Profiles of Canada H.E. Istomina Канада


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Canada country profile

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The world’s second-largest country by surface but relatively small in terms of population, Canada punches above its weight in economic terms.

A federation of former British colonies, Canada follows the British pattern of parliamentary democracy. Ties with the US are now vital, especially in terms of trade, but Canada often goes its own way.

Both English and French enjoy official status, and mainly French-speaking Quebec — where pressure for full sovereignty has abated in recent years — has wide-ranging cultural autonomy. Indigenous peoples make up around 4% of the population.

Canada is one of world’s top trading nations — and one of its richest. Alongside a dominant service sector, Canada also has vast oil reserves and is a major exporter of energy, food and minerals.

FACTS

Canada

Capital: Ottawa

Population 34.7 million (UN, 2012)

Area 9.98 million sq km (3.85 million sq miles)

Major languages English, French (both official)

Major religion Christianity

Life expectancy 79 years (men), 83 years (women) (UN)

Currency Canadian dollar

LEADERS

Head of state: Queen Elizabeth II, represented by a governor general

Prime minister: Justin Trudeau

Justin Trudeau — son of Pierre Trudeau, who dominated Canadian politics in the 1970s — won a resounding election victory for his Liberal Party in October 2015, ending the nine years of Conservative government under Stephen Harper.

After a closely fought three-way contest with the Conservatives and centre-left New Democrats, the Liberals leapt from the humiliating third place they won at the 2011 election to gain a surprise overall majority in parliament.

Mr Trudeau campaigned on promises to shift some of the tax burden from middle-income earners to the richest Canadians, and run a budget deficit to allow spending on infrastructure and boosting growth.

MEDIA

Canada has a long history of public broadcasting and a lively commercial media sector. The public Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) runs national radio and TV networks in French and English, as well as services for indigenous people in the north.

The Canadian media are free to present a wide range of views and opinions. Quotas exist for broadcasts of Canadian material.

TIMELINE

1583 — Newfoundland becomes England’s first overseas colony.

1627 — Company of New France established to govern and exploit «New France» — France’s North American colonies.

1763 — Under the Treaty of Paris, Britain acquires all French colonies east of the Mississippi, including New France, which becomes the colony of Quebec.

1867 — British North America Act unites Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in the Dominion of Canada.

1885 — Canadian Pacific railroad is completed.

1931 — Statute of Westminster grants British dominions, including Canada, complete autonomy.

1939 — World War II: Canadian forces are active in Italy, Europe, the Atlantic and elsewhere.

1982 — The UK transfers its remaining final legal powers over Canada, which adopts its new constitution, including a charter of rights.

1995 — A referendum in Quebec rejects independence by a margin of only 1%.

Canada country profile

Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia. However, its population is only about one-fifth of Russia’s.

Nearly 90% of Canadians live within 200km of the border with the United States, which means that Canada contains vast expanses of wilderness to the north.

The relationship to its powerful neighbour is a defining factor for Canada. The US and Canada have the world’s largest trading relationship.

Overview

The North American Free Trade Agreement, involving Canada, the US and Mexico, has brought a trade boom for Canada. But thorny issues abound. American moves which impact on Canadian exports, in the form of tariffs on Canadian timber and increased subsidies for US farmers, have created particular tension.

Canada is also worried about pollution from US factories near the border, and about the possible impact on the environment of the exploitation of oil deposits in Alaska.

Canada pursues a foreign policy that is distinct from that of the US. The country has committed troops to the American-led war on terror, but does not back the US trade embargo on Cuba. Canada did not send troops to join the US-led war in Iraq.

After the 11 September 2001 attacks in the US, the challenge of securing the 9,000-km Canada-US border from possible terrorist infiltration prompted both countries to look at ways of sharing information.

Immigration has helped to make Canada one of the world’s richest nations. Challenges related to discrimination and integration are gaining increasing attention. Many recent newcomers hail from Asia. Canada’s indigenous peoples make up less than two per cent of the population. The way in which provincial governments share land and natural resources with native groups is an ongoing issue.

Separatist aspirations in the predominantly French-speaking province of Quebec are a major domestic issue. A referendum in 1995 saw advocates of an independent Quebec only narrowly defeated. Subsequent opinion polls indicated a fall in support for independence and the pro-independence Parti Quebecois was defeated in 2003’s provincial election.

The concept of nationhood for Quebec resurfaced in late 2006, when parliament agreed that the Quebecois should be considered a «nation» within a united Canada. The move was largely symbolic, having no constitutional or legal grounding.

Canada has been asserting its sovereignty in the Arctic with growing vigour and has become embroiled in territorial spats with the US and Denmark. At stake is the possible bounty from previously-untapped reserves of oil and gas.

