Flag polling Канада

Флаг Канады

Современный флаг Канады – красный кленовый лист на белом поле в обрамлении двух красных полос по боковым сторонам флага. По одной из версий, боковые полосы символизируют омывающие берега страны океаны. Лист клена сам по себе не требует пояснений, учитывая количество этих деревьев в Канаде, а также всемирно известный кленовый сироп.

История флага

История канадского флага очень интересна. До того, как в 1965 году была утверждена современная версия флага, его внешний вид регулярно изменялся. Вызваны эти перемены были, в основном, противостоянием Англии и Франции, имевших свои колонии на территории страны.

Первым флагом, водруженным на канадской земле, стал британский Крест св. Георгия, установленный в конце 15 века мореплавателем и купцом Джоном Каботом на Ньюфаунленде. Спустя несколько десятилетий восточных берегов Нового света достигли корабли французского мореплавателя Жака Картье, который поднял на восточном берегу флаг с французскими королевскими лилиями. В результате многолетней борьбы между Англией и Францией за расширение колоний по Парижскому договору 1736 года Канада отошла Англии и вошла в состав Британской империи, после чего официальным флагом страны стал британский «Юнион Джек».

Спустя еще одно столетие, летом 1867 года, разрозненные канадские провинции объединились в единый доминион, и возникла необходимость создания национального флага. Тем не менее в течение долгого времени после Конфедерации канадцы не имели собственного знамени и пользовались колониальной версией британского Красного флага, дополненного эмблемой страны, состоящей из гербов провинций Канады.

Такое упущение не было результатом равнодушия со стороны канадцев к флагам – совсем наоборот. Дело в том, что население страны, состоящее, в основном, из англичан, французов и американцев, продолжало оставаться разобщенным, и долгое время вопрос об общем национальном символе оставался очень острым.

Только в 1964 году премьер-министр Канады Лестер Пирсон предложил разработать новый национальный флаг. Эта инициатива вызвала в Парламенте горячие дебаты, растянувшиеся на шесть недель и ставшие самыми длинными в истории страны. Но, в конце концов, специально созданная комиссия утвердила из множества проектов самый подходящий. Сначала в центре полотна планировали поместить три кленовых листа, но потом оставили только один, призванный подчеркнуть единство канадского народа.

Значение цветов

Красный и белый – официальные цвета Канады. Оба цвета имеют историческое значение. Красный относится к эмблеме первого британского флага – кресту Святого Георгия, а белый напоминает о лилиях французской короны. По другой версии красные полосы призваны напоминать о крови канадских солдат, погибших во время Первой и Второй мировых войн, а белый квадрат в центре символизирует землю Канады, значительную часть года покрытую снегом.

Кленовый лист

Выбор кленового листа в качестве главной эмблемы канадской геральдики неслучаен. По легенде это случилось, когда принц Уэльский в первый раз приехал в Канаду. Поприветствовать его жители вышли с традиционными знаками своего народа в руках: англичане несли розы, шотландцы – чертополох. А вот новому поколению канадцев нести было нечего. В то время единственным узнаваемым символом Канады был бобр, но не идти же им было с бобрами. Так решено было взять листья клена. Позднее кленовые листья появились на гербах двух канадских провинций, а в 1867 году была написана патриотическая песня «The Maple Leaf Forever», ставшая неофициальным гимном англоговорящей Канады.

Сегодня лист клена стал настолько привычным символом Канады, что трудно представить себе флаг без него. По словам канадского историка Артура Лоуэра «С момента принятия нового флага произошло что-то очень интересное с канадской душой… страна словно увидела саму свою сущность. Каждый раз, когда рядовой гражданин смотрит на новый флаг, он бессознательно говорит себе: «Это я!»

Flag polling from US back into Canada

Hi folks — we are wondering if Flag polling is a good idea or not as they will issue an administrative refusal to enter the US and this used to be considered a bad move for future admission — would you advise against flag polling or is it ok ?

Many thanks for any info/ advice !

Hi folks — we are wondering if Flag polling is a good idea or not as they will issue an administrative refusal to enter the US and this used to be considered a bad move for future admission — would you advise against flag polling or is it ok ?

Many thanks for any info/ advice !

Now judging by your username you might be hailing from Alberta. Thousands have flag poled by getting an Administrative Refusal and never had problems. Others have but Im guessing not in the thousands.
You can always enter under the I94 waiver if UK citizens and go somewhere for the day or choose the AR and not enter.
Some choose to do the landing at their nearest CIC (IRCC) office but you would need to make an appointment. If you have a fair bit of time left before your COPR expires then make an appointment. If in a rush then flag pole.

My own personal experience is a AR is not as drastic as portrayed or rumoured.

Flag polling for open work permit

Shan1991

New Member

Hi there. My boyfriend has an open work permit for 2 years but I am here on a tourist visa. We are both from the UK. Once he has a skilled category job here we are planning to flag pole for my application for a common-in-law open work permit that is linked to his. We have proof that we have lived together 2 years and own a property together in the UK. I have done extensive reading and seen that other people have done this.

Please could anyone else advise if they have done this? Obviously we will need all the documentation with us at the border, can anyone advise a complete list? My issue is that I haven’t done biometrics. Will this be an issue at the border? I went to try and get them done in the uk before arriving but was told that you can only do them if you have an open ongoing application. I know that this is possible but just want to make sure i have all the documentation correct.

My Canadian Immigration Experience: Post Graduate Work Permit

This is the second chapter of my experience immigrating to Canada. If you are interested learning more about what it is like to study in Canadian on a study permit, please check out my previous blog, My Canadian Experience: The Study Permit . I am not an immigration lawyer, and not an expert by any stretch of the imagination. I am living through the process of immigrating to Canada, and have made mistakes, and had some successes as well. Hopefully my story can help you better understand how the process can affect your life and livelihood. I will offer as much detail as I can to help ease the worry and uncertainty of the immigration process, but this will not be a step-by-step instruction manual for visa applications.

