orthodontist, accountant, and pediatritian Канада


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Orthodontist, accountant, and pediatritian Канада

Edward Angle was the first orthodontist—the first dentist to limit his practice to orthodontics only. He is considered the «father of modern orthodontics.»

Modern Orthodontics

The use of digital models in orthodontics is rap > [ 1 ]

Methods

For comprehensive orthodontic treatment, most commonly, metal wires (Juste) are inserted into orthodontic brackets (see dental braces), which can be made from stainless steel or a more aesthetic ceramic material. The wires interact with the brackets to move teeth into the desired positions. Other methods may include (1) invisalign. Invisalign consists of clear plastic aligners that ‘level and align’, but require more patient compliance than traditional braces. In most cases, invisalign is not a suitable replacement for traditional braces. (2) Suresmile, a dental treatment system that uses 3-D imaging and a robot to shorten the time to straight teeth.

Additional components—including removable appliances («plates»), headgear, expansion appliances, and many other devices—may also be used to move teeth and jaw bones. Functional appliances, for example, are used in growing patients (age 5 to 14) with the aim of modifying the jaw dimensions and relationship if these are altered. This therapy, termed Dentofacial Orthopedics, is frequently followed by fixed multibracket therapy («full braces») to align the teeth and refine the occlusion.

Orthodontics is the study of dentistry that is concerned with the treatment of improper bites, and crooked teeth. Orthodontic treatment can help fix your teeth and set them in the right place. Orthodontists usually use braces and retainers to set your teeth. [ 2 ] There are, however, orthodontists who work on reconstructing the entire face rather than focusing exclusively on teeth. After a course of active orthodontic treatment, patients will typically wear retainers, which maintain the teeth in their improved positions while surrounding bone reforms around them. The retainers are generally worn full-time for a short period, perhaps six months to a year, then part-time (typically, nightly during sleep) for as long as the orthodontist recommends. It is possible for the teeth to stay aligned without regular retainer wear. However, there are many reasons teeth will crowd as a person ages, whether or not the individual ever experienced orthodontic treatment; thus there is no guarantee that teeth will stay aligned without retention. For this reason, many orthodontists prescribe part-time retainer wear for many years after orthodontic treatment.

Diagnosis and treatment planning

In diagnosis and treatment planning, the orthodontist must (1) recognize the various characteristics of a malocclusion or dentofacial deformity; (2) define the nature of the problem, including the etiology if possible;(3) design a treatment strategy based on the specific needs and desires of the indiv > [ 3 ]

The New York Times has recently written that orthodontists are using Cone Beam CT too much in the diagnosis and treatment of orthodontic patients, leading to an unnecessary increased risk of cancer. [ 4 ]

Training

Orthodontics was the first recognized specialty field within dentistry. Many countries have their own systems for training and registering orthodontic specialists. A two to three year period of full-time post-graduate study is required for a dentist to qualify as an orthodontist.

United States of America

The applicant must have completed or be a full-time student/res > [ 5 ]

Certification Process
1. Application
2. Written Examination
3. Clinical Examination
4. Annual Fee

Europe

In the United Kingdom, this training period lasts three years, after completion of a membership from a Royal College. A further two years is then completed to train to consultant level, after which a fellowship examination from the Royal College is sat. In other parts of Europe, a similar pattern is followed. It is always worth contacting the professional body responsible for registering orthodontists to ensure that the orthodontist you wish to consult is a recognised specialist.

Canada

A number of dental schools and hospitals offer advanced education in the specialty of Orthodontics to dentists seeking postgraduate education. The courses range from two to three years (with the majority being 3 years) of full-time classes in the theoretical and practical aspects of orthodontics together with clinical experience. Generally, admission is based on an application process followed by an extensive interviewing process by the institution, in order to select the best candidates. Candidates usually have to contact the individual school directly for the application process.

India

In India, many dental colleges affiliated to universities offer orthodontics as specialization in Master of Dental Surgery ( M.D.S ) programme.The minimum qualification for M.D.S is Bachelor of Dental Surgery ( B.D.S ). The present course for MDS in Orthodontics stands at 3 years in all dental colleges in India which are recognised by the Dental Council of India.

The Indian Orthodontic Society was established in 1965. The Academy of Fixed Orthodontics, (AFO), [ 6 ] established in 2008, represents GP’s and members from other dental specialties(Non Orthodontists) who practices orthodontics. AFO offers certification courses in Fixed Orthodontics for General Practitioners in Dentistry. AFO is not recognized by Indian Orthodontic Society, the official body of orthodontists in India which does not recognize non orthodontists who have taken certificate courses from non recognized bodies as Orthodontists. Only orthodontists who have done masters in orthodontics from recognised schools are allowed as members of Indian Orthodontic Society.

Work Pattern Differences Between Male and Female Orthodontists in Canada

Abstract

Objective: To examine sex-specific differences in the demographics and work patterns of Canadian orthodontists.

Methods: Questionnaires were mailed and emailed to a random sample of 384 orthodontists: 289 men and 95 women. Questions regarding work patterns and personal demographics were created and results were compared by sex.

Results: The response rate was 53.9%. The demographics and work patterns for male and female orthodontists were similar for most variables. Women were found to be 6 years younger; have 6 fewer years of work experience; expect to retire earlier; be more often married to a professional in full-time employment; and be more likely to take a leave of absence during their career than their male colleagues. Age significantly affected the number of hours worked per week and number of phase II starts per year; both variables increased with increasing age until approximately 50 years, after which they decreased with age. Having children did not significantly affect any of the analyzed variables.

Conclusions: As the practice of female orthodontists was not found to be substantially different from that of men, it is not possible to speculate whether the increasing number of women specializing in orthodontics will provoke a significant change in the profession. As this is the first survey of its kind in Canada, these results may be used as a reference for future comparisons to determine work patterns and trends in the orthodontic workforce.

The number of women entering and working in formerly male-dominated health professions has increased significantly in recent decades. 1,2 As more women pursue professional careers, the number specializing within their profession is expected to increase as well, a trend that has been observed in the dental specialty of orthodontics.

In the initial Journal of Clinical Orthodontics American Practice Study 3 in 1981, 0.6% of responding orthodontists were women; in repeated practice studies during 2005–2011, 4-7 women constituted 12–14% of the respondents. The number of women specializing in orthodontics is expected to continue to increase. In 1999, 34% of orthodontic residents in the United States were women, 8 whereas in 2010, the proportion of female residents had increased to 39%. 9 Similar trends have been observed in Canada: in 2006, 36% of orthodontic residents were women 10 ; in 2013, the proportion was 47%.

Men and women receive the same education and training in their specialty programs; however, they have historically assumed different roles and responsibilities with respect to work and raising a family. Therefore, there is speculation that men and women will practise the same profession differently. As the proportion of women specializing in orthodontics has increased and is expected to continue to increase, speculations have been made concerning the potential effect this may have on the profession. 11-13

The purpose of this study was to assess the current work patterns of male and female Canadian orthodontists to determine whether any sex-specific differences exist. We examined personal and practice demographics, family structure, work patterns and practice characteristics and conducted sex-specific comparisons to identify factors that influence practice and work pattern characteristics, in an effort to consider whether the increased proportion of female orthodontists in Canada will affect the future delivery of orthodontic care.

Methods

A questionnaire was developed based on a previously published study comparing differences in practice patterns among male and female orthodontists in the United States. 14 Following a pilot study, in which a revised questionnaire was given to a group of 5 local orthodontists to check for question error and relevancy, minor amendments were made and the final questionnaire was produced. The questionnaire and all correspondence were translated professionally from English to French to minimize potential language barriers for respondents. Three of the orthodontists involved in the pilot study were bilingual; they completed the survey in both French and English to ensure accuracy of the translation.

The estimated number of orthodontic specialists in Canada is 799, of which it is estimated that 191 are women (24%) and 608 are men (76%). A sample size of 378 was determined to be adequate for statistical power. 15 To ensure quota sampling and prevent overrepresentation of either sex, this sample size was divided into a target sample of 89 (24%) female and 289 (76%) male orthodontists.

Participants were selected by numbering the lists of orthodontists, which had been stratified according to region of primary practice address and sex, and using a random number generator (SPSS version 20.0, IBM, Armonk, NY) to determine who to approach with the survey.

For survey implementation and data analysis, 2 distinct databases were created to ensure participant confidentiality. Orthodontists selected for participation received a copy of the survey package through regular mail, addressed to their primary practice address and, where email addresses were available, through email with a URL link to the online version (Survey Monkey, Palo Alto, CA). The survey package consisted of two letters; a letter of introduction and a hand-signed letter with a URL address and instructions for accessing the online questionnaire, a copy of the questionnaire and a self-addressed stamped return envelope. Participants in Quebec received all correspondence in both English and French. In addition, the online version was available in English or French. Each survey was linked to a blinded identification marker in the upper right hand corner of the questionnaire, body of the email and information letter for online survey access to differentiate respondents from non-respondents.

All selected survey participants were mailed and/or emailed an initial survey package by 17 April 2013, and a second «reminder» package was sent to non-respondents by 27 May 2013. In addition, an email information package was sent to all female orthodontists practising in the eastern region of Canada (n = 6), that were not included in the original random sample, on 3 July 2013, in an attempt to obtain a representative sample; this increased the total number of surveys sent to 384.