Facts

  • Full name: Canada
  • Population: 34.3 million (UN, 2011)
  • Capital: Ottawa
  • Largest city: Toronto
  • Area: 9.9 million sq km (3.8 million sq miles)
  • Major languages: English, French (both official)
  • Major religion: Christianity
  • Life expectancy: 79 years (men), 83 years (women) (UN)
  • Monetary unit: 1 Canadian dollar = 100 cents
  • Main exports: Machinery and equipment, automotive products, metals and plastics, forestry products, agricultural and fishing products, energy products
  • GNI per capita: US $43,270 (World Bank, 2010)
  • Internet domain: .ca
  • International dialling code: +1

Leaders

Head of state: Queen Elizabeth II, represented by a Governor-General

Prime minister: Stephen Harper

The Conservative Party of Prime Minister Stephen Harper won a third consecutive term in office in snap elections held in May 2011.

The party gained support, transforming its minorty in parliament into a majority.

Mr Harper’s government had been toppled by the opposition in March 2011. A motion, brought by the main opposition Liberal Party and backed by two other opposition parties, declared the government was in contempt of parliament and had lost its confidence in a row centered on Mr Harper’s budget plans.

The opposition said Mr Harper’s government was in contempt of parliament for failing to provide the estimated costs for a number of spending programmes.

It was the first time that a Canadian government had been found in contempt of parliament.

Mr Harper became prime minister in 2006, after elections that brought to an end 12 years of Liberal government.

However, the Conservatives failed to win an overall majority and had to work with opposition parties in order to govern.

Two years into his first term, Mr Harper called an early election in an attempt to win a working majority. His party improved its position in the October 2008 election, winning 16 more seats than in the 2006 election, but still fell short of an overall majority.

Two months later, Mr Harper came close to being toppled by an alliance of the opposition Liberal and New Democrat parties over his handling of the economic crisis, but avoided a no-confidence vote by suspending parliament for a month.

He prorogued parliament for a second time in January 2010, this time for two months. He described the suspension as «routine», but it drew an angry response from opposition leaders.

They said the move was aimed at avoiding a potentially embarrassing debate on the government’s role in the torture of Afghan terror detainees.

Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1959, Stephen Harper studied economics at the University of Calgary in Alberta. He became an MP in 1993 and became leader of the newly-merged Conservative party in 2004.

He is married and has two children. Aside from politics and intellectual pursuits, he is passionate about ice hockey.

Media

Canada has a long history of public broadcasting. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) was set up in the 1930s in response to the growing influence of American radio.

Broadcasting in French and English, the CBC runs four radio networks featuring speech-based and cultural programmes. It operates two national TV channels, TV and radio services for indigenous peoples in the north and the international broadcaster Radio Canada International.

There are just under 2,000 licensed radio stations in Canada, many of them commercial. There is extensive take-up of multichannel TV.

The Canadian media are free to present a wide range of views and opinions. The broadcasting regulator rules that quotas of Canadian material — usually 30-35% — must be carried by TV and radio stations.

Nearly 27 million Canadians were online by March 2011 (Internetworldstats.com).

  • CBC — public, operates English-language national network and cable news channel CBC Newsworld
  • Société Radio-Canada — public, operates national French-language network and cable news channel RDI
  • CTV — major commercial network
  • TVA — major French-language commercial network
  • Aboriginal People’s TV Network (APTN) — Winnipeg-based national network, via cable and satellite
  • CPAC — parliamentary and political channel
  • CRTC- regulatory body; the CRTC website has information about the main TV groups and their services
  • CBC — public, operates English-language network Radio One and cultural network Radio Two
  • Société Radio-Canada — public, operates French-language services Première Chaîne and Espace Musique
  • Radio Canada International — external service run by CBC
  • CRTC- regulatory body; the CRTC website has information about the main radio groups and their stations

___ Canada

Location map of Canada

Destination Canada, the second largest country in the world occupies most of the northern part of North America, covering the vast land area from the United States in south to the Arctic Circle in the north. It is a country of enormous distances and rich natural resources.

Long time part of colonial North America, Canada became a self-governing colony in the mid 19th century (1867) while retaining ties to the British crown.

Canada is bordered by Alaska (USA) in west, and by 12 US states of the continental United States in south, the country shares maritime borders with Greenland (an autonomous territory of Denmark) and Saint Pierre and Miquelon, an island which belongs to France.

Hudson Bay, the large shallow inland sea indenting east-central Canada.

Canada’s landscape offers a wide range of natural sceneries and is divided into multiple geographical regions. The Canadian Shield, which is the largest geographical area, encompasses half the country and centers on Hudson Bay. The southeastern region of Canada is dominated by lowlands, bordered by the Great Lakes: Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.

The country occupies an area of 9,984,670 km², making it the largest country in the Western Hemisphere. Compared it is slightly larger than the US, or 18 times the size of France.

36.3 million people (in 2020) live in the country, this is about 10% of the population of neighboring USA. Capital city is Ottawa, largest city is Toronto, spoken languages are English and French.

Canada | Canadá | Kanada

Country Profile

Background:
The vast land in Northern North America is rich of natural resources, home to 41 national parks and hundreds of provincial parks, Canada is a natural playground!