• Contact an immigration lawyer if you need legal help in applying for any visa.

• Conduct your own thorough research before starting any application process.

Pre-Permit Prep

After a year of graduate school at UBC, I was nearly finished with my final projects, and desperately trying to understand the process for applying for my Post Graduate Work Permit. The school offered information sessions for the application process, so if you are able to access resources provided by a university, please do so. It was helpful to hear from a professional experienced in helping students get work permits, and reassuring for me to understand what the whole process would be like.

My graduate program was for longer than eight consecutive months and I had never been issued a work permit before, which made me eligible for the Post Graduate Work Permit program. For detailed requirements, please do your research on the Canadian government website. I kept myself busy combing their help articles and website before submitting my application, and they have most of the information you need to apply. Also, they have a busy phone hot-line, and you must be prepared to spend at least 30 minutes waiting to speak to a representative. While they have 24 hour self-service information by phone, operators are available between 8am and 4pm local time in North America.

Do you have time to wait?

On June 1st, 2015, I submitted my online application for my Post Graduate Work Permit. The process can take months, my online application was approved the following November, for instance. I could not afford to pay expensive rent in Vancouver while waiting around without employment. After a month of waiting, I spoke to a couple of friends who had chosen to “flag-pole” when applying for their permits. If you have time to wait for your application to be processed, I recommend that you do that, as flag-poling is highly discouraged by the Canadian government. If that is case for you, skip the next section of this blog!

Flag-poling

I highly recommend checking out this blog post by Canadian Immigration lawyer, Steven Meurrens. I used it during my research for my permit, and to help clarify the information I am providing about flag-poling.

Exit At a POE

The process involves leaving Canada through a port of entry, such as a land border. The closest border crossing to me is the Peach Arch entrance near Blaine, WA. If you plan to flag-pole using a U.S. border with Canada, you must first make sure you have a valid visa to enter into the U.S.A. You are not guaranteed entry into the U.S., even if you plan to re-enter Canada right away.

Your study permit, and if applicable, your temporary res >Make sure your visa/permit is valid, and you have the ability to return to Canada without the permit.

Why is flag-poling discouraged?

Border agents do not like this process, and you will notice, no information is provided about it on the CIC website. It turns the customs agents into immigration officers, which is not what they are trained to do. A good friend of mine chose to flag-pole and told me that when she applied for the Post Graduate Work Permit:

The Canadian border officers had no clue what to do…they were googling stuff

This could result in mistakes on your permit, and make the wait long while at the border. My friend waited for half an hour, but I can imagine it was worrying to have border patrol officers unsure about how to process her documents. The officer I worked with did not appear to have any issues with my paperwork, but it’s good to be aware that the person you work with might not know how to issue a permit.

Put On Your Walking Shoes!

From all my research, and each person I spoke to about this process, it seems the only way to flag-pole is as a pedestrian. At the Peace Arch border is a small park, named Peach Arch Park, on the Canadian s >you must stay aware of the car traffic around you, and you will have to cross that traffic at some point.

You have to walk as far back to your car once you are through the Canadian side, but hopefully there will be a spring in your step from receiving your shiny new work permit, so it might seem shorter!

Timing is Everything

I chose a poor time to go to the border, a Friday afternoon in the summer, and there was a long line of other travelers. My wait was about 20 minutes to clear U.S. customs, and about 2 hours to clear Canadian customs, including the time it took to process my paperwork. It’s a better idea to go during a weekday, mid-morning, or when your research shows is the slowest crossing time for your local border. You can check the current wait times at each border crossing here: http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/bwt-taf/menu-eng.html. You should also check the wait time for the U.S. border you will need to exit at.

Post Graduate Work Permit Facts

There are always fees to pay when applying for visas! You can pay the fees online with a credit card, and some Interac debit cards. My credit union is not accepted, so I use my Canaian credit card every time. Currently, the fee for the PGWP is $155 CAD, but you must also pay the “open work permit holder” fee that is $100 CAD. Pay both and bring your receipt if you chose to flag-pole, but I paid the fees at the border crossing office by credit card.

The permit itself has restrictions depending on how long your studies were in Canada, the below is directly from the CIC website.

Now remember how I had applied for my permit online first? I tried to retract that application, but never figured out how, and it was processed by the CIC. My permit through flag-poling was valid for the length of my program, 9 months, but my application processed online was valid for about 2 years, from November 2015 to February 2020. Don’t ask me how that happened, I have no idea. The permit should be issued for the same amount of time as your studies, and not for longer than 3 years. The important thing to remember is that it’s a temporary permit, and you will need to find a way to continue working in Canada passed the expiry date on your permit, if you want to continue living and working in Canada.

Leaving Canada With The Permit

The work permit gets attached to your travel document, typically your passport, so that you always have it with you when leaving the country. I found it to be easy to leave and enter Canada with my work permit and U.S. passport, which I did about once a month to visit Seattle or for the holidays. My status was never under question, and I became comfortable knowing that the border officers would ask me a short list of questions and then let me through. The questions include:

  • Where do you work?
  • Where do you live?
  • How long were you in the U.S. and what was the purpose of your trip?
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When traveling with my husband, we would also typically be asked how we know each other as well. Crossing the border was never an issue for us, and we were never asked to go into the customs office for further questioning after I received my Post Graduate Work Permit. Even when taking the bus by myself (I highly recommend using Bolt Bus, if you don’t have a car), I was never asked more than a handful of questions.

Thank You for Reading!

My experience was a little weird with the double processing, and the length of time it took to receive my permit after applying online, but otherwise easy to understand what I needed to do after some in-depth research. I hope this post can be helpful to any one looking to apply for a Post Graduate Work Permit after studying in Canada. My next post will detail my experience in applying for Permanent Residency through Family Sponsorship. Best of luck, and thanks for reading!