For mail-based surveys, data were entered manually, while web-based surveys were automatically compiled into Excel 2011 spreadsheets (Microsoft, Redmond, Wash.). Manually entered data were checked twice to ensure accuracy and web-based surveys were inspected to ensure that recorded data were relevant to questions asked (i.e., numerical versus text responses). The two spreadsheets were then combined. All data analyses were performed using SPSS version 20.0. Before completing testing, model assumptions were evaluated; when they were not satisfactorily met, further analyses were completed, which is described below. For all tests, statistical significance was set at α = 0.05.

Descriptive statistics were generated for each variable, including means, standard deviation, standard error, medians, ranges and total number of respondents. Cross-tabulations, with sex as the independent variable, were created, when applicable.

When appropriate, contingency tables were formulated and Pearson χ 2 values and probabilities were computed. In the comparison of means, ANOVA was used. When multiple means were compared, a one-way ANOVA in conjunction with Bonferroni post-hoc test was used. When equal variances between the 2 populations were not satisfied, the data were compared using either Tamhane’s post-hoc test or log-linear transformation.

The work patterns of Canadian orthodontists were evaluated, using the number of hours worked per week, number of patients seen per workday and number of new case starts per year (in 2012) as the response variables. The effects of sex on work patterns were evaluated, applying age and number of children or children living at home as covariates in the analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) in conjunction with Bonferroni post-hoc test.

In the evaluation of work-pattern differences, the number of female orthodontists in the survey sample was significantly lower than that of male orthodontists (27 and 134, respectively). After completing an overall analysis, a random sample of 40 male respondents was selected to maintain the number of male respondents at 1.5 times the number of female respondents to increase statistical power. Analysis of a random sample was repeated 20 times and compared with an analysis of the entire population (27 women and 134 men). Because similar trends resulted from the repeated random samples and the overall analysis, the overall population analysis was used in the discussion of results as this includes all of the information collected in the survey.

Approval from the University of Alberta’s Research Ethic Board was granted for this research (Pro00036677).

Results

The final sample size for the survey was 371 (280 men, 91 women). As of 28 July 2013, we received 207 responses (53.9% response rate), of which 94 (45.4%) were completed online and 113 (54.6%) were mailed. Of the respondents, 160 (77.3%) were men and 42 (20.3%) were women, 5 (2.4%) did not specify their sex.

Demographics

The average age of all respondents was 51 years. The age range for men was 29–77 years (mean 52.3, median 52); the age range for women was 32–65 years (mean 46.4, median 45). Average age differed significantly between the sexes: men were, on average, 5.9 years older than women (p = 0.002) (Table 1).

Respondents had graduated primarily from Canadian dental schools and orthodontic training programs, with no significant differences between the sexes (p > 0.05) (Table 2). Age at graduation from dental school and orthodontic training was similar for men and women. The average age at graduation from dental school was 25.6 years (p = 0.900), while the average age at graduation from orthodontic training was 31.4 years (p = 0.335) (Table 1).

Most male and female orthodontists were married, with no significant differences between the sexes (p = 0.212) (Table 2).

Spouses of male orthodontists were less likely to work full time than spouses of female orthodontists. Of the married female respondents, 94% reported full-time spousal employment; 25% of the married male respondents reported having spouses who were employed full time, 45% were employed part time and 30% were not currently employed. Female respondents’ spouses were most likely to be dentists, including dental specialists. Most male respondents’ spouses were employed in a «non-health other occupation,» the most common being office manager/administrative duties and bookkeeper (Table 2).

The number of children of male respondents ranged between 0 and 7, while the range for female respondents was 0–5. The average number of children for both men and women was 2.2 (median 2), with no significant difference between the sexes (p = 0.189) (Table 2).

The mean age at which both male and female orthodontists had their first and second children d >

Table 1 Age of respondents currently (2013), at graduation from dental school, on compltion of orthodontic training, at which their children were born and at planned retirement.

Men Women All respondents p
Mean Median SE Mean Median SE Mean Median SE
Note: SE = standard error.
*statistically significant p-values
Current 52.3 52.0 0.9 46.4 45 1.4 51.2 51.0 0.9 0.002*
Dental school 25.6 25 0.25 25.5 24 0.72 25.6 25 0.25 0.900
Ortho training 31.5 32 0.36 30.7 31 0.56 31.4 31.5 0.31 0.335
Child 1 30.8 30.5 0.46 31.8 33 0.96 31.0 31 0.41 0.976
Child 2 33.6 33 0.40 33.6 34 0.92 33.6 33 0.36
Planned retirement 64.1 65 0.590 61.1 61 0.821 63.5 65 0.503 0.013*
Table 2 Summary of personal demographics of respondents.

Characteristic Men Women
No. % No. % p
Note: The totals differ in each category based on the number of respondents per question.
*p-values were not calculated between male and female orthodontist spousal occupation and employment status as there were very small numbers in the female groups for statistical strength in comparison.
Location of dental training
Canada 139 88.0 35 85.4 0.653
United States 12 7.6 2 4.9
Other 7 4.4 4 9.8
Total 158 41
Location of ortho training
Canada 109 68.6 28 68.3 0.974
United States 47 29.6 13 31.7
Other 3 1.9 0.0
Total 159 41
Marital status
Single 15 9.4 6 15.0 0.212
Divorced 7 4.4 2 5.0
Married 126 79.2 28 70.0
Separated 3 1.9 1 2.5
Common-law 7 4.4 3 7.5
Widowed 1 0.6
Total 159 40
Spousal employment status
Full time 35 25.2 31 93.9 —*
Part time 63 45.3 1 3.0
Not currently employed 41 29.5 1 3.0
Total 139 33
Spousal occupation
Student 1 0.8 —*
Dentist 18 13.8 18 54.5
Physician 6 4.6
Houseparent/homemaker 27 20.8
Other health profession 27 20.8 2 6.1
Non-health professional 16 12.3 7 21.2
Non-health other occupation 33 25.4 6 18.2
Other 2 1.5
Total 130 33
Number of children
21 13.7 5 13.9 0.189
1 10 6.5 7 19.4
2 59 38.6 14 38.9
3 47 30.7 7 19.4
4 13 8.5 2 5.6
5 1 2.8
6 2 1.3
7 1 0.7
Total 153 36

Practice Information


Men were most likely to practise solo (65%), followed by group practice limited to orthodontics (29%). The most common arrangements for women were working as a solo practitioner (48%) and in a group practice limited to orthodontics (48%). Analysis of the data for «solo practitioner» versus «other,» including all other forms of practice, showed weak ev >

Location of main office was similar for both sexes. Both men and women were most likely to work in a metropolitan area. The second most common office location for both sexes was in a large city, followed by a small city and a rural area. There was no significant difference in the mean number of offices worked in for men and women (p = 0.241), with both sexes most commonly working in 1 office (Table 3).

Ownership status was similar for both sexes. Both men and women most commonly owned an orthodontic practice (77% of men; 71% of women). The second most common status was owning part of an orthodontic practice, followed by non-owner (Table 3). Comparing owning an orthodontic practice versus non-owner revealed no significant differences between the sexes (p = 0.588).

Table 3 Summary of practice types and patterns of respondents.

Practice parameter Men Women
No. % No. % p
Note: The totals differ in each category based on the number of respondents per question.
* Percentages do not total 100%, as respondents were able to select any or all of the selections that currently apply to them
† p-value was calculated with outliers 21 and 28 removed.
Practice type*
In a group practice limited to orthodontics 46 28.8 20 47.6 0.061
In a group practice with other specialties 14 8.8 3 7.1
Providing orthodontic services in general dental practice 17 10.6 4 9.5
As a solo practitioner 104 65.0 20 47.6
As an educator 17 10.6 7 16.7
As a researcher 5 3.1 1 2.4
Do not currently practise 1 0.6
Other 5 3.1 3 7.1
Number of offices 0.512†
1 2.5
1 84 54.2 21 52.5
2 45 29.0 14 35.0
3 20 12.9 3 7.5
4 3 1.9
5 1 0.6
6 1 0.6
21 1 2.5
28 1 0.6
Total 155 40
Size of community
Rural (> 20 000) 6 3.8 1 2.4 0.794
Small city (20 001–50 000) 19 11.9 4 9.8
Large city (50 001–500 000) 65 40.6 16 39.0
Metropolitan (> 500 000) 70 43.8 20 48.8
Total 160 41
Ownership status
Owns an orthodontic practice 123 76.9 30 71.4 0.588
Owns part of an orthodontic practice 18 11.3 6 14.3
Owns an orthodontic practice and part of an orthodontic practice 6 3.8 1 2.4
Non-owner 13 8.1 5 11.9
Total 160 42
Satisfaction with the profession
Extremely satisfied 89 55.6 28 68.3 0.508
Satisfied 58 36.3 11 26.8
Moderately satisfied 12 7.5 2 4.9
Dissatisfied 1 0.6 0.0
Extremely dissatisfied 0.0 0.0
Total 160 41
Associateship status
Has never worked as an orthodontic associate 84 53.2 16 38.1 0.083
Has worked or is currently working as an orthodontic associate 74 46.8 26 61.9
Total 158 42
Table 4 Summary of length of associateship, personal vacation in 2012 and leaves of absence for male and female orthodontists.