The United Nations ranked Canada one of the best country in the world in which to live. Canada is globally recognized for its outstanding quality of life, stable, progressive political environment and one of the healthiest economies in the world. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border.

Official Sites of Canada

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Government of Canada
The Official Canada Government Site.

Governor General
Represents The Queen (Queen Elizabeth II) who is the Head of State.

Government of Canada Departments and Agencies
Index of Government of Canada Departments, Agencies, Crown Corporations, Special Operating Agencies and various affiliated organizations.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations
Information about Canada’s Permanent Mission to the UN.
Canadian Embassy
Embassy of Canada in Washington.
Consulate General of Canada in New York
Canadian Embassies and Missions worldwide
Address List of Canadian Diplomatic Missions Abnroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Canada
Address List of Foreign Diplomatic Missions accredited to Canada.
Canada’s International Gateway
Links to government services, information and resources, for citizens of other countries.

Statistics
Statistics Canada
Canadian statistics and more.

Map of Canada
Administrative Map of Canada with international borders,
provincial boundaries, provincial capitals, major cities, and major airports.

Google Earth Map Canada
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada.
Google Earth Map Ottawa
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada’s capital city.
Google Earth Map Calgary
Searchable map and satellite view of Calgary City.
Google Earth Map Montreal
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada’s second largest city.
Google Earth Map Quebec
Searchable map and satellite view of Quebec City.
Google Earth Map Toronto
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada’s largest city.
Google Earth Map Vancouver
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada’s third largest city.

Map of North America
Reference Map of North America.

More Maps:
Map of Canada
Interactive political map of Canada.
Canada Relief map
Interactive relief map of Canada.
Canadian Geographic Enterprises
Canada à la carte — various theme maps by the Canadian Geographic Magazine.

The National Atlas of Canada
Geography and Maps of Canada
Natural Hazards of Canada
Depicts the locations, types and magnitudes of significant natural disasters that have affected Canada.
Topographic Maps of Canada
Clickable maps to Canada’s topography.

Canadian Geographical Names
Interactive and authoritative source of over 350 000 official and formerly official geographical names in Canada.

Canada’s Senate chamber in the Centre Block on Parliament Hill, in center the three thrones, for the Canadian monarch, the consort of the monarch, and the Speaker of the Senate.
Image: © Saffron Blaze

News from Canada

__Newspapers
Cananada Newswire
Canadian News Agency.
Canadian Newspaper Association
With «The Ultimate Guide to (Canadian) Newspapers».
The Canadian Press
Canada’s national news and photo wire.
Canoe
Canada news, sports, entertainment.
The Globe and Mail
News, information, commentary and interactive discussion
from Canada and around the world.
Politics Watch — Canada’s Political Portal
Provides political background information.
The Toronto Star
National and International News.

__TV/Radio
Cable Public Affairs Channel — cpac
Canada’s Political Channel.
CBC — Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canada’s national public broadcaster.
CBC4Kids
Science, news, music & more.
CBC News
Canada’s Online News Resource.
CBC Radio
Listen to CBC Radio, Canada’s National Broadcaster.
CTV
«CTV Inc. is Canada’s pre-eminent broadcast communications company». CTV News
Current news from Canada and the world.
Radio Canada International
Canadas Voice to the World.
Radio Canada Nouvelles
Canada News (in French)

Online News
canada.com
Canadian related portal with news. Canada.com is owned and operated by Postmedia Network Inc., Canada’s largest publisher by circulation of paid English-language daily newspapers.

Bookmark/share this page

Haie, an immersive installation by Sébastien Bilodeau from Architecturama, invites passers-by to walk through a labyrinth of six luminous panels.
Image: Jean Gagnon

Arts & Culture

__Contemporary and Fine Arts

Art Gallery of Ontario
The eighth largest art museum in North America presents 1000 years of extraordinary art.
Canada Council for the Arts — Le conseil des arts du Canada
An agency which fosters the development of the arts in Canada through grants, services and awards. (Canadian artists only)
McMichael Canadian Art Collection
Paintings, sculptures, drawings and prints by First Nations, Inuit and contemporary Canadian artists.
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Fine Arts collections.
Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal
Contemporary Québec art and international contemporary art.
National Gallery of Canada
Musée des Beaux-Arts du Canada.
Vancouver Art Gallery
Contemporary art.

CBC Arts
A guide to cultural events by CBC.
broken pencil
The guide to alternative culture in Canada.
Images Canada
Picturing Canadian Culture.
Radio-Canada.ca — Zone Culture
A spot on cultural events (in French)
Well Known People Who Happen to be Canadian
Canadian Celebs.

Canlit — Canadian Literature Archive
Information about Canadian writers, novelists, poets, playwrights, essayists, Canadian literary organizations, magazines, publications, texts and library archives.