Canadian Flag In Quebec: Two-Thirds Of Quebecers Call Maple Leaf Source Of ‘Personal Or Collective Pr >

MONTREAL — A new poll suggests that while the Parti Quebecois government seeks to remove the Canadian flag from the provincial legislature, most people in Quebec view the Maple Leaf as a source of pride.

The survey suggests that the flag the PQ wants to remove is viewed as a source of «personal or collective pride» by two-thirds of Quebecers.

The online poll commissioned by the Association for Canadian Studies asked respondents whether they considered different national symbols very important, somewhat important, not very important, or not important at all as sources of personal or collective pride in Canada.

The survey said that when it came to the flag, 66 per cent of Quebec respondents answered yes — with 29 per cent calling it very important and 37 per cent calling it somewhat important. Twenty-two per cent said it was not very important, and only 10 per cent said it was not important at all.

The Leger Marketing survey of 2,207 respondents — 656 in Quebec — explored how much pride Canadians have in 16 different symbols, accomplishment and events.

The findings shine a light on public opinion in a province that has been sending mixed political messages lately: Quebec recently elected the pro-independence PQ — but only with a minority, and at a time when polls suggest support for independence is low, while the PQ’s sister-party in Ottawa, the Bloc, was nearly wiped off the map barely a year earlier.

The newly elected PQ quickly took steps to expel the flag from the national assembly, as it had during its previous stint in power.

It faced more resistance this time.

The PQ, holding a minority for only the first time in its history, has been forced to call a vote on the flag issue. The vote on whether to officially remove the Maple Leaf from the legislature’s upper chamber was scheduled to take place on Wednesday but was put off until Dec. 4.

The PQ proposal appears headed for defeat, with the two main opposition parties signalling their intention to vote against it.

Jack Jedwab, executive director of the Association for Canadian Studies, believes the three-month-old minority government is using the flag dispute as a way to appease the party’s hardline sovereigntist base.

«Right now, in a minority-government situation, they’re unable to make any meaningful progress with respect to the sovereignty option,» Jedwab said of the PQ’s decision to target the Maple Leaf.

«I don’t think that they’re going at an issue that’s going to get them a lot of sympathy, other than from their base.»

The Canadian flag has had an on-again, off-again presence in the Quebec legislature’s committee chamber, also known as the Red Room. It is the only visible spot in the building where the emblem hangs.

Marois’ government made a formal request to remove it earlier this month, on the 36th anniversary of the election of the first PQ government in 1976.

That year, then-PQ premier Rene Levesque was the first to put the Quebec flag in the legislative chamber, the Blue Room, where the daily debates are held and votes are cast. In 1983, he put the Fleur-de-lis in the Red Room, used for ceremonial events and committee hearings.

The Maple Leaf was eventually added to the Red Room by federalist Liberal premier Robert Bourassa when he returned to power in 1985. It was removed by successive PQ premiers before being brought back in 2003 after Jean Charest’s Liberals took power.

Neither federalist premier, Bourassa or Charest, put the Maple Leaf in the legislative chamber, fearing a backlash from nationalists.

The flag was on the move again last month when the PQ took it out of the chamber for its swearing-in ceremony, although it later reappeared.

The flag decision at the PQ’s swearing-in was criticized outside Quebec, where the poll’s results suggest that love for the banner is nearly unanimous.

The results, collected from Canadians in every province the week of Nov. 5, were broken down for different regions of the country, including Quebec.

The survey found that 90 per cent of respondents outside Quebec feel the flag is an important source of personal or collective pride.

Jedwab said even though that figure is 24 percentage points higher than in Quebec, the results still suggest that most Quebecers are proud of the Maple Leaf.

«There’s something about the flag that they like in terms of the way Canada gets represented abroad,» he said of Quebec public opinion.

«Quebecers, it strikes me, like representing themselves as Canadians outside of Quebec more so than within Quebec.»

The poll results found that on most of the 16 Canadian symbols identified, such as the flag, more Quebecers described them as important than unimportant.

On the anthem, 58 per cent of Quebecers called it very or somewhat important. On the military, 61 per cent of Quebecers called it an important symbol. Eighty-nine per cent called the Charter of Rights important. Eighty-two per cent called bilingualism important, more than any other region.

Still, Quebecers’ sense of Canadian pride was considerably lower than other respondents on most issues.

The most glaring examples were the monarchy and the War of 1812 — which only a minority of Quebec respondents, 16 per cent and 33 per cent, called important.

The online poll does not include the traditional margin of error provided by telephone polling. Online surveys use self-selected respondents, making it impossible to come up with the kind of margin of error found in polls based on telephoned respondents.

Canada: Flag-Poling Restricted During Peak Periods in Southern Ontario Region

In brief

The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) informally announced today that it will no longer be permitting flag-poling at certain land crossings in the Southern Ontario Region during peak periods, effective immediately.

Discussion

Foreign nationals who do not require a temporary resident visa to enter Canada are eligible to apply for an immigration status document (e.g. work permit, study permit, etc.) at a Canadian port-of-entry (e.g. land crossing or international airport). Further, all foreign nationals are eligible to complete the permanent residence landing process at a Canadian port-of-entry as an alternative to landing at an inland immigration office.

Qualifying foreign nationals who are present in Canada can enter the United States of America and then apply for their immigration status document or complete the permanent residence landing process upon re-entry to Canada. This process is colloquially referred to as “flag-poling” and is often advantageous due to lengthy processing times for applications and wait times for landing interviews within Canada.

To alleviate pressure at land border crossings, the CBSA informally announced today that it will no longer be permitting flag-poling at certain high volume ports-of-entry in the Southern Ontario Region during peak periods (i.e. on Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays, or Mondays), effective immediately. The ports-of-entry affected by this initiative include:

– Queenston;
– Niagara Falls;
– Rainbow Bridge; and
– Fort Erie (Peace Bridge).