Association and leaves Men Women Total p
Mean Median SE No. Mean Median SE No. Mean Median SE
Note: SE = standard error.
*comparison between the sexes and p-value were not calculated as number of orthodontists taking a leave of absence in 2012 was small.
Length of associateship (years) 4.4 3 0.58 74 5.1 3 1.14 26 4.4 3 0.489 0.55
Vacation (weeks) 7.2 6 0.400 158 6.7 7 0.401 41 7.1 6 0.328 0.611
Leaves of absence
Length in 2012 (weeks) 7.3 8 1.167 9 6.7 8 2.404 3 7.2 8 1.006 —*
Length over career (weeks) 9.6 7 4.411 16 17.4 8 4.158 18 13.8 8 3.674 0.206
Number over career 1.2 1 0.200 16 1.6 1 0.246 18 1.4 1 0.174 0.337

Additional Information

Figure 1: Total duration (weeks) of leaves of absence throughout career compared with number of children (includting step-children) for male (blue) and female (green) orthodontists. Men: R 2 linear = 0.180; women: R 2 linear = 0.078.

Figure 2: Age of male (blue) and female (green) orthodontists related to their expected age at retirement. Men: R 2 linear = 0.316; women: R 2 linear = 0.121.

Figure 3: Scatterplot (with fitted quadratic equation using regression analysis, R 2 quadratic = 0.135) of age of orthodontists versus number of hours in direct patient care.

Figure 4: Scatterplot (with fitted quadratic equation using regression analysis, R 2 quadratic = 0.074) of age of orthodontists versus number of phase II case starts in 2012.

In 2012, there were no significant differences between the sexes in total weeks of vacation taken (p = 0.611). On average, Canadian orthodontists took 7 weeks of vacation (Table 4).

There was a significant difference between the sexes in terms of taking a leave of absence during their career (p

When age was controlled statistically (evaluated at 51.1 years), there was weak ev >

A quadratic relationship was found to exist between age of the orthodontist and number of hours worked per week (R 2 = 0.135) and number of phase II case starts per year (R 2 = 0.074). Number of hours worked/case starts increased with increasing age, peaking at approximately 50 years of age and decreasing after that with increasing age (Table 5, Figs. 3 and 4).

Finally, there was no ev >

Table 5 Hours worked per week and number of phase II starts in 2012 for male and female orthodontists, with age as a covariate.*

Variable Group Mean SE p 95% CI
Lower Upper
Note: CI = conf > *Evaluated at age = 51.10 years.
Hours per week Men 29.3 0.642 0.071 −0.255 6.057
Women 26.4 1.452
Phase II starts Men 199.8 11.747 0.128 −12.982 102.441
Women 155.1 26.560

Discussion

The personal and practice demographics and work patterns of male and female orthodontists in Canada are fairly similar; however, some sex-specific differences were found to exist.

Female orthodontists in Canada are younger, on average, than their male colleagues, and this age discrepancy translates into women having fewer years of clinical experience, as supported by the literature 4-7,12-14,16-19 and the significant increase in the number of women entering the dental profession and specialties in the past few decades. The differences are expected to decrease as the number of senior male orthodontists retiring from practice increases.

Both male and female orthodontists are equally likely to be married; however, women are more likely to be married to a professional who is employed full-time. This finding is not supported by the literature, where previous surveys have indicated that male dentists and specialists are more likely than women to be married. 14,17-21 Most female respondents reported that their spouses were employed full-time and working as dentists and dental specialists. Most male respondents’ spouses were employed part-time or not currently employed, working in a non-health occupation or as a houseparent/homemaker. A similar study in the United States found comparable results. 14 This factor is important as motivation to work is, in part, determined by financial need to support a family. If the combined family income of female orthodontists is greater than male orthodontists (i.e., because female orthodontists are more likely to be married to a professional while male orthodontists are more likely to be married to a non-professional), the work patterns of female orthodontists may be markedly different from those of their male colleagues. 17

At the time of this survey, female orthodontists were expecting to retire at an earlier age than their male colleagues. Anticipating an age of retirement is difficult and by no means an accurate representation of true age of retirement. Although a statistically significant difference was found between men and women in this respect, it is not likely of any practical consequence. The women who participated in this survey were, on average, 6 years younger than their male colleagues, and we found that younger people expected to retire at an earlier age than older individuals. However, if women have less financial commitment to work than their male colleagues, there may be a significant difference between the sexes in actual age of retirement as the number of female orthodontists approaching the age of retirement increases.

We found no significant difference between the sexes in the number of weeks worked per year. However, the number of leaves of absences during a career was significantly different. Although the average length of a leave of absence was 9.6 weeks for men and 17.4 weeks for women, this difference was not significant, likely because of the large standard error in number of weeks taken for a leave.

The most common reason for women taking a leave of absence was maternity, while for men it was personal illness. Of interest, 86% of women reported having at least 1 child, while only 44% reported having taken a leave of absence over their career. This may indicate that women either have their children before or during their orthodontic training or take a shorter amount of time away for work and view it as a «vacation» rather than a leave of absence. The results of our study were comparable to similar surveys assessing work patterns of orthodontists in the United States and United Kingdom. 12,14

We found that having children, regardless of whether they live at home, did not affect the work patterns of orthodontists in Canada. This is not supported by the literature. In the United States, having children has been found to have an opposite effect on the work patterns of men and women: female orthodontists with children were found to work fewer days per week than childless women and all men, and men with 3 or more children were found to see more patients per day and start more cases per year than men with fewer children and all women. 14 Similarly, having young children (under the age of 18) affected the number of hours worked per week differently for male and female dentists in the United States: for women, it decreased the number of hours worked per week by 7 h and, for men, increased that time by 1 h. 20

The results of this survey provide weak evidence that men work 3 additional hours a week than their female colleagues. The practical significance of this finding cannot be determined. As there were no significant differences between the sexes for number of case starts per year, number of days worked per week, number of weeks worked per year and other work pattern and practice productivity variables, it is assumed that the difference of 3 h worked per week has minimal practical significance. However, our results were similar to the findings of Walton and colleagues, 20 who analyzed the number of hours worked per week by dentists in the United States. They found that women worked 5 fewer hours a week than their male colleagues when age and children living at home were controlled. Studies that examined the work patterns of orthodontists in the United Kingdom produced similar results 12,13,16 ; there, men worked 0.6–1.5 more sessions (1 session = 3.5–4 h) a week than their female colleagues.

In evaluating differences in work patterns, we found that a quadratic relation exists between age and both number of hours worked per week and number of phase II case starts per year. For both variables, productivity increases with increasing age until approximately age 50, after which, both decrease with increasing age. Although age explains less than 14% of the variance in hours worked per week (R 2 =0.135) and less than 8% of the variance for phase II starts per year (R 2 =0.074), these findings are significant, as at least some of the variation in these work patterns can be explained by age. In addition, as the average age of male orthodontists is currently 52 years, this may be an indicator that most male orthodontists are at the peak of their career, and their current practice productivity may begin to decrease in the near future. As the average age of female orthodontists is 46 years, this may be an indicator that most female orthodontists in Canada are currently in their prime practice years, and their practice productivity may increase over the next few years, until they reach their peak performance.

Conclusions

At this time, minor sex-specific differences exist in demographics and work patterns between male and female orthodontists in Canada; however, the long-term impact of these findings and whether these differences have any practical significance have yet to be determined. As female orthodontists’ practices were not found to be substantially different from those of men, it is not possible to speculate whether the increasing number of women specializing in orthodontics will influence changes in the profession.

As this is the first survey of its kind in Canada, the results give us an indication of the current demographic and practice patterns of Canadian orthodontists, which can be used as a reference for future comparisons to determine work patterns and trends in the orthodontic workforce. This quantitative research may allow for qualitative gender comparisons in the orthodontic workforce as well as gender comparisons in other areas of practice, such as communication styles, processes and outcomes of care to aid in both postgraduate teaching and in practice.

THE AUTHORS

Dr. Walker is an orthodontist practising in Grand Falls-Windsor, Newfoundland.

Dr. Flores-Mir is division head, orthodontics director, faculty of medicine and dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

Dr. Heo is associate professor, statistics, orthodontics and biomedical research, faculty of medicine and dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

Dr. Amin is associate professor, pediatric dentistry, faculty of medicine and dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

Dr. Keenan is associate professor and director, community engaged research, faculty of medicine and dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB

Correspondence to: Dr. Stephanie Walker, 7 Pinsent Dr., Grand Falls-Windsor, NL A2A 2S8. Email: slwalker@ualberta.ca

The authors have no declared financial interests.

This article has been peer reviewed.

What is an Orthodontist?

Many people use the terms dentist and orthodontist interchangeably. That’s not quite right. The two professions certainly have similarities, but orthodontia is a specific type of dental care. These specialists treat certain types of dental problems. You may never need to see an orthodontist. If you do, however, you need to understand exactly what’s in store for you. Here’s a gu >

Defining an Orthodontist

A dentist is a doctor who works with several parts of the body. Areas of focus include the mouth, jaw, teeth, gums, and nerves. Orthodontists work in a more specialized section of the field. Their priority is the straightening of teeth. In simplest terms, all orthodontists are dentists but few dentists are orthodontists.

An orthodontist diagnoses overbites, occlusions, misaligned teeth and jaws, and overcrowded mouths. After the diagnosis, the orthodontist tries to solve any issues they discover. If left untreated, overbites, underbites, open bites, and cross bites are all problems that will grow worse over time. An orthodontist is an expert who repairs these conditions.