Canada Aviation Museum
Airplanes from the Pioneer Era until Post-1960.
Canadian Museum of Civilization
Virtual Museum of Canada’s Civilization.
Canadian Museum of Nature
More than a natural history museum.
Museum of Anthropology MOA
Objects and expressions of human creativity.
Museum of Civilization in Quebec City
Site of the Human Adventure.
Royal British Columbia Museum
The human and natural history of British Columbia.
Royal Ontario Museum
The ROM will inspire wonder and build understanding of human cultures and the natural world.
Royal Tyrrell Museum
Canadian dinosaurs.
Textile Museum of Canada
The permanent collection contains more than 10 000 textiles and spans almost 2 000 years and 190 world regions.
Virtual Museum of New France
History of the French exploration of North America.

Virtual Museum of Canada
A Guide to Canadian Museums and Galleries and other cultural institutions.

Business & Economy

Canada is among the world’s wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Seven (G7). The backbone of Canada’s economy is the service industry, which employs about three quarters of the country’s workforce. Other major economic bases are the logging and oil industries, and the manufacturing sector with its automobile and aircraft industries.

__Banks and Stock Exchanges

Bank of Canada
Canada’s central bank.
Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC)
A federal Crown corporation wholly owned by the Government of Canada.
Royal Bank of Canada
Canadian multinational financial services company, the largest bank in Canada.

Bourse de Montréal
The Montréal Stock Exchange (MX), owned by Toronto- based TMX Group.
TSX Group
The Toronto Stock Exchange is in the Top10 of the world’s largest stock exchanges.

Canada Business Network
Government Services for Canadian Businesses.

Canadian Chamber of Commerce
‘The Voice of Canadian Business’.
Canadian Economy Online
Information on the Canadian economy, includes links to key Canadian economic indicators for the last ten years.
Strategis — Canada’s Business Information Site
A guide to Canadian Business and Industries, Company Directories, Consumer Information.

_Railroad
British Columbia Rail
GO Transit
The Rocky Mountaineer
Ontario Northland
VIA Rail Canada

Parliament building on Parliament Hill, Ottawa
Photo courtesy City of Ottawa

Montréal skyline from the Old Port
Photo: © Tourisme Montréal, Stéphan Poulin

Education, Science & Research

Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada
Up-to-date information on Canadian higher education.
Canadian Communities Atlas Project
An Internet based network of Community Atlases that will be accessible to schools and the world.

Canadian Virtual University — Université Virtuelle Canadienne
A partnership of universities across Canada, committed to delivering university-level programs that can be completed from anywhere in the country or beyond.

Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences
HSSFC promotes teaching, research, and scholarship in the humanities and social sciences.
Study in Canada
Informational site on educational studies in Canada.

Science
Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS)
Canada from space — plus a remote sensing tutorial.
Canadian Space Agency
Be prepared for the future.
The Royal Canadian Geographical Society
Société géographique royale du Canada.
National Museum of Science and Technology
National Research Council
Canada’s premier science and technology research organization.
The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
The national instrument for making strategic investments in Canada’s capability in science and technology.
Ontario Science Centre

Castle Mountain within Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies.
Image: ThartmannWiki

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Canada — Travel Guides

Discover Canada: Canadian Rockies, Jasper National Park, Rocky Mountains, Columbia Icefield, Banff National Park, Moraine Lake, Niagara Falls, Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory, Lake Ontario, Toronto Islands, Nahanni National Park Reserve,
hotels, accommodation, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, nature, biking, skiing, climbing, tours and much more.

About Canada
Canadian attractions, events and experiences. Extensive information on Canada for travelers, tourists and all who are interested in Canada.

Travel Canada
A comprehensive travel and tourism guide to Canada by the Canadian Tourism Commission.

Destination Canada
The official Business Site of the Canadian Tourism Commission.

Waterton Glacier International Peace Park
UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1932 Waterton Lakes National Park (Alberta, Canada) was combined with the Glacier National Park (Montana, United States) to form the world’s first International Peace Park.

The Virtual Reference Library — VRL
Explore Ontario, present, past and future, through historic photographs, maps, digitized books, videos, and blog posts.

City Guides
Ottawa
The Official Website of Canadas Capital.
Ottawa SmartCapital gateway
Online services for all sectors of the City of Ottawa.

Toronto
Toronto’s official website.

Montreal
The city of Montreal.

Vancouver
Official Vancouver website.

The Canadian Provinces and Territories
more links and travel information on Canada and its Provinces and Territories: the ten provinces and three territories: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Yukon.

__ Canada Reference

Canadian Social Research Links
A collection of Canadian and US related Social Research Links.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Canada
L’anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
Archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland. The remains of an 11th-century Viking settlement are evidence of the first European presence in North America.
Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump
One of the world’s oldest, largest, and best preserved buffalo jumps, a buffalo jump is a cliff formation which Native Americans historically used in order to hunt and kill plains bison.
Historic District of Old Québec
The only city in North American that has preserved its ramparts, together with its numerous bastions, gates and defensive works which still surround Old Québec.