If a foreign national attempts to flag-pole at the above ports-of-entry between Friday and Monday, it is likely that their examination will be deferred and they will be directed to return to that port-of-entry on a Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday. If a foreign national’s immigration status has expired or will be expiring imminently, there is the added risk that their status document may not be renewed in a timely manner if their examination is deferred and/or they may be denied re-entry to Canada.

Impact

In light of this new initiative, any foreign national planning to flag-pole at the ports-of-entry listed above between Friday and Monday should consider re-entering between Tuesday and Thursday and/or consult with their legal counsel about re-entering at an alternative port-of-entry. Further, this initiative highlights the importance of maintaining valid immigration status and filing extension applications in a timely manner.

For more information regarding this initiative or any other immigration matters, please contact a member of our team at PwC Law LLP.

Flag polling Канада

On February 15th, 1965, the modern Canadian flag, bearing its hallmark maple leaf, was raised for the first time on Parliament Hill. Today, the maple leaf is a recognized symbol of Canada; it has also come to symbolize unity, tolerance, and peace. This article provides a history of Canada’s modern flag, and describes the events and debates leading up to its adoption.

Historical Overview of Canadian Flags

Historical overview of the past flags used by Canada

A National Flag for Canada

Events leading up to the decision to adopt the Canadian maple leaf flag

Why the Maple Leaf?

Why was the maple leaf chosen as the official symbol on Canada’s national flag?

Links for Further Information

List of links for more information on this topic

Historical Overview of Canadian Flags

Historical overview of the past flags used by Canada

Flag Terminology

The following terms are used to describe the various parts of a flag:

  • The hoist is the half of the flag nearest the flagpole;
  • The upper hoist is the upper left-hand quadrant of the flag;
  • The lower hoist is the lower left-hand quadrant of the flag;
  • The fly is the half of the flag that is farthest away from the flagpole;
  • The upper fly is the upper right-hand quadrant of the flag; and
  • The lower fly is the lower right-hand quadrant of the flag.

A Commonwealth Symbol – The Union Jack

Until 1965, Canada did not have its own national flag. Since Confederation, the Union Jack, the national flag of the United Kingdom, served as Canada’s unofficial national flag. Accordingly, the Union Jack flew over government buildings in Canada, as well as other government-related facilities such as RCMP camps and military forts.

The Union Jack represents the political union of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The flag combines the following three heraldic emblems:

  • England: the St. George’s Cross, a red cross on a white background.
  • Scotland: the St. Andrew’s Cross, a diagonal white cross on a blue background.
  • Ireland: the St. Patrick’s Cross, a diagonal red cross on a white background.

The emblems on the Union Jack mark the union of England and Scotland in 1606, and the subsequent Act of Union — of Ireland, with England (and Wales) and Scotland — in 1801. The official name of the Union Jack is the Union Flag; in Canada it is called the Royal Union Flag.

Displaying the Union Jack Throughout the Commonwealth

The Union Jack design is displayed on the national flags of many Commonwealth countries, representing a given country’s historical ties to Britain. Normally, the Union Jack is displayed on the upper hoist, while symbols specific to the country are displayed on the fly (this is called defacing the fly), and possibly the lower hoist.

This pattern is found on the national flags of Australia and New Zealand. Both flags display the Union Jack on their upper hoist and the Southern Cross — the most visible star in the southern hemisphere — on the fly. The stars representing the Southern Cross on New Zealand’s flag have red shading and are larger than those on the Australian flag. The Australian flag also has the Commonwealth Star — a seven-pointed star representing the six Australian states and the territories — in the lower hoist. Like many Commonwealth countries, both flags also have a royal blue background to represent the sea that surrounds them.

Other Commonwealth countries that display the Union Jack on their national flag include Bermuda, Fiji, and Gibraltar.

From the Union Jack to the Red Ensign – Canada’s Quest for an Official Flag

While the Union Jack was Canada’s unofficial national flag at Confederation, over time another flag, the Canadian Red Ensign, began to overtake it in popularity. An adaptation of a British naval flag, the original version of the Red Ensign, consisted of a square red flag with the Union Jack on the upper hoist, and a shield containing the coat of arms of the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick (the four provinces that originally entered Confederation in 1867) displayed on the fly. As other provinces joined Confederation, the shield design on the flag was updated to include their coats of arms.

The Canadian Red Ensign was first used on naval vessels, even before the British government officially gave Canada permission to display the flag in 1892. While Canadian troops fought under the Union Jack flag during World War I, some veterans have memories of the Canadian Red Ensign being flown (unofficially) as well. In World War II, Canadian troops fought under the Red Ensign.

One obvious reason for the Canadian Red Ensign’s growing popularity was that, in addition to the Union Jack, it also displayed symbols specific to Canada. Interestingly, one of the symbols found in both the earliest versions of the Canadian Red Ensign, as well as subsequent incarnations, is the maple leaf.

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In 1924, under the Liberal government of William Lyon Mackenzie King, the provincial shields on the Canadian Red Ensign were replaced with the shield from the Canadian Coat of Arms. The shield from the Canadian Coat of Arms contains five features (the first four represent the European peoples who founded Canada, while the fifth is meant to be a distinctly Canadian symbol):

  • On the top left, three golden lions, serve as symbols of England;
  • On the top right, a Scottish red lion is bordered with a red fleur-de-lis, alternately pointing inward and outward;
  • On the middle left is the Irish harp of Tara;
  • On the middle right is the golden fleur-de-lis of France; and,
  • On the bottom half are three maple leaves set against a white background.

The federal government approved the use of the newly designed flag on Canadian buildings abroad, such as at Canada House in London. In 1945, its use was expanded to federal buildings within Canada.

Why Didn’t the Canadian Red Ensign Become Canada’s National Flag?

