turn it into a PNG. Source of data: Demographics of Canada Wikipedia page. . Image File history File links Download high resolution version (911×623, 6 KB) Summary Graph created by Luigi Zanasi using Microsoft Excel and Irfanview to turn it into a PNG. Source of data: Demographics of Canada Wikipedia page. . This is a list of countries by birth rate, based on The World Factbook, as at September 2005. .

The economic benefit theories are not universally accepted. Organizations like the Fraser Institute, a conservative think tank, question whether a declining population would reduce or increase per capita income, noting that in the short term, with a stable economy, fewer people would increase the per capita income simply because you div >[3] A study by the C. D. Howe Institute, another conservative think tank, suggests that immigration cannot keep Canada’s population young and could possibly contribute to population ageing in the near term. [4] Employment statistics also bring into question whether skilled worker immigrants, with a 34% unemployment rate, [5] are successfully meeting existing labour market needs in Canada, and Statistics Canada explains that although progress was made in reducing poverty (as measured by the low-income rate) with non-immigrants, this progress was more than offset by the income profile of new immigrants, resulting in a net w >[6] And a more recent 2007 Statistics Canada study shows that the income profile of recent immigrants deteriorated by yet another significant amount from 2000 to 2004. [7] Another Statistics Canada study also shows that immigration reduces overall wage levels in Canada. [8] The Fraser Institute is a libertarian think tank based in Canada. . The C.D. Howe Institute (French: ) is a Canadian economic and social think tank based in Toronto, Ontario. . Population ageing or population aging (see English spelling differences) occurs when the median age of a country or region rises. . Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. . Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among members of a society. . For the band, see 1990s (band). .

Economy-wide impacts

Expanded economy

Population growth through immigration boosts GDP, a measure of the size of the overall economy. [9] It increases the number of consumers for all products, including housing, durable goods, and services. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000×1490, 938 KB) Summary An aerial view of housing developments near Markham, Ontario Photo by IDuke, November 2005. . Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000×1490, 938 KB) Summary An aerial view of housing developments near Markham, Ontario Photo by IDuke, November 2005. . Map showing Markhams location in York Region Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Regional Municipality York Region Communities Buttonville, Thornhill, German Mills, Milliken, Unionville Settled 1794 Incorporated 1972 (town) Government — Mayor Frank Scarpitti — Deputy Mayor Jim Jones — Regional Councillors Jack Heath, Tony Wong, Gordon Landon — MPs Susan Kadis (LPC) — Thornhill. A map of Torontos Census Metropolitan Area, which contains a large portion of the Greater Toronto Area. . Houses in Fishpool Street, St Albans, England For other meanings of the word house, see House (disambiguation). . A car (Toyota Corolla S) is a durable good in economics. . Services are: plural of service Tertiary sector of industry IRC services Web services the name of a first-class cricket team in India This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. .

When referring to Canada’s full immigration history, the term migrant may be more appropriate than immigrant, because from a legal perspective, prior to 1 January 1947 there was no official immigration law (see History of Canadian nationality law). Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). . Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. . Canada was the second nation in the then British Commonwealth to establish its own nationality law in 1946, with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act 1946. .

The aboriginal and visible minority demographic information can be used as a very rough proxy for the proportionate historical economic impact of human migration from various sources: Last Spike of the CPR — Craigellachie, British Columbia, Canada Donald Smith driving the last spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway. . Last Spike of the CPR — Craigellachie, British Columbia, Canada Donald Smith driving the last spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway. . Donald Alexander Smith Donald Alexander Smith (August 6, 1820 – January 21, 1914) was a Scottish born Canadian fur trader, financier, railroad baron and politician. . This article is about the country. . It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Canadian Pacific Railway. . Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. . In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. . Canadian citizenship is obtained by birth in Canada (other than as a child of a foreign diplomat), by birth abroad, when at least one parent is a Canadian citizen, or can be granted to a permanent resident who lives in Canada for three out of four years before applying for. Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). .

  • Approximately 83% of Canada’s population are neither visible minorities nor aboriginals, and would largely represent migrants or descendants of European ancestry.
  • Visible minorities comprise 13.4% of the population. The largest minority groups are Chinese, South Asian, Black, and Filipino, representing past migration from the applicable areas.
  • Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise 3.3% of the population. Depending on one’s viewpoint, they are either descendants of migrants of many centuries ago, or they are indigenous people.

This is very imprecise as there would be differences in affluence and economic contribution between the groups. Such a proxy also ignores the time element, as groups that migrated earlier would have made more established contributions to the economy. In addition, historically there may have been specific economic impacts derived from migrants from specific regions. For example, many thousands of navvies from Europe and the Chinese provinces of Fujian and Guangdong (along with Chinese veterans of the gold rushes), worked on and completed the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 19th century, creating key transportation infrastructure, which was very important to Canada’s economic development. The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. . Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. . Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. . This article or section does not cite its references or sources. . Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. . Native Americans redirects here. . Navvy is a shorter form of the word navigator and is particularly applied to describe the manual labourers working on major civil engineering projects. . For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). . (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kià n) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. . Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. . An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. .

Come to Stay, printed in 1880 in the Canadian Illustrated News, which refers to immigration to the Dominion. Today, there is a debate about immigrants who do not stay, but instead leave soon after securing citizenship. . Canadian historians until the 1960s tended to focus on economic history, including labour history. .

Per capita income

The impact to Canada’s per capita income depends on whether immigrants have an income above or below the national average, whether immigration results in changes to overall wage levels in Canada, and whether the skills they bring or their low cost labour improves the competitiveness of the Canadian business environment. The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. .

Analysis of census data as of 2000 shows that immigrant incomes were at 80% of the national average after 10 years of res >[10] In previous decades, immigrant income levels d >[6] The study noted that the deterioration was w >[7] The 2007 study explains that this deterioration has occurred even though Canada implemented changes in 1993 to encourage more highly educated immigrants, with 45% of new immigrants having university degrees as of 2004, compared to 13% in the early 1990s. Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. . For the band, see 1990s (band). .

In terms of the impact of immigration to economy-w >[8]

In 1991, the Economic Council of Canada concluded that «A historical perspective gives little or no support to the view that immigration is needed for economic prosperity. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the fastest growth in per capita real incomes occurred at times when net immigration was nil or negative. Later in the 20th century, the opposite linkage is seen but, clearly, there is no long-term correlation.» [11] A University of Montreal study published in 2002 by professor Marc Termote used different methods and studied different countries and concluded that immigration has no statistically significant impact to the per capita income of a country. [12] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. . The Université de Montréal (UdeM) (translated into English commonly as (the) University of Montreal) is one of four universities in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. .

Government finances

Federal and provincial government social programs can experience greater expense without corresponding tax revenue due to the low employment rate of immigrants (see employment statistics below). The Fraser Institute claims that the immigrants who arrived between 1990 and 2002 cost governments $18.3 billion per annum (as of 2002) in excess of taxes raised from those immigrants, relating to universal social services (e.g., welfare, medicare, public education). [3] In addition to the universal social services cons >[13] New immigrants are also entitled to settlement assistance such as free language training under provincial government administered programs usually called Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC), for which the federal government budgeted about $350 million to give to the provinces for the fiscal year 2006-2007. [14] The majority of the $350 million was allocated to Quebec under the Canada-Quebec Accord, at $196 million per year, [15] even though immigration to Quebec represented only 16.5% of all immigration to Canada in 2005. [16] The $350 million is budgeted to increase by an additional $90 million by 2009. [17] The Fraser Institute is a libertarian think tank based in Canada. . Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. . -1. This article is about financial assistance paid by government organizations. . The term medicare (in lowercase) (French: assurance maladie) is the unofficial name for Canadas universal public health insurance system. . // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. . Section 8 is an American sponsored public housing program divided into two programs, tenant-based and project-based. . Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) is a Canadian government agency. . This article is about the Canadian province. . The Canada-Quebec Accord is a legal agreement concerning immigration issues between the federal government of Canada and the provincial government of Quebec. .

The Citizenship and Immigration Canada department employs 5,000 staff, [18] which on a per capita basis is 3 times more than the 15,000 U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services employees. [19] Citizenship and Immigration Canada recoups some of its department costs through landing fees. In 2006, the Canadian government reduced the landing fee per immigrant by 50%. [20] The Department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for issues dealing with immigration and citizenship. . U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is a part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and performs some of the functions formerly carried out by the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service, which was part of the Department of Justice. .

Provincial governments in Canada have established citizenship and immigration departments, such as the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration (Ontario), which employ hundreds of additional staff. The Ontario department is also involved in a spending controversy. In contrast, large states with significant immigration, such as California, have no equivalent department or agency. [21] The Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration is responsible for citizenship and immigration issues in the Canadian province of Ontario. . The Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration is responsible for citizenship and immigration issues in the Canadian province of Ontario. . This article is about the U.S. state. .

Employment statistics

The economic impact of immigration differs by immigration category. For example, according to Statistics Canada, there are significant differences in the labour force participation rates. 2001 labour statistics by immigration category: [5] Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. .