Environment & Nature

Environment Canada’s Green Lane
Environment Canada’s Internet resource for weather and environmental information. The Green Lane TM helps connect Canadians, exchange information and share knowledge for environmental decision-making.

Canadian Biodiversity
Canadian Biodiversity Information Network
Official information site of Biodiversity in Canada.
The Canadian Biodiversity Web Site
Site about biodiversity and especially Canada’s biodiversity.

Canadian landscapes and landforms
Parks Canada
A guide to Canadian National Historic Sites and National Parks.
Canadian Landscapes
A great collection of photos of Canadian landscapes and landforms.

Nature Conservation
Nature Canada
Site of Nature Canada, one of Canada’s leading conservation groups.

Oceans
Canadian Waters
Web site about Canada’s oceans and fish habitat by Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Wildlife
Canadian Wildlife Federation
The Hinterland Who’s Who — Canadian Wildlife Service
Created in the early 1960s to interest the public in wildlife conservation, now online.

Others
Canadian Museum of Nature
More than a natural history museum.
Natural Resources Canada
Government information about Energy Sources and Distribution, Mining, Forestry in Canada, and Climate Change.

History

Library and Archives Canada
Online access to resources, services and the collection of the Library and Archives Canada.

Canadian History
List of online resources about Canada’s history by the Canadian Government.

The History of Canada Online
HCO is a browsable, searchable history textbook published by Northern Blue Publishing, with supporting resources, including image galleries and text libraries, timelines, quotations, learning activities and other features.

Canadian Heritage Gallery
A collection of historical Canadian pictures and photographs.

Canadian Heritage Information Network
Gateway to museums, galleries, and heritage information.

CBC Archives
The site provides a timeline and radio and television clips from the archives of the CBC about Canada’s newer history.

The history of Canada
Wikipedia articles about Canada’s history, covering the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.

First Nations

Assembly of First Nations — Assemblée des Premières Nations
Canadian The national representative organization of the First Nations in Canada.

Aboriginal Heritage
Government information about Canada’s First Nations and aboriginal heritage.

Ojibwe Cultural Foundation
Foundation to preserve and revitalize the language, culture, arts, spirituality, and traditions of the Anishinaabe people.

American Indians online
OWNO page about the First Nations of North America.

Ojibwe Cultural Foundation
Image: Plismo

Sources and additional Information on New Zealand

The World Factbook — Canada

Other Countries of North America:
Mexico | USA
One World — Nations Online . let’s care for this planet

Promote that every nation assumes responsibility for our world.

A Demographic Profile of Canada

    Kenneth Jacobs 3 years ago Views:

1 Population A Demographic Profile of Canada In 2004, Canada s population reached 31.9 million. Since 2001, Canada s total population has grown by 3%, or 925,000 people. From a provincial perspective, population growth between 2001 and 2004 was greatest in Western Canada. The territory of Nunavut reported an increase of 5.3% in their population over this three-year period. The Northwest Territories followed closely behind with an increase of 4.9%. While many provinces experienced population increases between 2001 and 2004, the population fell in others. The most significant decreases were in Newfoundland, where the population decreased by 1.0%, and in Saskatchewan (0.5%). Canada’s Population, 2001 to 2004 Share of Canada’s Population in 2004 % change, Province/ Territory Newfoundland & Labrador (NF & LB) 522, , , , % -1.0% Prince Edward Island (PEI) 136, , , , % 0.9% Nova Scotia (NS) 932, , , , % 0.5% New Brunswick (NB) 749, , , , % 0.2% Quebec (QC) 7,397,000 7,445,700 7,492,300 7,542, % 2.0% Ontario (ON) 11,897,600 12,102,000 12,256,600 12,392, % 4.2% Manitoba (MB) 1,151,300 1,155,600 1,161,600 1,170, % 1.7% Saskatchewan (SK) 1,000, , , , % -0.5% Alberta (AB) 3,056,700 3,116,300 3,158,600 3,201, % 4.8% British Columbia (BC) 4,078,400 4,115,400 4,152,300 4,196, % 2.9% Yukon (YK) 30,100 30,100 30,600 31, % 3.7% Northwest Territories (NWT) 40,800 41,500 42,200 42, % 4.9% Nunavut (NV) 28,100 28,700 29,100 29, % 5.3% CANADA 31,021,300 31,372,600 31,660,500 31,946, % 3.0% Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s CANSIM, Table Canada’s Population, by Age Group, 2004 Age group Number % Distribution 0-4 yrs 1,695, % 5-9 yrs 1,915, % yrs 2,117, % yrs 2,125, % yrs 2,223, % yrs 4,381, % yrs 5,154, % yrs 4,805, % yrs 3,386, % yrs 2,212, % 75+ yrs 1,928, % Total population 31,946, % Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s CANSIM, Table Canadian Council on Social Development 1