What Does an Orthodontist Do?

An orthodontist receives special training to fix misaligned teeth. If a dentist refers you to an orthodontist, the inference is that your teeth aren’t quite right. It’s not a big deal at all. You’ll likely receive a recommendation for braces or some other method of straightening your teeth. The orthodontist is the person who does this job.

The most important job for an orthodontist is identifying issues with your teeth and mouth. A gap in your teeth, called a diastema, will grow larger over time. Your teeth will suffer, as the structure of the mouth and gums needs a tight alignment. The orthodontist will try to pull your teeth closer together to correct the issue. Conversely, having too many teeth is equally bad, especially for children. An orthodontist is likely to extract the excess teeth to create better spacing.

An orthodontist has several tools to solve these alignment problems. Braces are the most famous solution. These appliances are bands that encircle the teeth. The orthodontist then bonds brackets on the front of the teeth, and the bands connect to them via wires. In combination, the structures pull teeth into an upright alignment, straightening them over time. The process isn’t immediate, but it’s extremely effective.

If braces aren’t a great option, an orthodontist may use an aligner instead. The best-known example is Invisalign. By design, it’s not visible from a distance, making your smile more attractive. That’s because an aligner doesn’t use metal wires or brackets. Patients like them since they’re removable.

In extreme cases, an orthodontist may treat patients with a palate expander. It widens the arch of the upper jaw, giving the area more space. Another possibility is headgear, a more dramatic solution for misaligned teeth. This device connects the back of the head to a wire in the front of the mouth. Its purpose is to pull back front teeth while slowing an upper jaw in danger of growing too fast.

How Much Training Does an Orthodontist Need?

An orthodontist must first complete regular dental training. A dental school generally requires four years of classes to graduate. Most dentists stop at this point and begin practicing their trade. Orthodontists can’t do that yet.

To earn a license to practice as an orthodontist, the person must take more classes. Most dental schools require another two to three years of training before a student qualifies as an orthodontist. Effectively, an orthodontist is a dentist with almost double the training, most of it specialized in the field of straightening teeth.

How Does an Appointment with an Orthodontist Work?

An appointment with an orthodontist is almost identical to one with a dentist. You’ll go to the medical office and remain seated until the desk clerk calls your name. At this point, you’ll head to the exam room. Since you probably received a referral to the orthodontist, you already know that you have an alignment problem with your teeth. Overbites and underbites are the most common problems. Whatever the issue, the orthodontist will inspect your mouth to decide the best course of action.

For certain treatments, you should expect several return visits. That’s particularly true if you need braces. First, you’ll receive the diagnosis followed by a preparatory session and some x-rays. Next, you’ll have the braces installed. Afterward, you’ll visit on a regularly scheduled basis to make sure that the braces are in working order. Finally, the dentist will remove the braces. The entire process usually takes one to three years. Once the orthodontist removes the braces, your teeth have been successfully straightened.

When it comes to straightening your teeth, booking an appointment with dentist first is the best course of action. If your dentist believes you can be treated with Invisalign, you may not need to see an orthodontist at all. But your dentist will know best and will refer you to an orthodontic specialist if your case requires it.


If you do visit an orthodontist, you should have confidence that you’re visiting a skilled professional. While you may have to wear braces, an aligner, or metal headgear for a while, your orthodontist has your best interests at heart and will work to deliver you the best smile possible.

If your dental insurance covers orthodontics, it might be a good idea to consider starting the treatment towards the end of a calendar year so that your treatment payments can span 2 years since most insurance plans will have an annual limit. We make it easy to see all of our network offices that provide orthodontics or offices that provide Invisalign.

Orthodontics vs. Cosmetic Dentistry

Orthodontics vs. Cosmetic Dentistry

If you are looking for that perfect smile—complete with aligned and healthy-looking teeth—you may notice that orthodontics and cosmetic dentistry are similar in their pursuits. Both orthodontists and cosmetic dentists are specialists who can help you correct imperfections that keep you from your teeth’s ideal appearance.

What Is An Orthodontist?

Orthodontics is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the misalignment of the teeth and jaws. An orthodontist begins his career as a dentist and then chooses orthodontics as a field of specialty—much in the same way as doctors choose to specialize in specific areas of medicine like neurology, psychiatry, rheumatology and pediatrics.

Besides how misalignments can affect the way you look, they also can cause medical issues such as facial pain, TMJ, speech impairments, chronic headaches, and even throat and sinus pain.

The American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) is the organization that regulates standards of practice in this specialty. Membership in this organization indicates that the orthodontist has received appropriate training in oral biology and biomechanics.

An orthodontist applies braces to fix most mechanical problems with the teeth and jaws. In some cases, he also may need to perform oral surgery in some cases. There are many types of braces, but all are aimed at fixing these most common issues:

  • Anteroposterior deviations – These are most commonly knows as underbites and overbites. In an underbite, the lower teeth are positioned further forward than upper teeth. In an overbite, the upper teeth are positioned further forward than the lower teeth. Both of these positionings can cause difficulty with chewing and clear speech.
  • Overcrowding – Overcrowding is one of the most common problems orthodontists treat. Overcrowding typically occurs when not enough jaw space exists for adult teeth to grow in alignment with existing teeth. Through treatment with braces, the orthodontist is able to realign the teeth.
  • Spaced teeth – Spaced teeth occur when the jaw may be too wide and large spaces are in between the teeth. Along with how gaps affect appearance, these spaces also can promote tooth decay as it is easier for food to become lodged between the teeth.
  • Aesthetic issues – In some cases, malocclusions or jaw deformities can affect the shape of the whole face. The orthodontist can restructure and realign the jaw, lips, and teeth to create an even smile.

What Is A Cosmetic Dentist?

Few dental schools provide training in cosmetic dentistry. Therefore, a successful and highly-qualified cosmetic dentist will have pursued graduate training in cosmetic dentistry after completing dental school.

The Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) is the organization that regulates the standards of practice in this industry. It might surprise you to learn that there is no requirement to enter the cosmetic dentistry field—any dentist can claim to practice cosmetic dentistry. Therefore it is important to make sure your dentist is accredited with the AACD. This means he has received the appropriate training and licenses to practice cosmetic dentistry. (Learn more about the difference between an AACD member dentist and an accredited member.)

Here are some of the procedures a cosmetic dentist performs:

  • Dental Implants – These replace the roots of lost teeth. A dental implant—along with a prosthetic tooth built on top of the implant—replaces a missing tooth or teeth and helps to maintain the bone support of the neighboring teeth.
  • Porcelain Crowns – A crown (or cap) is a cover that the dentist places over the surface of an entire tooth and bonds to the surface of the natural tooth. Of the available types, porcelain crowns look most natural and are most durable. However, they may occasionally need to be replaced. This procedure is often done after a root canal, where the dentist had to drill deeply into the tooth to remove root tissue. Dental crowns also can be used to protect weak teeth or repair broken teeth.
  • Bonding – Dental bonding is a process where your dentist applies a composite resin to one or more teeth that have become discolored or physically damaged. The plastic resin will be tooth-colored to blend in and will strengthen the existing tooth to prevent it from further damage. Bonding is used to treat chipped, fractured, discolored or decaying teeth.
  • Porcelain Veneers – Porcelain veneers are thin pieces of porcelain used to recreate the natural look of teeth, while also providing strength and resilience comparable to natural tooth enamel. A thin, custom-made shell of tooth-like material is placed over the front surface of the teeth to improve their appearance. Porcelain veneers resist stains and mimic the light-reflecting properties of natural teeth. Veneers are routinely used to fix teeth that are discolored, worn down, chipped, broken or have irregularly-shaped gaps.
  • Orthodontic Treatment – Sometimes a cosmetic dentist also will perform alignment corrections, usually through one of the more aesthetically-pleasing options for braces such as Invisalign, or through the use of veneers to replace the need for braces.
  • Teeth Whitening – Though a number of whitening methods exist, an in-office whitening done by a cosmetic dentist is considered the most effective (but also the most expensive). The dentist will apply peroxide with a laser to give you immediate whitening. Though much stronger chemicals are used in a professional treatment than with over-the-counter products, the dentist will apply a protective agent over your gums and lips to guard them against the high concentration of peroxide. The procedure is safe for your teeth and can last one or more years.
  • Tooth-Colored Fillings – Cosmetic dentists use composite resins and porcelains to create a tooth-colored filling that is safe for the teeth and effective at preventing further tooth decay. The cost of tooth-colored fillings typically ranges between $150 and $200 per tooth, which is more expensive than metal fillings, which range from $75 to $145 per tooth.
  • Dentures – A cosmetic dentist will take extra steps to ensure that dentures look like natural teeth. Cosmetic dentures are more affordable than implants. Partial dentures replace groups of missing teeth or scattered teeth along the upper and/or lower jaw. Partial dentures attach to remaining teeth and have a gum-colored portion meant to blend in with the gum. Full dentures are similar to partial dentures in that they are prosthetic teeth and gums. The main difference is that full dentures replace an entire set of upper or lower teeth (or both).

How Do I Decide Which To See?

If you want to straighten misaligned teeth, you may have heard that veneers are a popular alternative to braces.

If you are looking for immediate results, veneers require just three visits to the dentist—one for a consultation and two to make and apply the veneers. They do not typically require any special aftercare beyond good oral hygiene practices.