Labour force rates Family Skilled worker principal applicants Skilled worker dependants Other economic Refugees All immigrants
Participation rate 59% 91% 63% 48% 44% 70%
Employment rate 39% 60% 36% 29% 21% 44%
Unemployment rate 34% 34% 43% 40% 51% 37%
Rank of total number of immigrants in 2005 [22] 2nd 3rd 1st 5th 4th

Data source: Statistics Canada, 2001, Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada. For clarity: Employment Rate = Participation Rate * (1 — Unemployment Rate)

In 2001, the overall unemployment rate of immigrants was 37%. Combined with the overall participation rate of 70%, this means that only 44% of landed immigrants aged 15 years and higher were working in 2001 (i.e., a majority of 56% were not working). The 44% employment rate was significantly lower than the average 2001 employment rate in Canada of 61%. [23] Immigrant unemployment levels do not reduce to the Canadian average during at least the first 10 years of res >[24]

Statistics Canada has updated the study to coinc >[25] however, so far they are only reporting on a more narrow age range called core working-age immigrants (ages 25-54) on the basis that they are more likely to be employed, which, of course, shows more favourable employment statistics. As a result, there is no 2006 update available yet for the overall employment numbers.

Economic class immigrants

The Economic class is the largest of the three main immigrant categories (the other two being the Family and Refugee classes). Immigrants to Canada, Economic class or otherwise, are generally not required to have pre-arranged employment (an exception being live-in caregivers). Canada uses a point-based system to assess about 20% of immigrants (skilled worker principal applicants). The points system awards points for education, language ability, employment experience, age, arranged employment and adaptability. Canada has an unemployment challenge relating to landed immigrants as even skilled worker immigrants, who are selected on the basis that they have the skills required to meet existing labour market needs in Canada, have a 34% unemployment rate.

There are two types of Economic immigrants:

  1. Skilled workers, the largest of the two groups, comprising 83.3% of Economic immigrants in 2005
  2. Other economic, which is broken out in different ways at times, but can be mapped out as:
    1. Business immigrants
      1. Investors (with CAD$400,000 in capital and a minimum net worth of CAD$800,000)
      2. Entrepreneurs (with a minimum net worth of CAD$300,000)
      3. Self-employed (with the intent and abilities to create their own employment)
    2. Provincial/territories nominees
    3. Live-in caregivers

Along with the principal applicants, each Economic immigrant group also includes spouses and children (rather than >[26] ), and in the case of both Skilled workers and Other economic there are more spouses and children than principal applicants. So while Economic immigrants, as defined by the government, comprised almost 60% of all immigration, the majority of this group is made up of spouses and children of principal applicants. Skilled worker principal applicants comprised 19.8% of all immigration, and Other economic principal applicants comprised 3.6%, so the sum of those two principal applicant groups was only 23.4% of all immigration in 2005. [22] The employment rate for dependants aged 15 and older of skilled worker applicants is only 36%, compared to 60% for the principal applicants. [5] “C$” redirects here. . “C$” redirects here. . “C$” redirects here. .

A January 2007 study by Statistics Canada analyzed the deterioration in the economic performance of Economic immigrants from several perspectives. [7] One of the more surprising facts is that Economic immigrants are now more likely to begin their stay in Canada with a «low-income» (less than 50% of the median income) than an immigrant in any of the other immigration classes (see Table 16 in the study). This deterioration occurred during the 1990s and early 2000s despite the percentage of immigrants arriving with degrees in the economic class (including principal applicants, spouses, and dependants) rising from 29% in 1992 to 56% in 2003.

Possible explanations for the deterioration in the economic status of immigrants

Criticism of Canada relating to foreign credentials

The difficulty in transferring foreign credentials is often cited within Canada as a reason for employment difficulties. [27] However, an international study by the Migrant Integration Policy Index, sponsored by the research division of the British Council and 100 other signatories, assigned its highest score (3 out of 3) to Canada for the «State facilitation of recognition of skills and qualifications» indicator in their 2006 study of 27 European countries and Canada. [28] The foreign credentials criticism also does little to explain the significant deterioration in the income status of recent immigrants to Canada over the past few decades, as foreign credentials were not more easily transferred to Canada pre-1980 compared to today. Nevertheless, criticism within Canada relating to foreign credentials is popular with Canadian immigrant advocates and politicians of all parties as it is seen to be the most «pro-immigrant» explanation for the employment challenges. [27] [29] [30] Logo of the British Council British Council building in London British Council, Hong Kong The British Council is one of the United Kingdoms cultural relations organisations and which specialises in educational opportunities. . For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). .

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The setting of standards for, or recognition of, almost all professional credentials (see Category:Professions) does not fall within the federal government’s control and are therefore not determined by either federal laws or Citizenship and Immigration Canada policies, [30] but Citizenship and Immigration Canada established the Foreign Credentials Referral Office to prov >[31] The Government of Ontario enacted the Fair Access to Regulated Professions Act, 2006 to help immigrants qualify for 34 provincially regulated professions. [32] The Act also established the position of Fairness Commissioner (Ontario). In 2007, the Government of Alberta signed an agreement with federal government that will accelerate the process of foreign credential recognition for new immigrants by licensing bodies in that province. [33] Other provinces have made similar commitments. The Department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for issues dealing with immigration and citizenship. . Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area. The Fairness Commissioner is, in the government of Ontario, the advocate for Canadians who have received professional credentials from foreign countries. . For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). .

Other possible explanations

Other possible theories for the deterioration in the economic status of recent immigrants include the following:

  1. The per capita immigration rate is simply too high; [34][35]
  2. The selection process is flawed; [3]
  3. The shift from European to Asian immigrants has reduced the French and English language fluency of new immigrants, thereby reducing their attractiveness to potential employers; [36][25]
  4. Canada’s increasingly generous social programs create incentives that conflict with the employment objective; [3] and/or
  5. Increased job competition (if that is even true in the current era of low unemployment rates) among even native-born Canadians has increased the importance of relying on networking to access the «h >[37]

The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. .

Economic impact to Toronto

Immigration was also one of the key issues that formed the basis of the New Deal for Cities between Toronto (and other urban centres), the Province of Ontario, and the Government of Canada, [38] because 43% of new immigrants settle in the Greater Toronto Area resulting in certain challenges for that region. [35] [39] A paper published by Statistics Canada noted that «Over the 1990s (1990 to 2000) the city’s low-income rate rose 1.9 percentage points. All of this increase was associated with deteriorating outcomes among immigrants, which tended to increase the city’s low-income rate by 2.8 percentage points.» [6] In other words, the low-income rate among non-immigrants fell, but the income profile of new immigrants resulted in a net w > A map of Torontos Census Metropolitan Area, which contains a large portion of the Greater Toronto Area. . Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. . Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among members of a society. . For the band, see 1990s (band). .

The needs of immigrants prompted the United Way of Greater Toronto, the largest United Way charity in Canada, to >[40] In 2006, the Daily Bread Food Bank in Toronto reported that over 40% of its clients are foreign-born, and that almost half of that group had been in the country for less than 4 years. [41] While the less than 4 year group shows far above average need, the over 40% figure is in line with the general population as 44% of Torontonians are foreign-born. [42] The United Way of Canada (Centraide Canada in French) is a national charitable organization in Canada, made up of 124 autonomous United Way and Centraide campaigns across the country. .

See also

Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers is included in JEL classification codes:
J61
  • Immigration to Canada
  • Economy of Canada
  • Immigration policy

Articles in economics journals are usually classified according to the system used by the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL). . Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. . Canada is one of the worlds wealthiest nations, and a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8). . An immigration policy is any policy of a state that affects the transit of persons across its borders, but especially those that intend to work and to remain in the country. .

The economic impact of immigration

Academics, activists, and politicians of all stripes continue to debate the economic value of Canada’s immigration system. Is Canada bringing too many or too few immigrants? Do they contribute to the country’s economy or do immigrants sap Canada’s already overtaxed resources? To answer some of these questions we interviewed a number of researchers who’ve studied this issue.

John Shields, professor in the Department of Politics and Public Administration at Ryerson University in Toronto, says immigration has had a very significant impact on Canadian population, including the labour market. Immigration is critical for Canada’s labour market stability and growth, Shields says.

“Statistics Canada tells us that essentially all expansion is going to be due solely to immigration today,” Shields says. “So it’s really important for our population today and for the vitality of our labour market.”

Gain or drain?

Shields strongly disagrees with a study conducted by economist Herbert Grubel at the Fraser Institute in British Columbia, which claims that far from being a net gain for the Canadian economy, immigration costs about $5,000 per immigrant per year to Canada’s economy.

“The Fraser Institute is, I think, a bit of a lone voice on this one,” Shields says. “Other, I think far more credible studies have looked at this issue… and virtually all of these studies have shown that it’s either slightly positive or has neutral effect.”

Tinkering with immigration mix

Successive federal governments have tinkered with the mix of the three main classes of immigrants that come to Canada: 1) economic immigrants largely determined by a points system according to their human capital (education, skills, work experience, knowledge of official languages, family status and etc.); 2) family class – family members who are joining other immigrants already in Canada; and 3) humanitarian class immigrants – refugees.

The previous Conservative government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper focused more on economic dimension of immigration and they increased the number of temporary foreign workers in Canada, Shields says.

“What we’ve seen with the new government is a rebalancing of the system,” Shields says, “so that economic class immigrants remain a very important part of the immigration mix, but also there is a greater emphasis now upon the family class and also doing our share in terms of refugees.”

How to better integrate new arrivals

One of the things that Canada does well compared to other immigrant receiving countries is that it has a very robust system of settlement services, Shields says.

“This helps to get newcomers started, to sort of get on the right foot, to get some of the information to provide labour market information and resume writing skills, and orientation and so forth,” Shields says. “But one of the things we found over the years is that we need more bridging programs for immigrants, more mentoring programs for immigrants and connecting immigrants more directly with employers.”

Stealing Canadian jobs?

There is no scientific basic for a common refrain by people opposed to immigration that immigrants are somehow stealing good Canadian jobs, says Shields.

“Actually if we look at some of the academic work, there is very little evidence that there is much of this going on at all,” Shields says. “In fact, as newcomers come in, they tend to expand domestic markets so they actually help to create employment.”