Given the similarity in design between the Canadian Red Ensign and the national flags of other Commonwealth countries, it is interesting to speculate why it never became Canada’s national flag. Partially, federal officials feared a negative backlash from the French Canadian population. Many French Canadians viewed the Union Jack — which is featured on the Canadian Red Ensign — as a symbol of colonialism, representing France’s defeat at the hands of the British on the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City in 1759. French Canadian hostility to the Union Jack (and all British symbols) increased during World War I, as Robert Borden, the Prime Minister at the time, was forced to bring in conscription (compulsory service in the military). French Canadians resented being forced to serve under British commanders and a British flag in war, even if they were defending France.

Although the Canadian Red Ensign contained other symbols in addition to the Union Jack — including the French fleur-de-lis — French Canadians still rejected it. Quebecers were more loyal to their own provincial flag, consisting of a white cross on a blue background, with a white fleur-de-lis in each of the four quadrants, and no British symbols. Any move to make the Canadian Red Ensign Canada’s national flag would inevitably inflame ethnic tensions between English and French Canada, particularly within the province of Quebec.

To complicate matters, many British descendants felt the Canadian Red Ensign did not do enough to emphasize Canada’s ties to Britain. Groups such as the Imperial Order of the Daughters of Canada argued that the Union Jack — the flag under which Canadian soldiers had laid down their lives during World War I — should remain Canada’s official flag. These two groups would continue to play a prominent role in subsequent debates over choosing a national flag for Canada.

A National Flag for Canada

Events leading up to the decision to adopt the Canadian maple leaf flag

In 1925, capitalizing on the patriotic fervour following the Allied victory in World War I, Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King made his first attempt to adopt a national flag for Canada. King appointed a parliamentary committee to recommend a design for a national flag; however, it quickly became evident that it would be impossible to gain widespread agreement. The Prime Minister quietly dissolved the committee before it released its final report.

Following World War II, when patriotic fervour was again high, Prime Minister King made a second attempt to adopt a national flag for Canada. In 1946, King appointed a parliamentary committee to choose a flag design. This time, the committee submitted a final report to Parliament. The design they recommended was a variation on the Canadian Red Ensign. The proposed flag still included a Union Jack; however, the shield from the Canadian coat of arms was replaced with a gold maple leaf with a white border.

The flag was designed to strike a compromise between English speaking Canadians who wanted to keep the Union Jack, and French speaking Canadians who wanted a flag that did not contain any British symbols. Predictably, the proposed design pleased no one. The Prime Minister let the issue drop without bringing it to a vote in Parliament.

The Flag Debate

Well over a decade later, during the 1963 federal election campaign, Liberal leader Lester B. Pearson promised that if the Liberals formed the next government, Canada would have a new flag within two years. Following the election of a minority Liberal government, Pearson was true to his word; in the early months of 1964, the new Prime Minister met with several flag experts to discuss flag design.

From the outset, Pearson rejected following the route of many other Commonwealth countries whose flags included the Union Jack to represent their ties to Britain. Pearson had vivid memories of the 1956 Suez Crisis, when, as Canada’s Secretary of State for External Affairs, he had played a key role in brokering an agreement between the relevant parties over the future operation of the Suez Canal. When Pearson suggested the United Nations create a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) to keep the peace in Egypt while a political settlement was being worked out, President Nassar of Egypt objected to including Canadian troops in the UNEF because their flag, the Canadian Red Ensign, was too British-looking.

This incident made a lasting impression on Pearson. He wanted a “made in Canada” flag — one that contained a uniquely Canadian symbol to promote Canadian unity, one that would also assist in buffering a growing separatist climate in Quebec.

In May 1964, Pearson formally announced the new flag design. Pearson’s proposed national flag consisted of three red maple leaves on a white background, bordered by two vertical blue bars to represent the fact that Canada stretched “from sea to sea.”

Before making the official announcement on May 19th, Pearson tested the new flag design with an audience of Veterans at a speech in Winnipeg. Their reaction was indicative of what was to come. The Veterans, who had fought under the Canadian Red Ensign — unofficially in World War I, and officially in World War II — heckled the Prime Minister throughout his speech.

Reaction to the proposed flag design among Members of Parliament from the Progressive Conservative opposition was equally negative. Progressive Conservative Leader (and former Prime Minister) John Diefenbaker quickly dubbed the proposed maple leaf flag “Pearson’s Pennant.” Diefenbaker’s opposition to the flag design was based on the fact that it did not include any historical symbols recognizing Canada’s British and French heritage. He favoured the Canadian Red Ensign, as it contained both British and French symbols, specifically the Union Jack and the fleur-de-lis (the Union Jack is found on the upper left-hand-side of the Canadian Red Ensign, while the fleur-de-lis forms part of the shield from Canada’s coat of arms which is on the fly). In a memo from Diefenbaker’s personal files he wrote:

The Pearson flag is a meaningless Flag. There is no recognition of history; no indication of the existence of French and English Canada; the partnership of the races; no acknowledgement of history. It is a flag without a past, without history, without honour and without pride.” (Source – I Stand for Canada: The Story of the Maple Leaf Flag).

Throughout the summer of 1963, the Progressive Conservatives used techniques such as ‘filibustering’ to prolong debate on the flag design, so that a vote on the matter could be postponed.

While the remaining opposition parties generally supported Pearson (with some modifications to the basic design), the Liberals needed the support of the Progressive Conservatives in the House of Commons to support the legislation that would officially give rise to the new flag. Furthermore, for the flag to be a unifying symbol, it would need an overwhelming show of support from Parliament.

Reaction outside of the House of Commons to the new flag design was mixed. Some groups, including Veterans’ organizations and the Imperial Order of the Daughters of Canada, actively lobbied for the Red Ensign. At the same time, the new flag, which was supposed to be a unifying force between French and English Canada, proved to be a relative ‘dud’ with French Canadians; it received a largely lukewarm reception.