Dental veneers can be quite pricey, however, with typical costs above $1,000 per tooth. They also will need to be replaced every five to 10 years. Another drawback is that you will, in a sense, damage healthy teeth. If your only issue is misalignment, then you should consider how many teeth you will alter by placing veneers on them.

She loves the orthodontist glasses! by Fiona Henderson cc by 2.0

Braces leave your teeth in tact, so they are a non-invasive way to straighten your smile. Additionally, braces can correct alignment issues with the jaw or bite, which can affect your overall health. You will spend significantly longer in treatment by wearing braces (1-3 years, on average), but having patience could lead to a healthier smile (and a much less expensive one).

If you are considering orthodontic treatment, call our experts at Orthodontic Associates at any of our nine convenient locations around Baltimore. Our team takes your specific needs and treatment goals into consideration. If you desire cosmetic procedures outside of our scope, our orthodontists can advise you on the pros and cons, while pointing you in the right direction. Your healthy, attractive smile is always our first priority.

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Orthodontist

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Rs 15 — 27 lakhs p.a.

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Advanced Dental Care Centre

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Rs 5 — 8 lakhs p.a.

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Accredited Orthodontic Programs

The following U.S. and Canadian orthodontic residency programs are accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) or the Commission on Dental Accreditation of Canada (CDAC). You may view all programs below or filter the results by selecting from any or all of the menu options. Click more than one item from each menu for multiple selections, and click the “Search” button to filter your selections. Programs are ordered alphabetically by state/province beginning with the first column and moving downward.

Print instructions: programs will print one column to a page for all programs shown on your screen.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Dentistry

1919 7th Avenue South

Dr. Chung How Kau

Dr. Christos C. Vlachos

Dr. Russell Taichman

Application Deadline: September 1

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 30 6 17 MS program is optional.

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

University of Alberta

Faculty Of Medicine And Dentistry

11405 87 Ave NW

5-528 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy

Dr. Carlos Flores-Mir

Dr. Paul W. Major

Application Deadline: September 1

Program Start Date: August 15

Match Program: No

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Doctor of Philosophy/Certificate 72 0 or 1 12 Master of Science/Certificate 36 3 or 4 12 Total class size is 4 per year. Therefore when a PhD will start clinical training, only 3 MSc students are admitted that year. Post-Doctoral Fellowship Varies Varies 12

Tuition: CAD $20,000/year

Out-of-State Tuition: CAD $23,000/year

Stipend: Not applicable

Additional Notes: One-year assessment program for foreign-trained orthodontists. If successful, they can challenge the Canadian-wide orthodontic licensing exam as dental specialists in orthodontics.

A.T. Still University Arizona School of Dentistry & Oral Health

5835 E Still Cir

Dr. Jae Hyun Park

Dr. Jae Hyun Park

Dr. Robert Trombly

Application Deadline: August 15

Program Start Date: July 11

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 30 5 15 Residents can pursue: DHEd, MS in Kinesiology, MPH, and MHA

Tuition: $76,842 (YR1), $71,293 (YR2), $31,888 (YR3)

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable


Stipend: Not applicable

University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry

2199 Wesbrook Mall

Vancouver, British Columbia,

Dr. Edwin H K Yen

Dr. Mary MacDougall

Application Deadline: August 1

Program Start Date: July 2

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Diploma 36 5 16 Combined Master of Science/Diploma program. Doctor of Philosophy/Diploma 72 1 16 Combined PhD/Diploma program. PhD positions are dependent upon funding.

Tuition: CAD $55,401 (YR1), $53,109 (YR2), $54,197 (YR3)

Out-of-State Tuition: International (non-Canadian citizens) have increased fees.

Stipend: Not applicable

Additional Notes: All students totally subsidized to take the American Board of Orthodontics examinations.

University Of The Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry

Dept. of Orthodontics

155 5th St Rm 332

San Francisco, California,

Dr. Nader Nadershahi

Application Deadline: August 15

Program Start Date: July 11

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 27 8 16 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program.

Tuition: $90,696 (YR1), $111,592 (YR2), $22,088 (YR3)

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Stipend: Not applicable

University of Southern California

Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry Division of Orthodontics

925 W 34th Street, University Park — MC 0641

Los Angeles, California,

Dr. Glenn T. Sameshima

Dr. Glenn T. Sameshima

Application Deadline: October 1

Program Start Date: June 15

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Certificate 34 6 18

Tuition: $74,000 (YR1), $88,000 (YR2 & YR3)

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Stipend: Not applicable

University of California Los Angeles School of Dentistry

10833 LE Conte Ave

Chs 30-121 Section Of Orthodontics

Los Angeles, California,

Dr. John D. Jones

Application Deadline: Sept. 1

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: No

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 36 8 24 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program. Certificate 36 Varies 24 The MS requirements may be waived for qualified candidates who possess similar or higher degrees.

Tuition: There are separate tuition requirements for the Master of Science in Oral Biology and for the combined MS/Certificate program (https://grad.ucla.edu/gss/library/1516gradfees.pdf). The MS requirements are usually completed in two year period.

Additional Notes: Accepts both CODA graduates and non-CODA (international) graduates.

University Of California, San Francisco

Division Of Orthodontics

707 Parnassus Ave, D-3033


San Francisco, California,

Dr. Sunil Kapila

Dr. Christine Yeumin Hong

Application Deadline: August 3

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Doctor of Philosophy/Certificate 60 Varies 16 Combined PhD/Certificate program. Master of Science/Certificate 36 5 16 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program. Clinical Fellowship in Craniofacial Orthodontics 12 16

Tuition: $27,389 (YR1), $26,306 (YR2 & YR3)

Out-of-State Tuition: $39,634 (YR1), $26,306 (YR2 & YR3)

Stipend: Not applicable

Loma Linda University School of Dentistry

Advanced Specialty Education Program in Orthodontics & Dentofacial Ortho

159 W. Hospitality Lane

San Bernardino, California,

Dr. Varner Leroy Leggitt

Dr. Ronald J. Dailey

Application Deadline: August 1

Program Start Date: June 27

Match Program: No

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 27 6 18 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program.

Tuition: $76,556 (YR1), $64,058 (YR2), $15,667 (YR3) Fees include: tuition, enrollment fees, IT support fee, lab materials, clinic instruments, books, camera, laptop, journal subscription, professional membership dues, software license fee and the ABO exam fee.

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Stipend: Not applicable

Additional Notes: Loma Linda has state of the art facility, excellent access to research mentoring and a diverse patient pool.

Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles Division of Dentistry

4650 W Sunset Blvd # 116

Los Angeles, California,

Application Deadline: December 1

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: No

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Clinical Fellowship in Craniofacial Orthodontics 12 1

Additional Notes: Health and dental insurance, 15 days paid vacation, and generous CME stipend

University of Colorado School of Dental Medicine

Department of Orthodontics

3rd Floor Orthodontics, 13065 E 17th Avenue

Dr. William Craig Shellhart

Dr. Gerald T. Minick

Application Deadline: September 15

Program Start Date: August

Match Program: No

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 30 15 30 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program.

Tuition: $52,673 (YR1), $54,517 (YR2), $56,425 (YR3)

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Stipend: Not applicable

University of Connecticut Health Center

Division of Orthodontics

263 Farmington Avenue, Room L7063

Dr. Flavio A. Uribe

Dr. Flavio A. Uribe

Dr. R Lamont MacNeil

Application Deadline: October 3

Program Start Date: July 1


Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 36 7 21 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program. Residents with PhD or in a combined PhD program only enroll in the certificate program.

Tuition: $12,000/year Additional fees for the Master’s of Dental Science degree based on 18 credits: Connecticut Residents Tuition: $678/credit Fees: $117/semester

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable Additional fees for the Master’s of Dental Science degree based on 18 credits: Non-Residents Tuition: $1,760/credit Fees: $117/semester

Stipend: US/Canadian-trained residents receive $24,000 the first year and $25,000 for the second and third year. All other international residents receive an annual stipend of $13,000.

Washington Hospital Center

Orthodontics, Suite GA144

110 Irving St. NW

Washington, District of Columbia,

Dr. Linda A. Hallman

Dr. Linda A. Hallman

Application Deadline: October 1

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Certificate 24 2 4 Hospital-based program.

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Stipend: $49,000 — $52,000 rate depending on PGY1 or PGY2

Howard University College of Dentistry Orthodontic Clinic

Department of Orthodontics

600 W Street, NW

Washington, District of Columbia,

Dr. Kathy Lynn Marshall

Dr. Dexter Woods

Application Deadline: September 15

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Certificate 24 6 12

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Stipend: Not applicable

Additional Notes: 1st year res >

Nova Southeastern University College of Dental Medicine

Department of Orthodontics

3200 S University Dr

Fort Lauderdale, Florida,

Dr. Richard H. Singer

Dr. Richard H. Singer

Dr. Linda Niessen

Application Deadline: Sept. 1

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 36 6 21 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program.

Tuition: $46,177 (YR1, YR2, YR3)

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Stipend: Not applicable

Jacksonville University School of Orthodontics

2800 University Blvd N

Dr. Oscar Olavarria-Landa

Dr. James C. Trouten

Dr. Christine Sapienza

Application Deadline: September 15

Program Start Date: July 10

Match Program: No


Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Certificate 24 14 31 Master of Science/Certificate 36 1 31 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program.