Facing Canada’s ageing problem

Immigration is also one of the solutions to Canada’s problem of rapidly ageing population, helping the country to keep a “well-stocked labour market,” Shields says.

PhD taxi drivers?

Canada can and should do a much better job of using the talents of immigrants it selected to come to the country, Shields says.

“We’re bringing in a lot of immigrants with high human capital but we’re still underemploying too many of them,” Shields says.

Immigration and GDP growth? Two angles of analysis

The increase in population due to higher immigration results in a larger Canadian economy and an increase in real GDP. However, the percentage impact of an increase in immigration on real GDP is less than the percentage impact on the population. Note, however, that experts are divided on this issue and that further studies will have to be produced in order to refine this analysis.

Immigration: The Key to Canada’s Economic Future

Two neighboring countries in North America are tackling the issue of immigration very differently. On the one hand, we have the United States which is putting into place stringent laws that will make it impossible for immigrants to get assimilated into the society. The American culture, in general, is against the concept of immigration. Politicians like Trump are merely harvesting the public sentiment for their political gain.

On the other hand, there is the Canadian society. They are welcoming immigration with open arms. Justin Trudeau has been creating policies which make it extremely easy for immigrants to start a new life in Canada. Canada is allowing more than 350,000 per year to immigrate to Canada. This adds up to over 1% of the population of Canada. Also, this policy is not new. This has been happening for more than two decades. As a result, more than 20% of Canadian citizens today are people that were born outside the Canadian borders. This is more than double the rate of other developed countries like the United States and the United Kingdom.

The contrast between the two policies is perplexing to many people. However, several others believe that Canada is not creating liberal policies because of humanitarian reasons. They think that Canada has rock-solid economic reasons to be encouraging immigration. This is because the future of their economy depends on such immigration. In this article, we will have a closer look at how immigration affects the Canadian economy.

Working Age Population

Canada has very few citizens in the working age population. There are very few citizens in the 25 to 44 age group which are present in the nation. This means that a large chunk of Canada’s population is either too young or too old. The problem is that Canada has a universal free healthcare system. This means that the government is supposed to provide for the healthcare needs of the entire population. However, in order to be able to do so, the government needs tax revenue. People in the working age group generate tax revenue. This is the reason why Canada is more than happy to allow immigration. They want foreign workers to start working and paying taxes to the Canadian government. This will enable the Canadian government to fulfill their welfare obligations.

Consumer Spending

The 25 to 44 age group is also the consumer segment which buys the most products. This age group primarily consumes cars, houses, vacations and other products and services. Hence, by inviting immigrants, Canada is also giving its domestic economy a boost. In the absence of immigrants, significantly fewer numbers of people would be buying these goods and services. If the aggregate demand goes down, other factors such as employment will also take a significant hit. On the other hand, immigrants have driven up the housing prices across Canada. Some call it a housing bubble. However, the fact remains that this has resulted in wealth creation for a lot of Canadian citizens who will lead comfortable lives in retirement thanks to the housing wealth that they have created.

Higher Education

More than 40% of the immigrants that are moving to Canada have advanced degrees. These are individuals who contribute significantly to the economic growth of any nation. Canada’s policies are making it easier for students who have studied in Canada to obtain jobs there. As a result, talent from all over the world is attracted to Canadian universities. This creates a good source of revenue for the Canadian universities as well as the government. Also, the pressure on the government is drastically reduced. Since international students pay vast sums of money to study in Canadian universities, the government’s burden is reduced. Given the fact, that the United States is no longer welcoming students in the job market, Canada has emerged as an attractive alternative.

The Problems Facing Immigration

The problem with Canadian immigration is that it has become home to people who work low-level jobs. Statistics suggest that immigrants to Canada earn less than the average Canadian. Also, these same statistics indicate that it takes about ten years for an average immigrant to obtain a job in the field for which they have the requisite skills. Even after they land a role in the same field, they are often found working at a lower level compared to the skills that they have. Many associations have been formed to get rid of this discrepancy. One of the ways is to ensure that the government policies allow immigrants to work as soon as they arrive in the nation. This would help both immigrants and the employers. On the one hand, immigrants are having a tough time finding new jobs whereas on the other hand several positions in fields such as healthcare and information technology are not being filled due to unavailability of skilled workers.

To sum it up, immigration is not harming the Canadian economy. Instead, immigration is actually sustaining the economy or even helping it grow. This is the reason why Canada is busy creating policies designed to welcome immigrants while other countries are trying to restrict immigration.

Impact of Immigration on Economic Growth in Canada and in its Smaller Provinces

  • Ather H. Akbari
  • Azad Haider

Abstract

This paper evaluates the potential impact of education levels of immigrants and Canadian-born on economic growth in Canada and its smaller provinces by using data for the period 2006–2013. We specify a production function in which levels of educational attainments of immigrants and Canadian-born workers are entered separately. Feasible generalized least square (FGLS) method is applied to estimate the production function separately for all immigrants, and also for established immigrants (those who have been in Canada for 10 years or longer). The results show that all educational levels of immigrants have positive and statistically significant effects on economic growth. A similar conclusion applies to Canadian-born workers, although the impacts of their university degree holders is lower than that of immigrant university degree holders. Both immigrant and Canadian-born workers have smaller effects on economic growth in smaller provinces, which have attracted larger numbers of immigrants in recent years. The results also show that the economic growth effects are similar for all and established immigrants. Although these results are consistent with previous findings on discounting of immigrants’ educational credentials, more data are needed to strengthen their val >social returns to higher education resulting from increased diversity of population which in turn, as some previous studies suggest, can result in increased technological innovation, new ideas, and production of a wide variety of goods and services.

Keywords

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study benefited from the comments received from the participants of a session of Canadian Economics Association meeting held in Toronto in 2015. We also acknowledge the comments of anonymous reviewers of this paper and of Maurice Mandale, a former Senior Policy Analyst at Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. Responsibility for all remaining errors stays with us.

Economic impact of immigration to Canada Канада

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  • Demographic Overview
  • Number of immigrants in Canada from 2000 to 2020 (in 1,000s) Number of immigrants in Canada 2000-2020
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  • Number of international students in Canada in the academic year of 2020 to 2020, by postsecondary program enrollment category Number of international students in Canada, by program enrollment category 2020
  • Number of landed immigrants in Canada in 2020, by level of education (in 1,000s) Number of landed immigrants in Canada by education level 2020
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Economic impact of immigration to Canada explained

The economic impact of immigration is an important topic in Canada. While the immigration rate has dropped sharply from its peak early in the 20th century, Canada is still among the countries in the world that accept most immigrants per capital.

The per capital immigration rate to Canada has been relatively constant since the 1950s, and recent years have seen a steady increase in the education and skill level of immigrants to Canada. However, over the last 25 years the economic position of newcomers to Canada relative to the native population has steadily declined. A 2007 Statistics Canada study shows that the income profile of recent immigrant families deteriorated by a significant amount from 2000 to 2004. [1] Recent immigrants themselves are far more likely than native born Canadians to initially have low incomes, with income and employment rates increasing towards the national average with more time spent in Canada.

Overview

Immigration to Canada

See main article: Immigration to Canada. According to the CIA World Factbook, (2020), Canada has one of the highest migration rates in the world. [2] Canada is also unusual among western nations in the widespread popular support for high rates of immigration, and in recent years support for immigration has increased in Canada. [3] All of Canada’s major political parties support either sustaining or increasing the current level of immigration. [4]

Economic rationale for immigration

There is no agreed view on the net impact of immigration in current times. Historically, Canada’s unusually high immigration rates can be traced to the nation’s unique economy. One factor is that Canada has one of the world’s largest supplies of natural resources such as oil, metals, and lumber. It also has a sparse population spread over a vast landscape. Canada has thus faced acute labour shortages and has responded by actively searching for immigrants. [5] In the late 19th century this included bringing Chinese migrants to build the Canadian Pacific Railway and actively advertising in Europe to find farmers with the Last Best West campaign. Today similar recruitment efforts are needed to staff the oil sands projects in Alberta. [6]

Another factor that contributes to the immigration question is Canada’s low birth rate (10.3 births per 1000 people). [7] The theory is that new residents can assist in meeting future government obligations relating to pay-as-you-go liabilities.

The economic dangers of population decline are not universally accepted. Organizations like the Fraser Institute question whether a declining population would reduce or increase per capita income, noting that in the short term, with a stable economy, fewer people would increase the per capita income simply because you divide the income among fewer people. The study’s authors conducted a series of studies using large amounts of census data (844,476 individuals) and conclude that immigrants who arrived from 1987–2004 paid only 57% of the taxes paid by average Canadian in 2006, with the effect that taxes from immigrants do not exceed the government expenses relating to them (a gap of $23 billion annually according to their numbers). [8] A study by the C. D. Howe Institute suggests that immigration cannot keep Canada’s population young and could possibly contribute to population ageing in the near term. [9] Employment statistics also bring into question whether skilled worker immigrants, with a 34% unemployment rate, [10] are successfully meeting existing labour market needs in Canada. Many developed nations have much lower fertility rates than Canada but have not embraced immigration.