By September, it was clear to Pearson that he would need to change tactics. The following outlines the detailed sequence of events that ultimately led to the adoption of the Canadian maple leaf flag as Canada’s new national flag:

  • In September 1964, Pearson agreed to refer the matter to a 15-member all-party Parliamentary Committee. The Committee’s makeup was designed to ensure regional representation and include a mix of English and French speakers. (The Committee also included one woman.) With respect to political party representation, the Committee consisted of seven Liberals, five Progressive Conservatives, one New Democrat, one Social Credit, and one Créditiste.
  • Over the next four weeks, the Parliamentary Committee considered more than 2,000 designs, including hundreds submitted by the public.
  • On October 22nd, following weeks of heated debate among its members, 14 committee members voted unanimously (the 15th member was only to vote in the case of a tie) for a modification of Pearson’s proposed flag, with a red background and a single, stylized 11-point maple leaf on a white square in the middle.
  • Although the Committee members from the Progressive Conservative Party voted for the new design, they did so with the mistaken belief that the Liberals would vote against it, since the modified design did not include the three maple leaves originally proposed by Lester Pearson. The Progressive Conservative members of the Committee also voted against a subsequent motion to submit this flag design as the Committee’s choice for the country’s national flag. (The motion passed anyway.)
  • With a few minor alterations, the final version of the design, which had been submitted to Cabinet, was approved.
  • Over the next two weeks, Members of Parliament debated the new design. During this period, Diefenbaker, and the members of his party who sat on the flag Committee, resorted to ‘filibustering’ to forestall any real debate on the design.
  • Several Conservative MPs became concerned about media and public backlash to the filibustering. On December 9th, Diefenbaker’s Quebec Lieutenant, Léon Balcer, rose and invited the Liberal government to invoke ‘closure,’ so the new flag design could be put to a vote.
  • On December 11, following further debate, the Prime Minister invoked closure; that is, a motion to end debate on the flag, and thus the filibuster. On December 14th, the closure motion passed by 152 to 85 votes, meaning that a vote on the actual flag could proceed in the House.
  • On December 15 1964, following a speech by Pearson, Parliament approved the new flag in a crucial vote, with 163 MPs voting in favour of the new flag and 78 voting against it. This vote occurred despite significant opposition from former Prime Minister Diefenbaker to the new design.

On January 28, 1965, the Queen signed the Royal Proclamation giving Canada a national flag. On February 15, 1965, an official flag-raising ceremony was held on Parliament Hill, as Canada’s new national flag was flown for the first time.

Why the Maple Leaf?

Why was the maple leaf chosen as the official symbol on Canada’s national flag?

Some may question why the maple leaf was eventually chosen as the symbol used on Canada’s flag, particularly given that the sugar maple, used as the model for the maple leaf design on Canada’s national flag, is found only in eastern Canada. Further to this, the majority of Canada’s maple trees are, in fact, only found east of Manitoba. By contrast, the beaver, a symbol of industriousness, and responsible for Canada’s burgeoning fur trade in the 1800s, is found widely across the country. In 1849, when famous Canadian engineer Sandford Fleming was asked to design Canada’s first adhesive postage stamp, he chose to portray a beaver building a dam near a waterfall.

There are several reasons why the maple leaf was a more appropriate choice. For one thing, the maple leaf is simply easier to draw. For another, the maple leaf is red, one of Canada’s national colours (the other is white). Finally, the fur trade is a part of Canada’s historical past, and the image of the beaver no longer resonated with Canadians in the same manner that it would have in the nineteenth century.

Further to these arguments, historically speaking, the image of the maple leaf has frequently been used as a symbol of Canada. To cite a few examples:

  • In 1860, the design of the badge for the Prince of Wales Royal Canadian Regiment included a maple leaf. Also in 1860, the maple leaf featured prominently in decorations for a visit by the Prince of Wales.
  • In 1867, Alexander Muir penned “The Maple Leaf Forever” as a song for Confederation.
  • Between 1876 and 1901, the maple leaf was featured on all Canadian coins; today, the maple leaf is found on the penny).
  • Between 1899 and 1902, Canadian soldiers fighting in the Boer War (a conflict in South Africa between the British and descendents of South Africa’s Dutch settlers) wore a maple leaf on their helmets.
  • In 1904, Canadian athletes competing in the Olympic Games wore shirts displaying the maple leaf.
  • In World Wars I and II, the maple leaf was displayed on soldiers’ caps, badges, and military equipment.
  • In 1921, the Canadian shield was revised so that the provincial emblems were replaced with a maple leaf.
  • In 1980, for his ‘Marathon of Hope’ run across Canada, Terry Fox wore a white T-shirt with the maple leaf embedded on a map of Canada.
  • Throughout the 20th century, Canadian teams wore the maple leaf on their uniforms in international competitions.

Today, around the world, the maple leaf is inextricably linked with Canada.

On a final note, and a little ‘closer to home,’ when the founders of Mapleleafweb.com were looking for a name, and a visual symbol that would immediately communicate the website’s focus on Canada, the maple leaf proved to be an obvious choice.

Links for Further Information

List of links for more information on this topic

Flag polling Канада

Каждая страна имеет определенные символы своей государственности. Как правило, это- герб, гимн и флаг. Причем, каждая страна имеет долгую историю всех трех элементов государственности. Канада не стала исключением.

Очень важная для вас статья:  Детский летний лагерь Канада

Прежде всего, очень многие отмечают практичность канадского флага – он легко узнаваем в любую погоду, легко запоминается, прост в изображении и, в тоже время, отражает непростую историю страны. Флаг Канады считается «миролюбивым» – на нем не изображено каких-либо львов, стрел, и так далее; флаг как будто бы намекает на миролюбивость граждан.

Первоначально на территории Канады использовался всем известный английский флаг – флаг с крестом Святого Георгия. Вскоре, после того как Канада завоевывается французами, официальным флагом становится флаг орлеанской династии во Франции – флаг с изображением королевских лилий. Однако в 1620 году Англия возвращает Канаду под свой контроль, а вместе с ней Канаде вновь возвращается и английский флаг. Флаг символизировал связь и неразрывность исторического развития Канады и ее метрополии и получил название Union Jack.