Out-of-State Tuition: $140,000/year

Stipend: Not applicable

University of Florida College of Dentistry

1395 Center Drive, D7-19

Dr. Calogero Dolce

Dr. Calogero Dolce

Dr. Boyd Robinson

Application Deadline: September 1

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 35 4 12 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program.

Out-of-State Tuition: $39,997/year

Stipend: $5,000 (YR1 & YR2), $6,000 (YR3)

Georgia School of Orthodontics

8200 Roberts DR Ste 550

Dr. Ricky E. Harrell

Program Start Date: September 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Certificate 36

Stipend: Not applicable.

Augusta University Dental College of Georgia

Department of Orthodontics

1120 15th St. (GC2144)

Dr. Eladio DeLeon, Jr.

Dr. Eladio DeLeon, Jr.

Dr. Carol Lefebvre

Application Deadline: September 1

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Certificate 30 3 9 Master of Science 36 Varies 9 MS program is optional.

Tuition: Not applicable

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Stipend: Varies depending on year in program.

University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry

Department of Orthodontics (M/C 841)

801 S Paulina St, Room 131

Dr. Veerasathpurush Allareddy

Dr. Budi Kusnoto

Dr. Clark Stanford

Application Deadline: August 15

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Doctor of Philosophy/Certificate 60 Varies 27 Combined PhD/Certificate program. Master of Science/Certificate 34 9 27 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program.

Tuition: $115,596.00 total (estimate) for entire duration of residency program

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Stipend: Eligible students participate in the Postgraduate Compensation Program and receive approximately 20% of their collections for clinical work on a semi-annual basis.

Additional Notes: International $123,315.00 total estimated for entire duration of residency program

Indiana University School of Dentistry

Department of Orthodontics & Oral Facial Genetics

1121 West Michigan Street

Phone: (317) 274-8301


Fax: (317) 278-9933

Dr. Kelton Stewart

Dr. Kelton Stewart

John N Williams, Jr.

Application Deadline: August 3

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 24 7 14 Combined Master of Science in Dentistry/Certificate program.

Tuition: $33,676(YR1 & YR2)

Out-of-State Tuition: $73,923 (YR1 & YR2)

Stipend: $12,000 (YR1), $18,000 (YR2)

University Of Iowa College Of Dentistry

220 Dental Science S

Phone: 319 335 7288

Fax: 319 335 6847

Dr. Thomas Edward Southard

Dr. Kyungsup Shin

Dr. David Johnsen

Application Deadline: August 1

Program Start Date: July 1

Match Program: Yes

Degree Program Length (Months) Number Accepted Current Residents Additional Information
Master of Science/Certificate 24 5 10 Combined Master of Science/Certificate program.

Out-of-State Tuition: Not applicable

Additional Notes: Residents in the Iowa orthodontic program are exposed to the complete spectrum of Cleft/Craniofacial orthodontic care during their training period. Each resident is assigned about 15 to 20 Cleft/Craniofacial patients. The residents provide the entire continuum of Cleft/Craniofacial care including: preparations for alveolar bone grafts (ABG), limited orthodontic treatment post-ABG, comprehensive orthodontic treatment, distraction osteogenesis (both maxillary and mandibular), and orthodontic treatment in preparation for orthognathic surgeries. A strong multi-disciplinary team approach to care is emphasized.

Dentist Salary Canada

See table for salaries.

Average Dentist Salary in Canada

The table below details the hourly wages for Dentists.

The Canadian national occupation classification code (NOC) for this role is 3113.

Currently, this occupation is an eligible occupation for express entry immigration with the federal skilled worker permanent resident visa.

Job titles and exact duties vary in this occupation and examples of some job titles are: dentist, endodontist, orthodontist and periodontist.

A typical full-time annual salary for this occupation is in the region of $120,000 – $240,000.

According to the latest figures, the highest hourly average (median) wages are earned in Saskatchewan at $96.15 per hour and the lowest average (median) wages are earned in Vancouver / Lower Mainland Southwest, British Columbia at $38.59 per hour.

Employment prospects for dentists are very good in Canada. The government forecasts that because the Canadian population is aging, the demand for dentists will increase for the near future.

Average (Median) Hourly Wages for Dentists in Canada

The 2020 full-time average hourly wage rate for professional occupations in health (except nursing), which includes dentists, is $37.88. The 2020 corresponding median weekly wage rate is $1435, giving an approximate full-time annual salary for this employment sector of $75,000.

Licensing by a provincial or territorial regulatory body is required for this occupation.

There are over 21,000 dentists working in Canada.

Work Pattern Differences Between Male and Female Orthodontists in Canada

Abstract

Objective: To examine sex-specific differences in the demographics and work patterns of Canadian orthodontists.

Methods: Questionnaires were mailed and emailed to a random sample of 384 orthodontists: 289 men and 95 women. Questions regarding work patterns and personal demographics were created and results were compared by sex.

Results: The response rate was 53.9%. The demographics and work patterns for male and female orthodontists were similar for most variables. Women were found to be 6 years younger; have 6 fewer years of work experience; expect to retire earlier; be more often married to a professional in full-time employment; and be more likely to take a leave of absence during their career than their male colleagues. Age significantly affected the number of hours worked per week and number of phase II starts per year; both variables increased with increasing age until approximately 50 years, after which they decreased with age. Having children did not significantly affect any of the analyzed variables.

Conclusions: As the practice of female orthodontists was not found to be substantially different from that of men, it is not possible to speculate whether the increasing number of women specializing in orthodontics will provoke a significant change in the profession. As this is the first survey of its kind in Canada, these results may be used as a reference for future comparisons to determine work patterns and trends in the orthodontic workforce.

The number of women entering and working in formerly male-dominated health professions has increased significantly in recent decades. 1,2 As more women pursue professional careers, the number specializing within their profession is expected to increase as well, a trend that has been observed in the dental specialty of orthodontics.

In the initial Journal of Clinical Orthodontics American Practice Study 3 in 1981, 0.6% of responding orthodontists were women; in repeated practice studies during 2005–2011, 4-7 women constituted 12–14% of the respondents. The number of women specializing in orthodontics is expected to continue to increase. In 1999, 34% of orthodontic residents in the United States were women, 8 whereas in 2010, the proportion of female residents had increased to 39%. 9 Similar trends have been observed in Canada: in 2006, 36% of orthodontic residents were women 10 ; in 2013, the proportion was 47%.

Men and women receive the same education and training in their specialty programs; however, they have historically assumed different roles and responsibilities with respect to work and raising a family. Therefore, there is speculation that men and women will practise the same profession differently. As the proportion of women specializing in orthodontics has increased and is expected to continue to increase, speculations have been made concerning the potential effect this may have on the profession. 11-13

The purpose of this study was to assess the current work patterns of male and female Canadian orthodontists to determine whether any sex-specific differences exist. We examined personal and practice demographics, family structure, work patterns and practice characteristics and conducted sex-specific comparisons to identify factors that influence practice and work pattern characteristics, in an effort to consider whether the increased proportion of female orthodontists in Canada will affect the future delivery of orthodontic care.

Methods

A questionnaire was developed based on a previously published study comparing differences in practice patterns among male and female orthodontists in the United States. 14 Following a pilot study, in which a revised questionnaire was given to a group of 5 local orthodontists to check for question error and relevancy, minor amendments were made and the final questionnaire was produced. The questionnaire and all correspondence were translated professionally from English to French to minimize potential language barriers for respondents. Three of the orthodontists involved in the pilot study were bilingual; they completed the survey in both French and English to ensure accuracy of the translation.

The estimated number of orthodontic specialists in Canada is 799, of which it is estimated that 191 are women (24%) and 608 are men (76%). A sample size of 378 was determined to be adequate for statistical power. 15 To ensure quota sampling and prevent overrepresentation of either sex, this sample size was divided into a target sample of 89 (24%) female and 289 (76%) male orthodontists.

Participants were selected by numbering the lists of orthodontists, which had been stratified according to region of primary practice address and sex, and using a random number generator (SPSS version 20.0, IBM, Armonk, NY) to determine who to approach with the survey.

For survey implementation and data analysis, 2 distinct databases were created to ensure participant confidentiality. Orthodontists selected for participation received a copy of the survey package through regular mail, addressed to their primary practice address and, where email addresses were available, through email with a URL link to the online version (Survey Monkey, Palo Alto, CA). The survey package consisted of two letters; a letter of introduction and a hand-signed letter with a URL address and instructions for accessing the online questionnaire, a copy of the questionnaire and a self-addressed stamped return envelope. Participants in Quebec received all correspondence in both English and French. In addition, the online version was available in English or French. Each survey was linked to a blinded identification marker in the upper right hand corner of the questionnaire, body of the email and information letter for online survey access to differentiate respondents from non-respondents.


All selected survey participants were mailed and/or emailed an initial survey package by 17 April 2013, and a second «reminder» package was sent to non-respondents by 27 May 2013. In addition, an email information package was sent to all female orthodontists practising in the eastern region of Canada (n = 6), that were not included in the original random sample, on 3 July 2013, in an attempt to obtain a representative sample; this increased the total number of surveys sent to 384.