2 Urban or Rural? Canada s population is primarily urban based. Data from the 2001 Census revealed that 79.6% of Canadians or 23,585,940 people resided in urban centres, with the remainder, 20.4%, living in rural locations. Ontario and British Columbia reported the highest concentrations of urban dwellers in Not surprisingly, the largest proportion of Canada s rural population lived in the Territories. Nunavut was the highest at 67.6%. Canada’s Urban Population % of population residing in urban areas, by Province/Territory, 2001 NF PEI NS NB QC ON MB SK AB BC YK NWT Nuv Canada 32.4% 57.6% 44.5% 55.6% 50.2% 80.2% 84.6% 71.7% 64.1% 80.7% 84.6% 58.7% 58.3% 79.6% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s 2001 Census. Canadian Council on Social Development 2

3 Census Metropolitan Areas, Population by Age Group, 2003 Under 20 yrs Aged yrs Aged 65+ yrs Total CMA No. % No. % No. % Population St. John’s 42, % 118, % 18, % 179,709 Halifax 88, % 247, % 41, % 377,932 Montréal 833, % 2,280, % 461, % 3,574,516 Ottawa-Gatineau 281, % 728, % 121, % 1,132,181 Toronto 1,296, % 3,243, % 561, % 5,101,610 Saskatoon 63, % 143, % 27, % 233,939 Calgary 258, % 677, % 91, % 1,026,616 Edmonton 256, % 628, % 105, % 990,525 Vancouver 490, % 1,388, % 255, % 2,134,286 Victoria 66, % 203, % 56, % 326,668 Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s Annual Demographic Statistics 2004, Catalogue X1B. The CCSD continues its traditional examination of issues affecting metropolitan areas by conducting a detailed study of Urban Poverty in Canada. Using a variety of Statistics Canada databases to obtain local-level data, this report examines the factors underlying poverty and the groups most affected by it in different urban communities across the country. (2006) Poverty by Postal Code: This research, conducted by the CCSD for the United Way of Greater Toronto, documents the widening income gap over the last two decades and the growth of high-poverty neighbourhoods throughout the GTA. See also: A Statistical Profile of Urban Poverty, 1996; Urban Poverty in Canada, 2000; The Canadian Fact Book on Poverty, These and other reports are available on the CCSD s website at Births The number of births in Canada reached 331,522 in 2002/03, a slight increase (1.3%) from 2000/01. Over this two-year period (2000/01 to 2002/03), most provinces and territories saw a decrease in the number of annual births. However, Ontario reported a 3.3% increase in annual births during this period. Canadian Council on Social Development 3

4 Annual Births, Canada & Provinces/Territories % of all Cndn births in 2000/ / / /03 % change, 2000 to 2003 NF & LB 4,732 4,664 4, % -3.4% PEI 1,381 1,379 1, % 0.2% NS 8,922 8,839 8, % -2.4% NB 7,202 7,141 7, % -2.1% QC 71,825 72,500 71, % 0.2% ON 127, , , % 3.3% MB 13,939 13,942 13, % -0.8% SK 12,084 12,215 12, % 0.3% AB 37,197 37,843 38, % 2.6% BC 40,367 40,523 40, % -0.6% YK % -4.3% NWT % -7.6% NV % 2.0% CANADA 327, , , % 1.3% Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s Annual Demographic Statistics 2004, Catalogue XIB. Among Canadian provinces and territories, seven reported declines in the number of annual births between 2000 and The largest decrease was in the Northwest Territories, with a drop of 7.6%. The Yukon also reported a decline of 4.3% over this period. Of the 331,522 births reported in Canada in 2002/03, most were in Ontario (39.6%) and Quebec (21.7%). The average age of mothers giving birth in 2002 was 29.5 years up a full year from 1992, when the average age was 28.4 years. Mothers in Nunavut were the youngest in the country, with an average age of 25.1 years. Among the provinces, Saskatchewan had the youngest mothers, with an average age of 27.5 years. Average Age of Mothers Giving Birth, 2000 to 2002 Mothers’ Place of Residence NF & LB PEI NS NB QC ON MB SK AB BC YK NWT NV Unknown CANADA Source: Statistics Canada, Births 2002, Catalogue 84F0210XIE. Canadian Council on Social Development 4

5 Fertility Fertility rates are a measure of the average number of children that women will bear during their lifetime. Between 2001 and 2002, the fertility rate among Canadian women fell slightly, from 1.51 to In 2000, fertility rates in Canada hit an all-time low falling to Canada s fertility rate falls midway among many of the other industrialized nations. Countries such as the United States, France and Australia have fertility rates which exceed 1.5, while Germany, Japan and Italy all have fertility rates lower than those of Canada. Nunavut had the highest fertility rate in Canada for 2002, at Among the provinces, Saskatchewan (at 1.82) reported the highest fertility rate, in sharp contrast to Newfoundland s low rate of 1.31 births per woman. Fertility Rates, Canada and Select Countries, 2002 Select Industrialized Prov/Territory Fertility Rate* Countries Fertility Rate* NF & LB 1.31 United States 2.0 PEI 1.47 France 1.9 NS 1.37 Australia 1.7 NB 1.39 United Kingdom 1.6 QC 1.46 CANADA 1.5 ON 1.47 Germany 1.4 MB 1.80 Japan 1.3 SK 1.82 Italy 1.2 AB 1.69 BC 1.38 YK 1.56 NWT** 1.89 NV** 3.04 CANADA*** 1.5 Notes: * Total fertility rate is an estimate of the average number of children that women aged 15 to 49 will have in their lifetimes. ** Data for Nunavut were excluded from the NWT. *** Canada’s rate includes births where mother’s place of residence was unknown. Source: Statistics Canada, Births 2002, Catalogue 84F0210XIE. Canadian Council on Social Development 5