The first detailed analysis of Canadian immigration policy came from the Economic Council of Canada; it called for immigration to be increased to eventually bring Canada’s population to 100 million. While it found that the economic benefits to Canada of immigration were fairly small, noting that «a historical perspective gives little or no support to the view that immigration is needed for national prosperity», it also concluded that the benefits to the newcomers themselves were extremely large. The report concluded that «it would be hard not to recommend an increase when immigrants can gain so much and Canadians not only do not lose but actually make slight economic gains». [11]

Очень важная для вас статья:  Просто люди и их мысли Канада

Immigrant well being

Education levels

The Canadian system puts great emphasis on finding skilled immigrants. [12] Immigrants to Canada are more skilled than immigrants to the United States. George J. Borjas compared immigrants to Canada and the United States finding those to Canada being better educated and receiving higher wages once settled. He accredits this to Canada’s points based immigration system, and argues for the United States to more closely emulate the Canadian method. [13]

Within the Canadian economy, immigrants are mostly found at the highest education levels. In Canada, 38% of male workers with a post-graduate degree are immigrants to the country. [14] 23% of Canadians are foreign born, but 49% of doctorate holders and 40% of those with a master’s degree were born outside Canada. [15] A persistent problem for skilled immigrants is the recognition of foreign credentials. Data from Statistics Canada reports that only 72.2% of new immigrants (landed within 5 years) between the ages of 25 and 54 that possess a university degree are employed. [16] While Canada recruits people to come based on their degrees, many newcomers arrive to find employers and professional organizations not recognizing their foreign education. [17] As the percentage of skilled newcomers as a share of total migrants has increased, so has this problem. A study done by the IZA Journal of Migration, found that between 1991 and 2006, Canadian-educated immigrants and Foreign-educated immigrants, found that Canadian-educated immigrants who graduated from university had a large earnings gap with their Canadian-born counterparts both in the initial years after immigration and in the long run. [18] It was speculated that this outcome was likely due to lack of Canadian work experience and deficiencies in their social networks and language abilities. [19]

The setting of standards for, or recognition of, almost all professional credentials does not fall within the federal government’s control and are therefore not determined by either federal laws or Citizenship and Immigration Canada policies, [20] but Citizenship and Immigration Canada established the Foreign Credentials Referral Office to provide something like a directory assistance service for immigrants. [21] The Government of Ontario enacted the Fair Access to Regulated Professions Act, 2006 to help immigrants qualify for 34 provincially regulated professions. [22] The Act also established the position of Fairness Commissioner (Ontario). In 2007, the Government of Alberta signed an agreement with federal government that will accelerate the process of foreign credential recognition for new immigrants by licensing bodies in that province. [23] Other provinces have made similar commitments.

Wages

In terms of the impact of immigration worldwide, Statistics Canada estimates that for every 10% increase in the population from immigration, wages in Canada are now reduced by 4% on average (with the greatest impact to more skilled workers, such as workers with post-graduate degrees whose wages are reduced by 7%). [24]

In part because of the credential issue, many immigrants are forced to find work below their education level and at lower wages. However, even for doing work of the same skill level, immigrants are much less well compensated than their native born counterparts. Immigration scholar Jeffrey Reitz calculated that in 2001 native Canadian employers were benefiting from, and immigrant employees were losing out on, between $2 and 3 billion per year due to this imbalance. [25] A study published by Statistics Canada reviewed data from 1991 to 2010 regarding the convergence of wages between immigrants and native-born Canadians. The study found that there was a convergence of relative earnings for immigrants. Immigrant men’s average annual wages were 86% of those of native-born men in 2010, up from 76% in 1991. [26]

There are a number of possible explanations for why newcomers earn less than native Canadians in the same jobs with the same skills. Lower hourly wages might be an indication that the labour productivity of immigrants is lower, and employers thus have reason to pay them less. New workers are also less familiar with the Canadian labour market and will thus not be able to maximize their salaries. Employers will also be less familiar with an immigrant’s background and thus less willing to offer the same salary as to a native. [27] Immigrants, especially visible minorities have different values than native-born Canadians as they tend to favour living in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver as opposed to other places much more than native-born Canadians. Due to lower mobility, they do not access better paying jobs, such as in Alberta and Saskatchewan. This has been changing with Calgary already surpassing Montreal in terms of percentage of visible minorities. Visible minorities in Saskatchewan earn higher wages than native-born Canadians.

Employment

Unemployment tends to be very high for recent immigrants, compared to more established immigrants (lived in Canada between 5 to 10 years). Established immigrants tend to have an unemployment rate closer to the national unemployment rate of native-born citizens. In 2011, the unemployment rate of recently arrived immigrants was 13.6%, considerably above the native Canadian average of 5.5%. For more established immigrants, the rate fell to 8.2% [28]

For clarity: Employment Rate = Participation Rate * (1 – Unemployment Rate)

Income

Higher rates of unemployment and lower wages combine to give newcomers less income than the Canadian average. An analysis of Longitudinal Immigration Database by Statistics Canada showed that immigrants who landed in 2014, had a median income of $24,000 in 2015, compared to an income of $36,000 for native-born Canadians. The median income for new immigrants in 2015 was the highest ever recorded and $2,000 more than the median income of new immigrants in 2013. [29] In previous decades, immigrant income levels did rise to the national average after 10 years, but in recent years the situation has deteriorated. A 2003 study published by Statistics Canada noted that «in 1980 recent immigrants had low-income rates 1.4 times that of Canadian born, by 2000 they were 2.5 times higher, at 35.8%.» [30] The study noted that the deterioration was widespread and affected most types of immigrants. The 2003 study explains that the low-income rate among non-immigrants declined in the 1990s, but this was more than offset by the income profile of new immigrants, resulting in a net rise in Canada’s total low-income rate. An updated January 2007 study by Statistics Canada, explains that the deterioration continued into the next decade, with the low-income rate of recent immigrants reaching rates of 3.5 times that of Canadian born in 2002 and 2003, before edging back to 3.2 times in 2004. [1] The 2007 study explains that this deterioration has occurred even though Canada implemented changes in 1993 to encourage more highly educated immigrants, with 45% of new immigrants having university degrees as of 2004.

In 1991 the Economic Council of Canada found that periods of immigration were not directly linked to periods of high growth. They noted that «a historical perspective gives little or no support to the view that immigration is needed for economic prosperity. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the fastest growth in per capita real incomes occurred at times when net immigration was nil or negative. Later in the 20th century, the opposite linkage is seen but, clearly, there is no long-term correlation.» However, the same report found that a high rate of immigration was good for Canada’s future, and recommended expanding immigration rates to bring Canada’s population to 100 million. [31] A University of Montreal study published in 2002 by professor Marc Termote used different methods and studied different countries and concluded that immigration has no statistically significant impact to the per capita income of a country. [32]

Decline in economic well being

Over the last 25 years the economic position of newcomers to Canada relative to the native population has steadily declined. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain these issues.

  1. The selection process is flawed; [8]
  2. Government and corporate policies deliberately shift immigrants to secondary sector occupations. These are jobs characterized by high instability, hazardous work environments, and low pay. Inherently those involved in these sectors will have lower wages and more periods of unemployment. In several European countries the immigration system is almost fully designed to try to fill these positions. This is less the case in Canada, but significant recruitment programs for sectors such as agriculture and oil and gas recruit many workers to perilous jobs. [33]
  3. Newer immigrants from outside of Europe are victims of racial discrimination. [34]
  4. Canada’s social programs create incentives that conflict with the employment objective; [8] and/or
  5. Increased job competition among even native-born Canadians has increased the importance of relying on networking to access the «hidden market,» putting immigrants at a disadvantage given their lack of deep and broad networks. [35]

A January 2007 study by Statistics Canada analyzed the drop in income of economic immigrants from several perspectives. [1] Economic immigrants are now more likely to begin their stay in Canada with a «low-income» (less than 50% of the median income) than an immigrant in any of the other immigration classes (see Table 16 in the study). This drop occurred during the 1990s and early 2000s despite the percentage of immigrants arriving with degrees in the economic class (including principal applicants, spouses, and dependents) rising from 29% in 1992 to 56% in 2003.

Stating an intention to reduce a backlog of immigration applicants of all classes, and to better target the required skills needed in Canada, the federal government passed a law in 2008 that gave the immigration minister new powers to alter immigrant selection. Many expected that these powers would be used to favour workers in skilled trades over immigrants selected on the basis of education through the points system. [36]

While the well being of immigrants has declined in recent years, this has not affected second generation immigrants, or those who came to Canada as a child. This group is one of the most successful in Canada, with education and earning levels well above that of their parents and also above the Canadian average. [37]

Long term outcomes

One of the most important studies of the economic impact of immigration to Canada is Morton Beiser’s Strangers at the Gate. This study looked at the arrival of the Vietnamese boat people who began to arrive in Canada in 1979 to much controversy. The total number of refugees was 60,000, the largest single group of refugees to ever arrive in Canada. Beiser first studied the boat people upon their arrival, finding that few spoke English or French, that most were farmers with few skills useful in Canada, and that they had arrived with no assets with which to establish themselves. Beiser then followed the progress of the boat people to see what effect they would have on Canada. Within ten years of arrival the boat people had an unemployment rate 2.3% lower than the Canadian average. One in five had started a business, 99% had successfully applied to become Canadian citizens, and they were considerably less likely than average to receive some form of social assistance. [38] [39]

Wider effects

Government and social assistance

The government has a large department and a number of programs to try to ensure the well being of immigrants to Canada, and ameliorate their economic condition.The Citizenship and Immigration Canada department employs 5,000 staff, [40] which on a per capita basis is 3 times more than the 15,000 U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services employees. Citizenship and Immigration Canada recoups some of its department costs through landing fees. In 2006, the Canadian government reduced the landing fee per immigrant by 50%. [41] The Parliamentary Budget Officer has reported that irregular migration, from the initial entry into Canada to the final decision from the Immigration and Refugee Board and/or Federal Court, as well as any deportations, cost the federal government $340 million in 2020-18, and is projected to rise to $396 million in 2020-20.