For mail-based surveys, data were entered manually, while web-based surveys were automatically compiled into Excel 2011 spreadsheets (Microsoft, Redmond, Wash.). Manually entered data were checked twice to ensure accuracy and web-based surveys were inspected to ensure that recorded data were relevant to questions asked (i.e., numerical versus text responses). The two spreadsheets were then combined. All data analyses were performed using SPSS version 20.0. Before completing testing, model assumptions were evaluated; when they were not satisfactorily met, further analyses were completed, which is described below. For all tests, statistical significance was set at α = 0.05.

Descriptive statistics were generated for each variable, including means, standard deviation, standard error, medians, ranges and total number of respondents. Cross-tabulations, with sex as the independent variable, were created, when applicable.

When appropriate, contingency tables were formulated and Pearson χ 2 values and probabilities were computed. In the comparison of means, ANOVA was used. When multiple means were compared, a one-way ANOVA in conjunction with Bonferroni post-hoc test was used. When equal variances between the 2 populations were not satisfied, the data were compared using either Tamhane’s post-hoc test or log-linear transformation.

The work patterns of Canadian orthodontists were evaluated, using the number of hours worked per week, number of patients seen per workday and number of new case starts per year (in 2012) as the response variables. The effects of sex on work patterns were evaluated, applying age and number of children or children living at home as covariates in the analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) in conjunction with Bonferroni post-hoc test.

In the evaluation of work-pattern differences, the number of female orthodontists in the survey sample was significantly lower than that of male orthodontists (27 and 134, respectively). After completing an overall analysis, a random sample of 40 male respondents was selected to maintain the number of male respondents at 1.5 times the number of female respondents to increase statistical power. Analysis of a random sample was repeated 20 times and compared with an analysis of the entire population (27 women and 134 men). Because similar trends resulted from the repeated random samples and the overall analysis, the overall population analysis was used in the discussion of results as this includes all of the information collected in the survey.

Approval from the University of Alberta’s Research Ethic Board was granted for this research (Pro00036677).

Results

The final sample size for the survey was 371 (280 men, 91 women). As of 28 July 2013, we received 207 responses (53.9% response rate), of which 94 (45.4%) were completed online and 113 (54.6%) were mailed. Of the respondents, 160 (77.3%) were men and 42 (20.3%) were women, 5 (2.4%) did not specify their sex.

Demographics

The average age of all respondents was 51 years. The age range for men was 29–77 years (mean 52.3, median 52); the age range for women was 32–65 years (mean 46.4, median 45). Average age differed significantly between the sexes: men were, on average, 5.9 years older than women (p = 0.002) (Table 1).

Respondents had graduated primarily from Canadian dental schools and orthodontic training programs, with no significant differences between the sexes (p > 0.05) (Table 2). Age at graduation from dental school and orthodontic training was similar for men and women. The average age at graduation from dental school was 25.6 years (p = 0.900), while the average age at graduation from orthodontic training was 31.4 years (p = 0.335) (Table 1).

Most male and female orthodontists were married, with no significant differences between the sexes (p = 0.212) (Table 2).

Spouses of male orthodontists were less likely to work full time than spouses of female orthodontists. Of the married female respondents, 94% reported full-time spousal employment; 25% of the married male respondents reported having spouses who were employed full time, 45% were employed part time and 30% were not currently employed. Female respondents’ spouses were most likely to be dentists, including dental specialists. Most male respondents’ spouses were employed in a «non-health other occupation,» the most common being office manager/administrative duties and bookkeeper (Table 2).

The number of children of male respondents ranged between 0 and 7, while the range for female respondents was 0–5. The average number of children for both men and women was 2.2 (median 2), with no significant difference between the sexes (p = 0.189) (Table 2).

The mean age at which both male and female orthodontists had their first and second children d >

Location Low Wage
$ per hr
Average Wage
$ per hr
High Wage
$ per hr
Year
Calgary – Alberta (2) 33.72 64.08 143.63 2011
Edmonton – Alberta (2) 27.59 63.85 139.33 2011
Vancouver / Lower Mainland Southwest – British Columbia (2) 12.41 38.59 84.44 2011
Winnipeg – Manitoba (2) 18.43 61.64 147.95 2011
Fredericton – New Brunswick
Halifax – Nova Scotia-
Toronto – Ontario (2) 23.24 61.89 129.93 2011
Ottawa – Ontario (2) 24.16 66.47 181.04 2011
Kitchener / Waterloo / Barrie – Ontario (2) 17.23 59.95 136.58 2011
London – Ontario (2) 22.75 68.98 148.81 2011
Prince Edward Island
Montreal – Quebec (2) 24.55 57.86 155.11 2011
Saskatoon / Biggar – Saskatchewan* (1) 96.15 2013
Table 1 Age of respondents currently (2013), at graduation from dental school, on compltion of orthodontic training, at which their children were born and at planned retirement.

Men Women All respondents p
Mean Median SE Mean Median SE Mean Median SE
Note: SE = standard error.
*statistically significant p-values
Current 52.3 52.0 0.9 46.4 45 1.4 51.2 51.0 0.9 0.002*
Dental school 25.6 25 0.25 25.5 24 0.72 25.6 25 0.25 0.900
Ortho training 31.5 32 0.36 30.7 31 0.56 31.4 31.5 0.31 0.335
Child 1 30.8 30.5 0.46 31.8 33 0.96 31.0 31 0.41 0.976
Child 2 33.6 33 0.40 33.6 34 0.92 33.6 33 0.36
Planned retirement 64.1 65 0.590 61.1 61 0.821 63.5 65 0.503 0.013*
Table 2 Summary of personal demographics of respondents.

Characteristic Men Women
No. % No. % p
Note: The totals differ in each category based on the number of respondents per question.
*p-values were not calculated between male and female orthodontist spousal occupation and employment status as there were very small numbers in the female groups for statistical strength in comparison.
Location of dental training
Canada 139 88.0 35 85.4 0.653
United States 12 7.6 2 4.9
Other 7 4.4 4 9.8
Total 158 41
Location of ortho training
Canada 109 68.6 28 68.3 0.974
United States 47 29.6 13 31.7
Other 3 1.9 0.0
Total 159 41
Marital status
Single 15 9.4 6 15.0 0.212
Divorced 7 4.4 2 5.0
Married 126 79.2 28 70.0
Separated 3 1.9 1 2.5
Common-law 7 4.4 3 7.5
Widowed 1 0.6
Total 159 40
Spousal employment status
Full time 35 25.2 31 93.9 —*
Part time 63 45.3 1 3.0
Not currently employed 41 29.5 1 3.0
Total 139 33
Spousal occupation
Student 1 0.8 —*
Dentist 18 13.8 18 54.5
Physician 6 4.6
Houseparent/homemaker 27 20.8
Other health profession 27 20.8 2 6.1
Non-health professional 16 12.3 7 21.2
Non-health other occupation 33 25.4 6 18.2
Other 2 1.5
Total 130 33
Number of children
21 13.7 5 13.9 0.189
1 10 6.5 7 19.4
2 59 38.6 14 38.9
3 47 30.7 7 19.4
4 13 8.5 2 5.6
5 1 2.8
6 2 1.3
7 1 0.7
Total 153 36

Practice Information

Men were most likely to practise solo (65%), followed by group practice limited to orthodontics (29%). The most common arrangements for women were working as a solo practitioner (48%) and in a group practice limited to orthodontics (48%). Analysis of the data for «solo practitioner» versus «other,» including all other forms of practice, showed weak ev >

Location of main office was similar for both sexes. Both men and women were most likely to work in a metropolitan area. The second most common office location for both sexes was in a large city, followed by a small city and a rural area. There was no significant difference in the mean number of offices worked in for men and women (p = 0.241), with both sexes most commonly working in 1 office (Table 3).

Ownership status was similar for both sexes. Both men and women most commonly owned an orthodontic practice (77% of men; 71% of women). The second most common status was owning part of an orthodontic practice, followed by non-owner (Table 3). Comparing owning an orthodontic practice versus non-owner revealed no significant differences between the sexes (p = 0.588).

Table 3 Summary of practice types and patterns of respondents.

Practice parameter Men Women
No. % No. % p
Note: The totals differ in each category based on the number of respondents per question.
* Percentages do not total 100%, as respondents were able to select any or all of the selections that currently apply to them
† p-value was calculated with outliers 21 and 28 removed.
Practice type*
In a group practice limited to orthodontics 46 28.8 20 47.6 0.061
In a group practice with other specialties 14 8.8 3 7.1
Providing orthodontic services in general dental practice 17 10.6 4 9.5
As a solo practitioner 104 65.0 20 47.6
As an educator 17 10.6 7 16.7
As a researcher 5 3.1 1 2.4
Do not currently practise 1 0.6
Other 5 3.1 3 7.1
Number of offices 0.512†
1 2.5
1 84 54.2 21 52.5
2 45 29.0 14 35.0
3 20 12.9 3 7.5
4 3 1.9
5 1 0.6
6 1 0.6
21 1 2.5
28 1 0.6
Total 155 40
Size of community
Rural (> 20 000) 6 3.8 1 2.4 0.794
Small city (20 001–50 000) 19 11.9 4 9.8
Large city (50 001–500 000) 65 40.6 16 39.0
Metropolitan (> 500 000) 70 43.8 20 48.8
Total 160 41
Ownership status
Owns an orthodontic practice 123 76.9 30 71.4 0.588
Owns part of an orthodontic practice 18 11.3 6 14.3
Owns an orthodontic practice and part of an orthodontic practice 6 3.8 1 2.4
Non-owner 13 8.1 5 11.9
Total 160 42
Satisfaction with the profession
Extremely satisfied 89 55.6 28 68.3 0.508
Satisfied 58 36.3 11 26.8
Moderately satisfied 12 7.5 2 4.9
Dissatisfied 1 0.6 0.0
Extremely dissatisfied 0.0 0.0
Total 160 41
Associateship status
Has never worked as an orthodontic associate 84 53.2 16 38.1 0.083
Has worked or is currently working as an orthodontic associate 74 46.8 26 61.9
Total 158 42
Table 4 Summary of length of associateship, personal vacation in 2012 and leaves of absence for male and female orthodontists.