6 Life Expectancy In 2001, a newborn Canadian had a life expectancy of 79.6 years; for Canadians aged 65, their life expectancy was an additional 19 years. In British Columbia, life expectancy from birth was the highest in Canada, at 80.4 years, and seniors in that province had a life expectancy of 19.7 years. The lowest life expectancy rate was in Nunavut, with a rate of 69.4 years from birth, and 15.5 years from the age of 65. Life Expectancy, 2001 At Birth At Age 65 NF & LB PEI NS NB QC ON MB SK AB BC YK NWT NV CANADA Note: Life expectancy is the number of years a person would be expected to live, starting at birth, or at age 65. Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Vital Statistics, Births and Deaths Databases, Demography Division, CANSIM Table In 2002/03, there were 227,630 deaths reported in Canada. Perhaps not surprisingly, the largest number were recorded in Ontario with 85,950 deaths, followed by Quebec with 54,585. The death rate per 1,000 population in Canada that year was 7.2. The highest rate was in Ontario, at 9.0 deaths per 1,000 population, and the lowest rate was in the Northwest Territories, at 4.2 deaths per 1,000 population. Canadian Council on Social Development 6

7 Aboriginal Population According to the 2001 Census, 976,305 people in Canada identified themselves as being members of one of three Aboriginal groups North American Indian, Métis or Inuit. This represents 3.3% of Canada s total population. The Aboriginal population in Canada is growing. Between 1996 and 2001, the Aboriginal population increased by 22%. About one-third of Canada s Aboriginal population are children under the age of 14 significantly higher than the corresponding 18% proportion among the non-aboriginal population. And while Aboriginals represent 3.3% of Canada s total population, they comprise 5.6% of all children in Canada. Seniors in the Aboriginal population (that is, those over the age of 65) are relatively few 4.1% in comparison to almost three times that proportion (12.8%) in the non-aboriginal population. However, between 1996 and 2001, the number of Aboriginal seniors rose by 40%. The highest concentration of Aboriginals live in Ontario. In 2001, 188,315 Aboriginals lived in Ontario, but they accounted for only 2% of the province s population. Alberta and Manitoba followed closely behind, with Aboriginal populations of 156,220 and 150,040 respectively. Canada’s Aboriginal Population, by Age Group, % 4.1% Children & Youth under age yrs 9.9% 10.5% yrs yrs 14.9% Children & Youth under % 11.6% 11.1% yrs 65+ yrs Under 5 yrs 9.5% 7.8% 5-9 yrs yrs yrs 15.2% yrs Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s 2001 Census. The 22,720 Aboriginals living in Nunavut in 2001 represented over 80% of the Territory s population. The Northwest Territories also has a large Aboriginal population (45.6%). Prince Edward Island has the smallest Aboriginal population in Canada 1,345 people, or only 1% of the provincial population. Canadian Council on Social Development 7

8 Visible Minorities According to the 2001 Census data, almost 4 million people in Canada identified themselves as being members of visible minority groups. This represented 13.4% of Canada s total population. This proportion has been steadily increasing, and between 1996 and 2001, the number of visible minorities in Canada grew by 25%. The largest visible minority group in Canada is Chinese. In 2001, approximately one million Chinese people lived here, accounting for 25.8% of Canada s visible minority population. The second largest group is South Asian with 917,075 people representing 23% of the visible minority population followed by those identifying themselves as Black, with 662,210 individuals or 16.6% of the visible minority population. Combined, these three groups accounted for about two-thirds of Canada s visible minority population in Canada’s Visible Minority Population, 2001 % of Visible Number Minority Population Black 662, % South Asian 917, % Chinese 1,029, % Korean 100, % Japanese 73, % Southeast Asian 198, % Filipino 308, % Arab/ West Asian 303, % Latin American 216, % Visible minority, not included elsewhere 98, % Multiple visible minority 73, % Total 3,983, % Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s 2001 Census. Canadian Council on Social Development 8