New immigrants are also entitled to settlement assistance such as free language training under provincial government administered programs usually called Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC), for which the federal government budgeted about $350 million to give to the provinces for the fiscal year 2006–2007. [42] The majority of the $350 million was allocated to Quebec under the Canada-Quebec Accord, at $196 million per year, [43] even though immigration to Quebec represented only 16.5% of all immigration to Canada in 2005. [44] The $350 million is budgeted to increase by an additional $90 million by 2009. [45] Provincial governments in Canada have established citizenship and immigration departments, such as the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration (Ontario).

Support for immigrants was also one of the key issues that formed the basis of the New Deal for Cities between Toronto (and other urban centres), the Government of Ontario, and the Government of Canada, [46] because 43% of new immigrants settle in the Greater Toronto Area resulting in certain challenges for that region. [47] [48] A paper published by Statistics Canada noted that «Over the 1990s (1990 to 2000) the city’s low-income rate rose 1.9 percentage points. All of this increase was associated with deteriorating outcomes among immigrants, which tended to increase the city’s low-income rate by 2.8 percentage points.» [30] In other words, the low-income rate among non-immigrants fell, but the income profile of new immigrants resulted in a net widening of the income inequality gap in Toronto during the 1990s.

The needs of immigrants prompted the United Way of Greater Toronto, the largest United Way charity in Canada, to identify immigration services in Toronto as a top priority for their $100 million 2006 campaign to combat poverty and social exclusion. [49] In 2006, the Daily Bread Food Bank in Toronto reported that over 40% of its clients are foreign-born, and that almost half of that group had been in the country for less than 4 years. [50] While the less than 4 year group shows far above average need, the over 40% figure is in line with the general population as 44% of Torontonians are foreign-born. [51]

Government finances

There is no consensus on the net impact of immigration to government finances. A 1990 study found that an average immigrant household paid $22,528 in all forms of taxes and on average each household directly consumed $10,558 in government services. By contrast an average native Canadian household paid $20,259 in tax and consumed $10,102 dollars in services. Across the country this means that immigrant households contributed $2.6 billion more than their share to the public purse. [52] A 1996 study found that over a lifetime a typical immigrant family will pay some forty thousand dollars more to the treasury than they will consume in services. [53] Explanations for this include that immigrant households tend to be larger, and have more wage earners, increasing taxes. Newcomers are also less likely to make use of many social services. Immigrants are less likely than native Canadians to receive employment insurance, social assistance, and subsidized housing. [54] Immigrants are also much less likely to become homeless or suffer from mental illness. [55] Recent immigrants are also less likely to make use of subsidized housing than native Canadians of the same income level. In 2004 22.5% of low-income native Canadians lived in subsidized housing, but only 20.4% of low income recent immigrants did so, though this number was considerably higher among more established immigrants. [56] Results from a study from the Fraser Institute found that the immigrants who arrived between 1987 and 2004 cost governments $23 billion per annum (as of 2006) in excess of taxes raised from those immigrants, relating to universal social services (e.g., welfare, medicare, public education). [8]

International trade

The presence within Canada of people representative of many different cultures and nations has also been an important boost to Canada’s international trade. Immigrants will often have expertise, linguistic skills, personal connections with their country of origin that can help forge international trade ties. Studies have found that Canada does have greater trade relations with those nations that have provided large numbers of immigrants. [57] Canada’s economy is heavily centered on international trade, which accounted for 31.4% of GDP in 2020. [58] 76.4% of Canadian exports go to the United States. [59]

This has been good for the source countries of immigrants to Canada. For many years, expanded markets for trade has been a common rationale and justification for high immigration from the developing world. Data from Statistics Canada in 2020 reveals [60] that the trade balances with developing countries from which Canada receives most of its immigrants ameliorates. Current data, 2020, shows that only India has balanced trade with Canada:

Canada imports $4.158 billion, and exports $4.204 billion

Canada imports $401.826 million, and exports $733.060 million

Canada imports $1.392 billion, and exports $811.073 million

Canada imports $70.926 billion, and exports $21.845 billion

Canada imports $88.482 million, and exports $125.955 million

Canada imports $1.179 million, and exports $22.520 million

See also

Further reading

  • Myers, Gustavus (1972), A history of Canadian wealth, Lewis and Samue

Notes and References

  1. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2007294-eng.pdf Chronic Low Income and Low-income Dynamics Among Recent Immigrants
  2. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2112rank.html Country Comparison :: Net Migration (2020)
  3. Michael Adams. The Windsor Star. Windsor, Ont.: 28 November 2007. p. A.8.
  4. Book: James Hollifield. Philip Martin. Pia Orrenius. Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Third Edition. 2014. Stanford University Press. 978-0-8047-8627-0. 11.
  5. Wallace, Iain, A Geography of the Canadian Economy. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  6. Scotton, Geoffrey. «Alberta worker shortfall could hit 350,000 by 2025.» Calgary Herald. Calgary, Alta.: 11 April 2006. p. D.3
  7. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2054.html#ca Field Listing :: Birth Rate (2020)
  8. http://www.fraserinstitute.org/uploadedFiles/fraser-ca/Content/research-news/research/publications/immigration-and-the-canadian-welfare-state-2011.pdf Immigration and the Welfare State 2011
  9. http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/backgrounder_96.pdf No Elixir of Youth: Immigration Cannot Keep Canada Young
  10. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-614-x/2005001/t/4079148-eng.htm Immigrants’ labour force rates, by immigration category, 2001
  11. Hogben, Dav >

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article «Economic impact of immigration to Canada».

Impact of Immigration on Canada s Digital Economy

    Shavonne Norman 3 years ago Views:

1 Impact of Immigration on Canada s Digital Economy Regional Outlook:

2 This study is an ICTC initiative to analyze the labour market outcomes of immigrants in the ICT labour force in Canada, with particular emphasis on Internationally Educated Professionals (IEPs) in ICT occupations 1. ICT is an ever evolving sector, perhaps more so than any other sector, and as a result, the ICT workforce is employed throughout the economy. The growth of the ICT sector and the continually increasing levels of skills required, as well as demanded, by the sector created a shift toward a digital economy 2. A detailed discussion on what this new economy entails is presented in ICTC s full report entitled, Impact of Immigration on Canada s Digital Economy: A Situational Analysis Consequent shortages in ICT are estimated to be multifaceted and the combination of these shortages is expected to impact Canadian regions differently, with overall trends predicting significant shortages over the next five years: A labour shortage in ICT implies that there is an insufficient supply of qualified applicants with the credentials needed to apply for a job in an ICT field. A skills shortage occurs when employers are unable to recruit a sufficient number of workers with the right blend of skills and experience. QUEBEC SNAPSHOT Population: 7,886,108 Total share of ICT employment in Canada: 23% Major hubs of ICT employment: Montreal, City has a large ICT User Industry infrastructure as well as an important ICT Producer Industry base. In particular, has a significant presence of electronic gaming industries, as well as telecom, software and e-business industries. Due to its supply of qualified and bilingual workers, attracts significant help desk operations. The demand for bilingual web services has led many firms to source some or all of their web support services in, making the province a central hub for both in-house and outsourced service operations. Analysts represent the largest occupational group (see Figure 1). Along with Ontario and British Columbia, s labour market conditions are strongly influenced by immigration. In 2010, received more than 45,000 immigrants from over 100 countries. The vast majority of s immigrants settle in Montreal. Although many applicants possess the qualifications needed for relevant jobs, they, however, lack the specific set of skills sought by employers. In today s digital economy, ICT occupations are increasingly demanding employees with a blend of technical skills, business knowledge and soft competencies. 1 See Notes at the end of this report for the definition of Internationally Educated Professionals (IEPs). 2 See Notes at the end of this report for further details on the digital economy. 01

3 Figure 1: ICT Workforce in by Occupational Group (2010 LFS Annual) 10.5% 6.7% 8.5 % Managers 19.4% 30.9% Engineers Analysts Programmers 24% Technicians Other ICTC s July, 2011 Labour Force Survey Monthly Snapshot shows that Canada s ICT labour force consists of approximately 690,000 people. In Canada, labour markets are regional, not national. Although there is mobility across regions, it is usually insufficient to alter basic supply and demand conditions. However, the rankings of Excess of Supply over Demand or Excess of Demand over Supply indicate that some supply and demand trends may be consistent across different regions. This is especially the case for the ICT workforce, where key demographic and technology factors impact expected labour market conditions. For example, the projected shortage of Information Systems Analysts and Consultants is indicative of a national trend, as shortages in this occupation are expected in every region. The only difference is the time in which the shortage is expected to become acute. 02

4 RECRUITMENT The growth of ICT occupations that require a combination of technical skills, business knowledge and soft competencies reflects the evolution of the ICT labour force and the diversity of skills required to perform ICT jobs. Soft competencies refer to written communication skills, the ability to communicate with non-technical coworkers and domain knowledge, which arise from understanding the business context in which ICT is being applied. For employers, soft skills are equally as important as the technical competencies that have traditionally been associated with ICT occupations. In fact, finding workers with sufficient technical skills is not the biggest challenge that employers face; rather, recruiting ICT professionals who have the necessary complementary skills poses a much more significant challenge. In, employers will experience challenges recruiting professionals with five or more years of experience and/or leading edge skills, with regions outside of the greater Montreal region experiencing greater challenges due to the relatively small size of the experienced labour pool. Domestic spending on ICT will grow at a slower pace over the next five years than during the five years prior to the recession in means that, unless they have Canadian experience and excellent English and/or French language skills, IEPs will be obliged to take positions for which they are over-qualified. In, skills shortages will be more acute in three occupations (see Figure 2): Computer and Information Systems Managers Information Systems Analysts and Consultants Broadcast Technicians Technology trends such as the adoption of Cloud Computing and off-shoring will weaken demand for two occupations: Computer Networking Technicians User Support Technicians Although recent graduates of co-op programs can expect to find employment in their fields, graduates from traditional programs will likely experience longer search periods, with a greater likelihood of filling ICT jobs for which they are over-qualified. This is especially true for IEPs, who will likely require Canadian experience to find jobs in their fields. This 03