1868 году Канада получает новый флаг. Он становится красного цвета с изображением флага Англии в верхнем левом углу. В центре же правой части полотна был изображен щит, разделенный на части с изображением гербов Англии, Ирландии, Шотландии и Франции. Кроме того, изображались три кленовых листа, которые символизировали непосредственно Канаду. Новый флаг получает название Red Ensign (Canadian Red Ensign).

Примечательно, что во время Первой мировой войны канадцы воевали под знаменем Union Jack, а во время Второй мировой – под Red Ensign. После каждой из войн вставал вопрос: «а не пора ли Канаде обзавестись собственным флагом?» К слову, первый комитет для принятия собственного флага был создан еще в 1925 году премьер-министром Кингом, однако из-за медленного хода работы он был вскоре распущен. По мере приближения столетия страны (в 1867 году Канада стала доминионом Англии – многие считают этот год годом появления новой страны) призывы к созданию нового флага звучали все громче и громче. Поэтому в 1964 году тогдашний премьер-министр страны Лестер Пирсон заявил: «Я уверен, что мы должны иметь наш государственный флаг для Канады; флаг, который скажет только одно слово, и это слово – Канада». В том же году повторно был организован комитет, который должен был создать и утвердить новый дизайн флага. В комитет вошли 15 членов парламента, представляющие 5 различных партий парламента. Что интересно, комитет не только консультировался с экспертами по геральдике и прочими специалистами, но и напрямую обратился к народу с предложением прислать свои вариации нового флага, чем граждане Канады с радостью и воспользовались. В комитет ежедневно приходили тысячи различных предложений, причем присылали их не только жители Канады, но и канадцы, живущие за рубежом. Тема кленового листа оказалась самой излюбленной. Встречались и другие свойственнее Канаде символы – бобры, бизоны, религиозные символы, хотя встречались и менее типичные варианты, как например, скрещенные хоккейные клюшки. Также присылались и подробные описания значения каждого элемента нового флага. Всего комитет рассмотрел 2695 вариантов флага. Все присланные проекты сегодня хранятся в Национальном Архиве Канады как важная часть ее исторического и культурного развития. После рассмотрения всех присланных проектов оказалось, что существует три основных направления в дизайне флага: вариации флага Red Ensign и прочих исторических элементов; флаг с множеством кленовых листьев; флаг с одним кленовым листом. Комитет большинством голосов проголосовал за вариант флага с одиночным кленовым листом. После этого, проект нового флага был представлен канадскому Парламенту, который рассматривал его аж 15 дней. Премьер Пирсон выступал за вариант с тремя листьями, оппозиция же выступала за вариацию Red Ensign дабы показать историческую связь Канады и Великобритании, но Парламент все же выбрал флаг с одним кленовым листком. Произошло это 15 декабря 1964 года при результате голосования 168 за новый флаг и 78 против. 17 декабря Сенат подтвердил решение Палаты Общин, а 28 января 1965 года закон о новом флаге был принят королевой Великобритании и Канады Елизаветой II. Королева лично приехала в Канаду для проведения церемонии подъёма нового флага. С тех пор и Union Jack получил новый статус – он стал символом членства Канады в Британском Содружестве. С тех пор в Канаде появился новый праздник – День Национального Флага (15 декабря).

Что же в итоге символизировал новый канадский флаг? Две красные полосы ( крайняя левая и крайняя правая части флага) символизируют два океана – Тихий и Атлантический, а белая полоса – страну, заключенную между двумя океанами. Кленовый лист подчеркивает единство нации. Красный цвет отражает историческую связь страны с монархией Великобритании, а белый – с Францией. Стороны флага имеют соотношении 1:2, а белая полоска в два раза шире красной.

Интересно, что лист сахарного клена, который изображен на флаге, являлся эмблемой Восточной Канады, где этот клен произрастал; в других же частях страны он не встречается. Примечательна и история о том, как вообще кленовый лист попал в историю Канады. В 1860 году в Канаду, а именно в Торонто, ехал принц Уэльский. Население города, которое, как известно, состояло из мигрантов, хотело встретить гостя со своими национальными символами: англичане вышли с розами, шотландцы с ветками чертополоха. Однако для родившихся в Канаде никакого символа не нашлось и им предложили нести кленовые листья, так как клен не произрастал в Великобритании и других европейских странах.

Как мы видим, главный атрибут государственной власти Канады имеет не только долгую и интересную историю, но и сохраняет историческую связь страны с Великобританией и Францией, которые бесспорно оказали огромное влияние на становление Канады.

Symbols of Canada

Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the world’s second-largest country by total area, and its common border with the United States is the world’s longest land border.
The National symbols of Canada represent all that the nation stands for, its people, places, traditions and cultures. For every citizen of Canada, the National symbols offer a sense of pride and honor in being a part of such a beautiful and diverse nation. The various National symbols of Canada are:

• The National flag
• The National anthem
• The Coat of Arms
• The Maple leaf
• The National animal

National Flag
The National flag of Canada was officially adopted and inaugurated in the year 1965 after several years of political debate over the flag’s design. The National flag holds a special place of honor as one of the foremost national symbol of Canada and therefore treated with much reverence.
Canada’s official National flag is colored red and white, the country’s official colors, and its center bears a maple leaf which is Canada’s traditional emblem.

National anthem
“O Canada” was officially declared the National anthem of Canada on 1st July, 1980, a century after it was first sung in 1880. The original lyrics of the anthem were written in French by Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier and the music was composed by Calixa Lavallee. Over the subsequent years, several English versions of the anthem were also created. The official English version of the anthem was written by Mr. Justice Robert Stanley Weir.
As a National symbol of the country, “O Canada” is sung at sporting events, school assemblies and other formal occasions of national importance.