Association and leaves Men Women Total p
Mean Median SE No. Mean Median SE No. Mean Median SE
Note: SE = standard error.
*comparison between the sexes and p-value were not calculated as number of orthodontists taking a leave of absence in 2012 was small.
Length of associateship (years) 4.4 3 0.58 74 5.1 3 1.14 26 4.4 3 0.489 0.55
Vacation (weeks) 7.2 6 0.400 158 6.7 7 0.401 41 7.1 6 0.328 0.611
Leaves of absence
Length in 2012 (weeks) 7.3 8 1.167 9 6.7 8 2.404 3 7.2 8 1.006 —*
Length over career (weeks) 9.6 7 4.411 16 17.4 8 4.158 18 13.8 8 3.674 0.206
Number over career 1.2 1 0.200 16 1.6 1 0.246 18 1.4 1 0.174 0.337

Additional Information

Figure 1: Total duration (weeks) of leaves of absence throughout career compared with number of children (includting step-children) for male (blue) and female (green) orthodontists. Men: R 2 linear = 0.180; women: R 2 linear = 0.078.

Figure 2: Age of male (blue) and female (green) orthodontists related to their expected age at retirement. Men: R 2 linear = 0.316; women: R 2 linear = 0.121.

Figure 3: Scatterplot (with fitted quadratic equation using regression analysis, R 2 quadratic = 0.135) of age of orthodontists versus number of hours in direct patient care.

Figure 4: Scatterplot (with fitted quadratic equation using regression analysis, R 2 quadratic = 0.074) of age of orthodontists versus number of phase II case starts in 2012.

In 2012, there were no significant differences between the sexes in total weeks of vacation taken (p = 0.611). On average, Canadian orthodontists took 7 weeks of vacation (Table 4).

There was a significant difference between the sexes in terms of taking a leave of absence during their career (p

When age was controlled statistically (evaluated at 51.1 years), there was weak ev >

A quadratic relationship was found to exist between age of the orthodontist and number of hours worked per week (R 2 = 0.135) and number of phase II case starts per year (R 2 = 0.074). Number of hours worked/case starts increased with increasing age, peaking at approximately 50 years of age and decreasing after that with increasing age (Table 5, Figs. 3 and 4).

Finally, there was no ev >

Table 5 Hours worked per week and number of phase II starts in 2012 for male and female orthodontists, with age as a covariate.*

Variable Group Mean SE p 95% CI
Lower Upper
Note: CI = conf > *Evaluated at age = 51.10 years.
Hours per week Men 29.3 0.642 0.071 −0.255 6.057
Women 26.4 1.452
Phase II starts Men 199.8 11.747 0.128 −12.982 102.441
Women 155.1 26.560

Discussion

The personal and practice demographics and work patterns of male and female orthodontists in Canada are fairly similar; however, some sex-specific differences were found to exist.

Female orthodontists in Canada are younger, on average, than their male colleagues, and this age discrepancy translates into women having fewer years of clinical experience, as supported by the literature 4-7,12-14,16-19 and the significant increase in the number of women entering the dental profession and specialties in the past few decades. The differences are expected to decrease as the number of senior male orthodontists retiring from practice increases.

Both male and female orthodontists are equally likely to be married; however, women are more likely to be married to a professional who is employed full-time. This finding is not supported by the literature, where previous surveys have indicated that male dentists and specialists are more likely than women to be married. 14,17-21 Most female respondents reported that their spouses were employed full-time and working as dentists and dental specialists. Most male respondents’ spouses were employed part-time or not currently employed, working in a non-health occupation or as a houseparent/homemaker. A similar study in the United States found comparable results. 14 This factor is important as motivation to work is, in part, determined by financial need to support a family. If the combined family income of female orthodontists is greater than male orthodontists (i.e., because female orthodontists are more likely to be married to a professional while male orthodontists are more likely to be married to a non-professional), the work patterns of female orthodontists may be markedly different from those of their male colleagues. 17

At the time of this survey, female orthodontists were expecting to retire at an earlier age than their male colleagues. Anticipating an age of retirement is difficult and by no means an accurate representation of true age of retirement. Although a statistically significant difference was found between men and women in this respect, it is not likely of any practical consequence. The women who participated in this survey were, on average, 6 years younger than their male colleagues, and we found that younger people expected to retire at an earlier age than older individuals. However, if women have less financial commitment to work than their male colleagues, there may be a significant difference between the sexes in actual age of retirement as the number of female orthodontists approaching the age of retirement increases.

We found no significant difference between the sexes in the number of weeks worked per year. However, the number of leaves of absences during a career was significantly different. Although the average length of a leave of absence was 9.6 weeks for men and 17.4 weeks for women, this difference was not significant, likely because of the large standard error in number of weeks taken for a leave.

The most common reason for women taking a leave of absence was maternity, while for men it was personal illness. Of interest, 86% of women reported having at least 1 child, while only 44% reported having taken a leave of absence over their career. This may indicate that women either have their children before or during their orthodontic training or take a shorter amount of time away for work and view it as a «vacation» rather than a leave of absence. The results of our study were comparable to similar surveys assessing work patterns of orthodontists in the United States and United Kingdom. 12,14

We found that having children, regardless of whether they live at home, did not affect the work patterns of orthodontists in Canada. This is not supported by the literature. In the United States, having children has been found to have an opposite effect on the work patterns of men and women: female orthodontists with children were found to work fewer days per week than childless women and all men, and men with 3 or more children were found to see more patients per day and start more cases per year than men with fewer children and all women. 14 Similarly, having young children (under the age of 18) affected the number of hours worked per week differently for male and female dentists in the United States: for women, it decreased the number of hours worked per week by 7 h and, for men, increased that time by 1 h. 20

The results of this survey provide weak evidence that men work 3 additional hours a week than their female colleagues. The practical significance of this finding cannot be determined. As there were no significant differences between the sexes for number of case starts per year, number of days worked per week, number of weeks worked per year and other work pattern and practice productivity variables, it is assumed that the difference of 3 h worked per week has minimal practical significance. However, our results were similar to the findings of Walton and colleagues, 20 who analyzed the number of hours worked per week by dentists in the United States. They found that women worked 5 fewer hours a week than their male colleagues when age and children living at home were controlled. Studies that examined the work patterns of orthodontists in the United Kingdom produced similar results 12,13,16 ; there, men worked 0.6–1.5 more sessions (1 session = 3.5–4 h) a week than their female colleagues.

In evaluating differences in work patterns, we found that a quadratic relation exists between age and both number of hours worked per week and number of phase II case starts per year. For both variables, productivity increases with increasing age until approximately age 50, after which, both decrease with increasing age. Although age explains less than 14% of the variance in hours worked per week (R 2 =0.135) and less than 8% of the variance for phase II starts per year (R 2 =0.074), these findings are significant, as at least some of the variation in these work patterns can be explained by age. In addition, as the average age of male orthodontists is currently 52 years, this may be an indicator that most male orthodontists are at the peak of their career, and their current practice productivity may begin to decrease in the near future. As the average age of female orthodontists is 46 years, this may be an indicator that most female orthodontists in Canada are currently in their prime practice years, and their practice productivity may increase over the next few years, until they reach their peak performance.

Conclusions

At this time, minor sex-specific differences exist in demographics and work patterns between male and female orthodontists in Canada; however, the long-term impact of these findings and whether these differences have any practical significance have yet to be determined. As female orthodontists’ practices were not found to be substantially different from those of men, it is not possible to speculate whether the increasing number of women specializing in orthodontics will influence changes in the profession.

As this is the first survey of its kind in Canada, the results give us an indication of the current demographic and practice patterns of Canadian orthodontists, which can be used as a reference for future comparisons to determine work patterns and trends in the orthodontic workforce. This quantitative research may allow for qualitative gender comparisons in the orthodontic workforce as well as gender comparisons in other areas of practice, such as communication styles, processes and outcomes of care to aid in both postgraduate teaching and in practice.

THE AUTHORS

Dr. Walker is an orthodontist practising in Grand Falls-Windsor, Newfoundland.

Dr. Flores-Mir is division head, orthodontics director, faculty of medicine and dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

Dr. Heo is associate professor, statistics, orthodontics and biomedical research, faculty of medicine and dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

Dr. Amin is associate professor, pediatric dentistry, faculty of medicine and dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

Dr. Keenan is associate professor and director, community engaged research, faculty of medicine and dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB

Correspondence to: Dr. Stephanie Walker, 7 Pinsent Dr., Grand Falls-Windsor, NL A2A 2S8. Email: slwalker@ualberta.ca

The authors have no declared financial interests.

This article has been peer reviewed.

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