5 Figure 2: Outlook in the 14 Core ICT Occupations (across all industries) Computer and information systems managers Telecommunication carriers managers Electrical and electronics engineers Computer engineers (except software engineers) Information systems analysts and consultants Database analysts and data administrators Software engineers and designers Computer programmers and interactive media developers Web designers and developers Electrical & electronics engineering technologists & technicians Computer network technicians User support technicians Systems testing technicians Broadcast technicians Colour Legend for the Figure above: Acute Excess of Supply over Demand Excess of Supply over Demand Skills Shortages in Many Fields Excess of Demand over Supply: Pervasive Shortages Acute Excess of Demand over Supply: Absolute Supply Constraints IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION ON ICT IN QUEBEC Along with Ontario and British Columbia, s labour market conditions are strongly influenced by immigration (see Figure 3). In 2010, received more than 45,000 immigrants from over 100 countries. The vast majority of s immigrants settle in Montreal. 04

6 Table 1: IEP Labour Force in Core ICT Occupations in (2006 census) Table 1 illustrates the total IEP labour force and employed labour force in for 14 core ICT occupations 3. Based on 2006 Census, there were more than 9,500 IEPs employed in a core ICT job. Occupation Labour Force Employed Labour Force Computer and information systems managers Telecommunication carriers managers Electrical and electronics engineers Computer engineers (except software engineers) Information systems analysts and consultants 2,105 1,995 Database analysts and data administrators Software engineers and designers Computer programmers and interactive media developers 2,455 2,275 Web designers and developers Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians Computer network technicians User support technicians Systems testing technicians Broadcast technicians 4. Total 10,150 9, % Atlantic Canada 2.4% FIGURE 3: IEP Share of Total ICT Employment by Region (2006 Census) Ontario 19.3% Manitoba-Saskatchewan Alberta 10.3% British Columbia 18.7% 4.4% 3 See Notes. 4 Data suppressed due to confidentiality issues. 05

7 Information Technology Workers Program and Temporary Foreign Worker Program In the past, the Government of Canada developed programs to expedite the entry of international workers whose skills were in high demand. A notable example is the Software Developers Program, later renamed the Information Technology Workers Program, which fast-tracked the entry of thousands of ICT workers into Canada. This program was designed to meet the growing skills shortages in the ICT labour market. Through this program, the immigration system was able to fast track the entry of high demand technology workers in seven ICT job categories, including: Senior animation effects editor Embedded systems software designer MIS software designer Multimedia software developer Software developer-services Software products developer Telecommunications software designer The program was very attractive for employers because it enabled companies to recruit and obtain high demand workers without having to acquire a Labour Market Opinion (LMO) from Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). Candidates were typically screened on the basis of their education, language and work experience. Candidates were required to possess at least a Bachelor s degree or twoyear diploma, as well as two-years of related work experience, in order to be considered. Table 2: Work Permits Issued in 5 under Information Technology Workers Program by National Occupation Code (in persons), 2009 Occupation Canada Senior Animation Effect Editor Multimedia Software Designer Software Developer-services Telecomm Software Designer Embedded System Software Designer 3, Software Products Developer 1, MIS Software Designer Total 5, Source : Research and Evaluation Branch, Work Permits Issued in Canada by National Occupational 5 Includes new and extension permits at ports of entry (airport, border and marine). 6 Data suppressed due to confidentiality issues. 06

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8 The facilitation process for ICT workers came to an end on September 30, 2010 in all provinces except and British Columbia, where the programs will be gradually phased out. Employers in need of temporary foreign workers (TFWs) in the seven high demand occupations are required to apply for a Labour Market Opinion, which grants a work permit for up to six months from the date of issuance. The facilitation process of ICT workers also coincided with a steep rise in the number of TFWs being admitted into Canada to meet short term labour demand. Between 2004 and 2008, Canada s Temporary Foreign Worker Program more than doubled, from 125,367 in 2004 to 251,235 in The number of TFWs living in the increased from 8,036 in 2004 to 25,970 in NEW IMMIGRANTS IN ICT Figure 4 : PFÉ ayant indiqué les professions noyaux des TIC comme profession envisagée au Canada, ,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 Year of Arrival According to ICTC s 2011 Outlook report, 900 new IEPs that arrived in 2009 intended to work as Information Systems Analysts and Consultants. This occupation will experience significant skills shortages over the 2011 to 2020 period. More IEPs identified Database Analysts and Consultants (1,160) as their intended occupation than any other occupation in In total, 6,610 IEPs identified an ICT occupation as their intended occupation in 2009; based on January to June 2010 data, it is estimated that approximately 7,090 IEPs identified an ICT occupation in estimated based on January to June data 07

9 EARNINGS OF IMMIGRANTS According to the 2009 Labour Force Survey, recent immigrants 8 in between the ages of 25 and 54 reported an average income of $32,895, compared to $43,643 for non-immigrant workers in. s recent immigrants reported the second lowest average income in the country, behind only Manitoba ($28,480). Recent immigrants in Alberta earned the highest average income in the country at $44,261. Figure 5: Average Employment Income 9 in 2005 for Immigrant 10 Arrival Cohorts, ages 25 to 54 (2006 Census) 2001 to 2006 (less than 5 years experience) $21,176 $25, to 2000 (between 5 and 9 years experience) $28,751 $33, to 1995 (between 10 and 14 years experience) $29,572 $35,021 Before 1991 (minimum of 14 years experience) $37,259 $45, Canada Source : Statistics Canada, XCB Special Interest Profiles, 2006 Census (Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada, 2008). 8 Immigrants who have been in Canada for five years or less. Also refers to immigrants who had been in Canada for five years or less at the time of survey. 9 Includes full-time and part-time workers for the 2005 tax year.. 10 Refers to permanent immigrants only. 08

10 EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES AND UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OF IM- MIGRANTS Non-immigrant workers are much more likely to work occupations that match their field of study. Based on 2006 Census data, match rates 11 among non-immigrant workers typically fell between 59% and 65% across Canada. For IEPs, match rates were much more varied. Among the more popular immigrant destinations, match rates were significantly low. had the lowest match rate. Match rates were considerably low in the three largest immigrant destinations Ontario (24%), British Columbia (22%) and (19%). In 2011, the unemployment rate of recent immigrants in was 19.5%, significantly higher than the province s non-immigrant population (5.6%) and established immigrant 12 population (9.3%). Based on 2006 census, internationally educated ICT professionals working in the core ICT occupations had considerably lower unemployment rates when compared to the rest of the immigrant population. In 2006, the unemployment rate for IEPs in core ICT occupations was 3.7%, compared to 11.5% for recent immigrants (those who immigrated to Canada between 2001 and 2006) and 7.3% for immigrants who arrived in Canada between 1996 and CONCLUSIONS In order to meet evolving industry demands, the ICT labour pool must be equipped with the blend of skills and competencies that the majority of ICT employers require. Providing IEPs with clearly defined expectations is crucial to retaining their longterm services. Knowledge of industry requirements will allow internationally educated ICT professionals to strategize against the skills shortage by seeking out real world experience, including integrated work placement and networking programs that develop their inter-personal skills, business knowledge and communication skills. s skills shortage will impact regions outside of the greater Montreal region much sooner. Given the smaller size of those labour markets and the lack of immigration to regions outside of Montreal, ICT employers in these regions will experience significant challenges recurring for experienced occupations. It is likely that ICT employers will need to use the TFW program to recruit ICT specialists that cannot be sourced regionally. 11 See Notes for definition. 12 An immigrant who has been in Canada for more than ten years. 09

11 NOTES 1) Internationally Educated Professionals (IEPs) are defined by ICTC as professionals who possess the following attributes: 1) they were born outside of Canada; 2) they were 25 years of age or older at the time of immigration; and 3) their highest educational degree, certificate or diploma was obtained outside of Canada. Immigrants who have not completed a certificate, diploma or degree above the secondary school level are not considered IEPs. Specific reference to IEPs excludes all other immigrants who do not possess the attributes listed above; general reference to immigrants includes IEPs and non-ieps, but excludes temporary foreign workers, citizens born outside of Canada and those with student or working visas. cupation across all industries. 3) Expressed in proportional terms, match rates show the proportion of workers in the labour force that have matched their field of study with their occupation. 4) As defined by ICTC, core ICT occupations are jobs that support or produce ICT products, services, systems or applications; these occupations require a minimum of one year of formal training in ICT, with more training usually required. 2) The digital economy refers to knowledge occupations in the economy, which are occupations that require skilled workers with post-secondary education. Knowledge occupations are normally found in natural science and engineering, ICT, finance, healthcare, education and public administration. Knowledge occupations are also found in other industries that require highly-skilled professionals 13. The digital economy refers specifically to these professionals. Digital industries, like the ones mentioned, are industries with a high proportion of knowledge workers and where investment in research and development is most significant. However, the digital economy does not refer specifically to digital industries; instead, it is a general term used to describe any highly skilled (i.e., knowledge) oc- 13 Other examples of knowledge workers include researchers, lawyers, accountants and financial consultants. 10

12 The Information and Communications Technology Council (ICTC) is a centre of expertise in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) research, policy development and workforce solutions. ICTC enables industries to maintain a competitive advantage in a global market and develop Canada s future skilled and innovative talent. Funded by the Government of Canada s Foreign Credential Recognition Program. The opinions and interpretations in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Government of Canada.