Official Lyrics of O Canada!
Lyrics O Canada (English version)
O Canada!
Our home and native land!
True patriot love in all thy sons command.
With glowing hearts we see thee rise,
The True North strong and free!
From far and wide,
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
God keep our land glorious and free!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

Lyrics O Canada (French version)
« O Canada! Terre de nos aueux,
Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux!
Car ton bras sait porter l’epee,
Il sait porter la croix!
Ton histoire est une epopee
Des plus brillants exploits.
Et ta valeur, de foi tremp?e,
Protegera nos foyers et nos droits.
Protegera nos foyers et nos droits. »

Lyrics O Canada (Bilingual version — non official)
O Canada! Our home and native land!
True patriot love in all thy sons command,
Car ton bras sait porter l’epee,
Il sait porter la croix!
Ton histoire est une epopee
Des plus brillants exploits,
God keep our land glorious and free!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

National Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (From sea to sea)

Coat of Arms

Canada’s National Coat of Arms closely resembles the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom with the exception of the additional maple leaves around its edges. The Coat of Arms is widely used for official purpose like classifying the minister and their offices, institutions of parliamentary secretaries’ and also the institutions with quasi-judicial functions. Besides, the symbol of the Coat of Arms also appears on official documents like the passports.

The Crown symbolizes the Canadian monarchy, and appears on the coat of arms (used by parliamentarians and government ministries), the flag of the Governor General, the coats of arms of many provinces and territories; the badges of several federal departments, the Canadian Forces, Royal Military College of Canada, Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), many regiments, and other police forces; on buildings, as well as some highway signs and licence plates. Also, the Queen’s image appears in Canadian government buildings, military installations and schools; and on Canadian stamps, $20 bank notes, and all coins.

Great Seal of Canada

Canadian Crest

Flag of the Governor General of Canada

Royal Standard of Canada

National colors: Red and White

History records that in the First Crusade Bohemund I, a Norman lord, had red crosses cut from his mantles and distributed to the 10,000 crusaders, who wore them as a distinctive badge on their garments.
In subsequent crusades, each nation was distinguished by a cross of a different colour. France long had a red cross on its banners while England used a white cross. In the course of history, red and white alternated as the national colours of France and England.
Red and white were approved as Canada’s official colours in the proclamation of her coat of arms in 1921.
In 1957, the colour of the maple leaves on the shield of the Royal Arms of Canada was changed from green on a white ground to red on a white ground in recognition of Canada’s official colours.

The Maple leaf

The history of the maple leaf as a symbol of Canada can be traced back as early as 1700. As Canada’s National emblem, the maple leaf appears on the national flag and coins and for many years it was used as a symbol of the Canadian Armed Forces. The maple leaf attained official status subsequent to the adoption of the new National flag of Canada which bears the leaf in its center.
Well before the coming of the first European settlers, Canada’s aboriginal peoples had discovered the food properties of maple sap, which they gathered every spring.
In 1834, the St. Jean Baptiste Society made the maple leaf its emblem.
In 1836, Le Canadien, a newspaper published in Lower Canada, referred to it as a suitable emblem for Canada.
In 1848, the Toronto literary annual The Maple Leaf referred to it as the chosen emblem of Canada.
Alexander Muir wrote The Maple Leaf Forever as Canada’s confederation song in 1867; it was regarded as the national song for several decades. The coats of arms created the next year for Ontario and Quebec both included the maple leaf.
The maple leaf today appears on the penny. However, between 1876 and 1901, it appeared on all Canadian coins. The modern one-cent piece has two maple leaves on a common twig, a design that has gone almost unchanged since 1937.
In 1957, the colour of the maple leaves on the arms of Canada was changed from green to red, one of Canada’s official colours.
On February 15, 1965, the red maple leaf flag was inaugurated as the National Flag of Canada.

Maple trees have played a meaningful role in the historical development of Canada and continue to be of commercial, environmental and aesthetic importance to all Canadians. Maples contribute valuable wood products, sustain the maple sugar industry and help to beautify the landscape. Maple wood, which varies in hardness, toughness and other properties, is in demand for flooring, furniture, interior woodwork, veneer, small woodenware, and supports several flourishing industries in eastern Canada. Maple is also highly prized in furniture building and cabinet-making.
The maple tree was officially proclaimed national arboreal emblem of Canada on April 25, 1996. It was published in the Canada Gazette on May 15, 1996.

National animal
Canada has two national animals – the beaver and the Canadian Horse.

The Beaver associated with the discovery of the country itself. As an official National symbol, the beaver appears on several Canadian memorabilia like stamps and coins. The beaver is a symbol of ingenuity and perseverance. The beaver officially became the emblem of Canada on 24 March, 1975. Beaver is more popular than Bieber)))

The Canadian Horse is another animal commonly seen as a national symbol of Canada. The government of Canada passed a bill in 2003, which made the Canadian Horse an official symbol and a national animal of Canada. This animal is associated with the agricultural traditions and historical origins of the province of Quebec, and hence, provincial legislation recognized the Canadian Horse as a ‘heritage breed of Quebec’.

The origin of the name «Canada» comes from the expedition of explorer Jacques Cartier up the St. Lawrence River in 1535. The Iroquois pointing out the route to the village of Stadacona, the future site of Quebec City, used the word «kanata,» the Huron-Iroquois word for village. Jacques Cartier used the word Canada to refer to both the settlement of Stadacona and the land surrounding it subject to Chief Donnacona.
By 1547, maps were showing the name Canada applied to everything north of the St. Lawrence River. The St. Lawrence River was called the «rivi?re du Canada» by Cartier.

Canada wasn’t the only name. Other names suggested at the time of Confederation were: Victorialand, Borealia, Cabotia, Tuponia (The United Provinces of North America), Superior, Norland, Hochelaga.

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