Canada in Demand Occupation List 2020

Find out is your Occupation in Demand in Canada or not?

Canada High Demand Occupation List 2020

Canada has humongous growth opportunities for Skilled Workers who are young, aspirant and have a fair aptitude in English and their field of work. With new year 2020 around the corner, the existing rate of opportunity in the country is even brighter than before. This is because the country has officially started with its Multi-year Immigration Plan (2020-2021) and therefore it is all set to take in more than 3,00,000 skilled applicants annually. The maximum intake this year is clearly expected from the Express Entry Program initiated by the Federal government of Canada. There are also provincial nomination programs to intake talented skilled workers willing to settle in any of the 10 provinces of Canada.

Express Entry Program is hugely based on intake of immigration aspirants based on personal details of an individual such as Age, Educational merits, Work experience, Language proficiency, Adaptability and Arranged employment. Based on these details, a score is decided upon through a Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) and this score is called CRS points. If you manage to score adequate number of CRS points, then your possibilities of getting a PR Status in Canada improves a lot. Other than the score, there is also a factor of Occupation in-demand which decides your fate at the end of the day. Your occupation listed in the demand list is of utmost importance to be able to immigrate to the country and work as a skilled worker.

You can get a personal consultation and understand your way to immigrate to the country of Canada. Contact Oneclick visas today and we will guide you through the entire process in detail.

Read More : Jobs in demand in Canada For Immigration in 2020

Canada is a country of diverse and golden opportunities. You will find a great deal of job prospects available in Canada. Based on your academic qualification and skilled work experience earned over the period of time either in Canada or outside Canada, a person can find a great job offer for a position suiting his/her capabilities. To get a desired work position, make sure that your past work experience is in alignment with the previous work experience you have earned for at least 12 months. After All Job industries of Canada are highly flattering and extremely up to standard for new foreign skilled workers like you. The most in-demand occupations though, are listed on the occupation list and thus must be considered before starting with your immigration process.

Would you be able to fulfill Requirement of Canada PR? Get ready to check your eligibility Free for 2020!!

Occupation in Demand list for Canada immigration 2020

While most of countries requires you to have a Job offer in hand before giving you the right of permanent residency, Canada does not ask you to have a Job in hand at the time of granting you PR visa. Canada immigration’s most popular pathway Express Entry has extra points for a Job offer but does not mandates that you find a job before you move there. It is only in case of certain PNPs that an applicant is needed to have a Job. This is majorly in case if you make an application through the OID stream of program that requires various parameters to be met before applying. To know various OID streams and your eligibility for the same, get in touch with us now!

Highly in demand Jobs in Canada 2020

The below mentioned is the list of in-Demand jobs or occupations facing labour shortages in Canada. The occupation in-demand list of the country have been categorised into 3 classes of occupations as per the NOC or National Occupations Classifications list given by Canadian immigration authorities. These three categories are NOC type O, A and B. Out of these, Category O is for management job profiles which have the greatest demand in Canada as of now. This category generally requires a Master’s degree in Business Administration and similar merit in terms of education plus at least 1 year of working experience in management profile. Other Categories of NOC type A and B too are in demand in the country subject to availability at various provincial levels. If your profession or profile falls into any of these mentioned categories, then you have a good chance of moving to Canada in 2020 even without a job offer.

The NOC list has all those occupations which are facing labour shortages in the economy and need skilled people from outside Canada to fill in this shortage.

Following are few jobs listed in occupational in-demand list of Canada for the year 2020:

  • 0011 Legislators
  • 0012 Senior government managers and officials
  • 0013 Senior managers – financial, communications and other business services
  • 0014 Senior managers – health, education, social and community services and membership organizations
  • 0015 Senior managers – trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c.
  • 0016 Senior managers – construction, transportation, production and utilities
  • 0111 Financial managers
  • 0112 Human resources managers
  • 0113 Purchasing managers
  • 0114 Other administrative services managers
  • 0121 Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers
  • 0122 Banking, credit and other investment managers
  • 0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers
  • 0125 Other business services managers
  • 0131 Telecommunication carriers managers
  • 0132 Postal and courier services managers
  • 0211 Engineering managers
  • 0212 Architecture and science managers
  • 0213 Computer and information systems managers
  • 0311 Managers in health care
  • 0411 Government managers – health and social policy development and program administration
  • 0412 Government managers – economic analysis, policy development and program administration
  • 0413 Government managers – education policy development and program administration
  • 0414 Other managers in public administration
  • 0421 Administrators – post-secondary education and vocational training
  • 0422 School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education
  • 0423 Managers in social, community and correctional services
  • 0431 Commissioned police officers
  • 0432 Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers
  • 0433 Commissioned officers of the Canadian Forces
  • 0511 Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers
  • 0512 Managers – publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts
  • 0513 Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors
  • 0601 Corporate sales managers
  • 0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers
  • 0631 Restaurant and food service managers
  • 0632 Accommodation service managers
  • 0651 Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c.
  • 0711 Construction managers
  • 0712 Home building and renovation managers
  • 0714 Facility operation and maintenance managers
  • 0731 Managers in transportation
  • 0811 Managers in natural resources production and fishing
  • 0821 Managers in agriculture
  • 0822 Managers in horticulture
  • 0823 Managers in aquaculture
  • 0911 Manufacturing managers
  • 0912 Utilities managers
  • 1111 Financial auditors and accountants
  • 1112 Financial and investment analysts
  • 1113 Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers
  • 1114 Other financial officers
  • 1121 Human resources professionals
  • 1122 Professional occupations in business management consulting
  • 1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations
  • 1211 Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers
  • 1212 Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers
  • 1213 Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers
  • 1214 Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations
  • 1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations
  • 1221 Administrative officers
  • 1222 Executive assistants
  • 1223 Human resources and recruitment officers
  • 1224 Property administrators
  • 1225 Purchasing agents and officers
  • 1226 Conference and event planners
  • 1227 Court officers and justices of the peace
  • 1228 Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers
  • 1241 Administrative assistants
  • 1242 Legal administrative assistants
  • 1243 Medical administrative assistants
  • 1251 Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations
  • 1252 Health information management occupations
  • 1253 Records management technicians
  • 1254 Statistical officers and related research support occupations
  • 1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers
  • 1312 Insurance adjusters and claims examiners
  • 1313 Insurance underwriters
  • 1314 Assessors, valuators and appraisers
  • 1315 Customs, ship and other brokers
  • 2111 Physicists and astronomers
  • 2112 Chemists
  • 2113 Geoscientists and oceanographers
  • 2114 Meteorologists and climatologists
  • 2115 Other professional occupations in physical sciences
  • 2121 Biologists and related scientists
  • 2122 Forestry professionals
  • 2123 Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists
  • 2131 Civil engineers
  • 2132 Mechanical engineers
  • 2133 Electrical and electronics engineers
  • 2134 Chemical engineers
  • 2141 Industrial and manufacturing engineers
  • 2142 Metallurgical and materials engineers
  • 2143 Mining engineers
  • 2144 Geological engineers
  • 2145 Petroleum engineers
  • 2146 Aerospace engineers
  • 2147 Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers)
  • 2148 Other professional engineers, n.e.c.
  • 2151 Architects
  • 2152 Landscape architects
  • 2153 Urban and land use planners
  • 2154 Land surveyors
  • 2161 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries
  • 2171 Information systems analysts and consultants
  • 2172 Database analysts and data administrators
  • 2173 Software engineers and designers
  • 2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers
  • 2175 Web designers and developers
  • 2211 Chemical technologists and technicians
  • 2212 Geological and mineral technologists and technicians
  • 2221 Biological technologists and technicians
  • 2222 Agricultural and fish products inspectors
  • 2223 Forestry technologists and technicians
  • 2224 Conservation and fishery officers
  • 2225 Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists
  • 2231 Civil engineering technologists and technicians
  • 2232 Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians
  • 2233 Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians
  • 2234 Construction estimators
  • 2241 Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians
  • 2242 Electronic service technicians (household and business equipment)
  • 2243 Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics
  • 2244 Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors
  • 2251 Architectural technologists and technicians
  • 2252 Industrial designers
  • 2253 Drafting technologists and technicians
  • 2254 Land survey technologists and technicians
  • 2255 Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology
  • 2261 Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians
  • 2262 Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers
  • 2263 Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety
  • 2264 Construction inspectors
  • 2271 Air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors
  • 2272 Air traffic controllers and related occupations
  • 2273 Deck officers, water transport
  • 2274 Engineer officers, water transport
  • 2275 Railway traffic controllers and marine traffic regulators
  • 2281 Computer network technicians
  • 2282 User support technicians
  • 2283 Information systems testing technicians
  • 3011 Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors
  • 3012 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses
  • 3111 Specialist physicians
  • 3112 General practitioners and family physicians
  • 3113 Dentists
  • 3114 Veterinarians
  • 3121 Optometrists
  • 3122 Chiropractors
  • 3124 Allied primary health practitioners
  • 3125 Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating
  • 3131 Pharmacists
  • 3132 Dietitians and nutritionists
  • 3141 Audiologists and speech-language pathologists
  • 3142 Physiotherapists
  • 3143 Occupational therapists
  • 3144 Other professional occupations in therapy and assessment
  • 3211 Medical laboratory technologists
  • 3212 Medical laboratory technicians and pathologists’ assistants
  • 3213 Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians
  • 3214 Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists
  • 3215 Medical radiation technologists
  • 3216 Medical sonographers
  • 3217 Cardiology technologists and electrophysiological diagnostic technologists, n.e.c.
  • 3219 Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health)
  • 3221 Denturists
  • 3222 Dental hygienists and dental therapists
  • 3223 Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants
  • 3231 Opticians
  • 3232 Practitioners of natural healing
  • 3233 Licensed practical nurses
  • 3234 Paramedical occupations
  • 3236 Massage therapists
  • 3237 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment
  • 4011 University professors and lecturers
  • 4012 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants
  • 4021 College and other vocational instructors
  • 4031 Secondary school teachers
  • 4032 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers
  • 4033 Educational counsellors
  • 4111 Judges
  • 4112 Lawyers and Quebec notaries
  • 4151 Psychologists
  • 4152 Social workers
  • 4153 Family, marriage and other related counsellors
  • 4154 Professional occupations in religion
  • 4155 Probation and parole officers and related occupations
  • 4156 Employment counsellors
  • 4161 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers
  • 4162 Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts
  • 4163 Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants
  • 4164 Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers
  • 4165 Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers
  • 4166 Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers
  • 4167 Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers
  • 4168 Program officers unique to government
  • 4169 Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c.
  • 4211 Paralegal and related occupations
  • 4212 Social and community service workers
  • 4214 Early childhood educators and assistants
  • 4215 Instructors of persons with disabilities
  • 4216 Other instructors
  • 4217 Other religious occupations
  • 4311 Police officers (except commissioned)
  • 4312 Firefighters
  • 4313 Non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian Forces
  • 5111 Librarians
  • 5112 Conservators and curators
  • 5113 Archivists
  • 5121 Authors and writers
  • 5122 Editors
  • 5123 Journalists
  • 5125 Translators, terminologists and interpreters
  • 5131 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations
  • 5132 Conductors, composers and arrangers
  • 5133 Musicians and singers
  • 5134 Dancers
  • 5135 Actors and comedians
  • 5136 Painters, sculptors and other visual artists
  • 5211 Library and public archive technicians
  • 5212 Technical occupations related to museums and art galleries
  • 5221 Photographers
  • 5222 Film and video camera operators
  • 5223 Graphic arts technicians
  • 5224 Broadcast technicians
  • 5225 Audio and video recording technicians
  • 5226 Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts
  • 5227 Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing arts
  • 5231 Announcers and other broadcasters
  • 5232 Other performers, n.e.c.
  • 5241 Graphic designers and illustrators
  • 5242 Interior designers and interior decorators
  • 5243 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers
  • 5244 Artisans and craftspersons
  • 5245 Patternmakers – textile, leather and fur products
  • 5251 Athletes
  • 5252 Coaches
  • 5253 Sports officials and referees
  • 5254 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness
  • 6211 Retail sales supervisors
  • 6221 Technical sales specialists – wholesale trade
  • 6222 Retail and wholesale buyers
  • 6231 Insurance agents and brokers
  • 6232 Real estate agents and salespersons
  • 6235 Financial sales representatives
  • 6311 Food service supervisors
  • 6312 Executive housekeepers
  • 6313 Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services supervisors
  • 6314 Customer and information services supervisors
  • 6315 Cleaning supervisors
  • 6316 Other services supervisors
  • 6321 Chefs
  • 6322 Cooks
  • 6331 Butchers, meat cutters and fishmongers – retail and wholesale
  • 6332 Bakers
  • 6341 Hairstylists and barbers
  • 6342 Tailors, dressmakers, furriers and milliners
  • 6343 Shoe repairers and shoemakers
  • 6344 Jewellers, jewellery and watch repairers and related occupations
  • 6345 Upholsterers
  • 6346 Funeral directors and embalmers
  • 7201 Contractors and supervisors, machining, metal forming, shaping and erecting trades and related occupations
  • 7202 Contractors and supervisors, electrical trades and telecommunications occupations
  • 7203 Contractors and supervisors, pipefitting trades
  • 7204 Contractors and supervisors, carpentry trades
  • 7205 Contractors and supervisors, other construction trades, installers, repairers and servicers
  • 7231 Machinists and machining and tooling inspectors
  • 7232 Tool and die makers
  • 7233 Sheet metal workers
  • 7234 Boilermakers
  • 7235 Structural metal and platework fabricators and fitters
  • 7236 Ironworkers
  • 7237 Welders and related machine operators
  • 7241 Electricians (except industrial and power system)
  • 7242 Industrial electricians
  • 7243 Power system electricians
  • 7244 Electrical power line and cable workers
  • 7245 Telecommunications line and cable workers
  • 7246 Telecommunications installation and repair workers
  • 7247 Cable television service and maintenance technicians
  • 7251 Plumbers
  • 7252 Steamfitters, pipefitters and sprinkler system installers
  • 7253 Gas fitters
  • 7271 Carpenters
  • 7272 Cabinetmakers
  • 7281 Bricklayers
  • 7282 Concrete finishers
  • 7283 Tile setters
  • 7284 Plasterers, drywall installers and finishers and lathers
  • 7291 Roofers and shinglers
  • 7292 Glaziers
  • 7293 Insulators
  • 7294 Painters and decorators (except interior decorators)
  • 7295 Floor covering installers
  • 7301 Contractors and supervisors, mechanic trades
  • 7302 Contractors and supervisors, heavy equipment operator crews
  • 7303 Supervisors, printing and related occupations
  • 7304 Supervisors, railway transport operations
  • 7305 Supervisors, motor transport and other ground transit operators
  • 7311 Construction millwrights and industrial mechanics
  • 7312 Heavy-duty equipment mechanics
  • 7313 Refrigeration and air conditioning mechanics
  • 7314 Railway Carmen/women
  • 7315 Aircraft mechanics and aircraft inspectors
  • 7316 Machine fitters
  • 7318 Elevator constructors and mechanics
  • 7321 Automotive service technicians, truck and bus mechanics and mechanical repairers
  • 7322 Motor vehicle body repairers
  • 7331 Oil and solid fuel heating mechanics
  • 7332 Appliance servicers and repairers
  • 7333 Electrical mechanics
  • 7334 Motorcycle, all-terrain vehicle and other related mechanics
  • 7335 Other small engine and small equipment repairers
  • 7361 Railway and yard locomotive engineers
  • 7362 Railway conductors and brakemen/women
  • 7371 Crane operators
  • 7372 Drillers and blasters – surface mining, quarrying and construction
  • 7373 Water well drillers
  • 7381 Printing press operators
  • 7384 Other trades and related occupations, n.e.c.
  • 8211 Supervisors, logging and forestry
  • 8221 Supervisors, mining and quarrying
  • 8222 Contractors and supervisors, oil and gas drilling and services
  • 8231 Underground production and development miners
  • 8232 Oil and gas well drillers, servicers, testers and related workers
  • 8241 Logging machinery operators
  • 8252 Agricultural service contractors, farm supervisors and specialized livestock workers8255 Contractors and supervisors, landscaping, grounds maintenance and horticulture services
  • 8261 Fishing masters and officers
  • 8262 Fishermen/women
  • 9211 Supervisors, mineral and metal processing
  • 9212 Supervisors, petroleum, gas and chemical processing and utilities
  • 9213 Supervisors, food, beverage and associated products processing
  • 9214 Supervisors, plastic and rubber products manufacturing
  • 9215 Supervisors, forest products processing
  • 9217 Supervisors, textile, fabric, fur and leather products processing and manufacturing
  • 9221 Supervisors, motor vehicle assembling
  • 9222 Supervisors, electronics manufacturing
  • 9223 Supervisors, electrical products manufacturing
  • 9224 Supervisors, furniture and fixtures manufacturing
  • 9226 Supervisors, other mechanical and metal products manufacturing
  • 9227 Supervisors, other products manufacturing and assembly
  • 9231 Central control and process operators, mineral and metal processing
  • 9232 Petroleum, gas and chemical process operators
  • 9235 Pulping, papermaking and coating control operators
  • 9241 Power engineers and power systems operators
  • 9243 Water and waste treatment plant operators

If your occupation is listed, then you can get started with your process right away!

You need not worry if your occupation is not listed above. An Oneclick Immigrations Consulting service is here to help you find a feasible solution for this.

Contact Oneclick Immigrations now to move to your dream country!

Canada’s occupation list keeps on changing from time to time as per the changing demands in the occupation list of the country. If even if your occupation is not listed in exact terms, we can figure out your roles and responsibilities at work and sketch out a similar Job profile which suits your category of work you hold experience in. For this to happen, we advise you to get in touch with our experts’ team today so that we can discuss your case further.

Oneclick Immigration Consulting Service is one of the paramount agencies for immigrating to Canada on a permanent basis. We along with our well-trained staff have been working in the industry for years and have added a number of PR cases in our portfolio in this time span.

Our assortment of services helps applicants finding jobs in Canada by booking interviews and resume registrations with Canadian firms. We are having our operational office at Noida, India and head office at Montreal, Canada. For a professional and advanced immigration services at your disposal, get in contact with Oneclick Immigrations Consulting Services and our team of experts will guide you towards the detailed process of filing your PR visa.

To get detailed information regarding immigration and visa types the country offers, contact our well qualified immigration experts today. Reach us simply through phone at +91 9821533309 to get in touch with us today!

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