9 Immigration In 2002, 229,121 new immigrants came to Canada. Ontario attracted the largest number of immigrants (133,641), which was 58% of all immigrants that year. In addition, 37,627 immigrants went to Quebec (16%), followed by British Columbia with 34,000 or 15% of the total immigrant population. During the 1990s, 73% of immigrants who came to Canada settled in just three Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs): Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal. According to the 2001 Census, approximately 44% of Toronto s population were born outside of Canada, and the CMA of Toronto was home to 2,033,000 foreign-born people in Canada Proportion of Immigrants in the Population, by Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), % Vancouver 37.5% Edmonton Calgary 17.8% 20.9% Saskatoon 7.6% Winnipeg 16.5% Toronto 43.7% Ottaw a-gatineau Montreal 17.6% 18.4% Quebec Halifax St. John’s 2.9% 2.9% 6.9% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s 2001 Census. See also: Immigrant Youth in Canada, This report examines the socio-demographic characteristics Immigration of levels immigrant have fluctuated children and over youth, the years. provides Between data 1992 on their and social 1994, supports the number and of the capacity immigrants of service to Canada agencies dropped to respond from 254,817 to their needs, to 224,364, and presents a decrease first-person of 12%. Levels accounts then of their rose experiences slightly in integrating the mid-1990s, into Canadian but started society. climbing quickly in Between 1998 and 2001, the number of new immigrants to Canada increased by 44%. The following year, however, saw a This drop and of other 9%, from reports 250,484 are available to 229,091. on the CCSD s website at Canadian Council on Social Development 9

10 Immigration to Canada, by Province/Territory, 2000 to 2002 No. of immigrants arriving in: % change 2000 to 2002 NF & LB % PEI % NS 1,607 1,711 1, % NB % QC 32,489 37,523 37, % ON 133, , , % MB 4,644 4,588 4, % SK 1,891 1,708 1, % AB 14,332 16,377 14, % BC 37,409 38,352 34, % YK % NWT % NV % Not stated % CANADA 227, , , % Note: Includes principal applicants and dependants. Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s Facts and Figures 2002: Immigration Overview. Immigration levels have fluctuated over the years. Between 1992 and 1994, the number of immigrants to Canada dropped from 254,817 to 224,364, a decrease of 12%. Levels then rose slightly in the mid-1990s, but started climbing quickly in Between 1998 and 2001, the number of new immigrants to Canada increased by 44%. The following year, however, saw a drop of 9%, from 250,608 to 229, ,000 Immigration Levels, Canada, 1992 to , , , , Series Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2002: Immigration Overview. Canadian Council on Social Development 10

11 Foreign-born Population The proportion of Canada s population who were foreign-born reached 5.4 million in This represented 18.4% of the total population that year. For several decades, the United States and European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands were the primary sources of new immigrants to Canada. Today, however, immigrants are most likely to come to Canada from Asian countries. Proportion of Immigrants born in Europe and Asia, by Period of Immigration, Canada, % 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 90% 69% 36% 26% 20% 12% 3% 33% 58% 47% Before Europe Asia Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s 2001 Census. During the 1990s, China was the main country of origin for new immigrants to Canada. Between 1991 and 2001, 197,360 individuals from China immigrated to Canada. India also provided a large number of immigrants to Canada over that decade 156,120 followed by immigrants coming from the Philippines (122,010), and from Asian countries, including the Special Administrative Region (SAR) of Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Taiwan. These seven countries accounted for 40% of all immigrants who came to Canada between 1991 and Canadian Council on Social Development 11

12 Countries of Birth for Canadian Immigrants, 2001 Immigrated * Number % People’s Republic of China 197, % India 156, % Philippines 122, % Hong Kong (SAR) 118, % Sri Lanka 62, % Pakistan 57, % Taiwan 53, % United States 51, % Iran 47, % Poland 43, % Other 920, % Total immigrants 1,830, % * Includes data up to May 15, Source: Calculations by the Canadian Council on Social Development using data from Statistics Canada’s 2001 Census. The Canadian Council on Social Development (CCSD) is Canada s foremost nonprofit research organization focused on economic and social equality. The Council works with partners and our membership base across the country to develop knowledge and awareness that helps improve the lives of individuals and communities. Our main product is timely and accurate information on a wide variety of subjects, including child and family well-being, economic security, poverty, cultural diversity, disability issues, government social policies, and much more. For a wealth of information on issues related to Canada s social safety net, visit our website at This and other fact sheets are available for download free of charge on our Stats & Facts subsite at. Canadian Council on Social Development 12

Mining in Canada

Canada needs mining

Minerals and metals contribute to Canadians’ lives every day. They are the building blocks of our modern society and provide key ingredients for buildings, vehicles, transportation networks and food production. They are in countless consumer products that we rely upon—from toothpaste to bicycles to electronics. Clean technologies that are vital to a cleaner, more sustainable world, as well as computers, smartphones and medical instruments, all require minerals and metals.

Canada is a large landmass with a rich mineral endowment. Hundreds of thousands of Canadians from across the country have used their knowledge, skills and entrepreneurship to build an industry that is among the world’s largest producers of minerals and metals. In 2020, some 200 mines and 7,000 quarries produced more than 60 minerals and metals worth $41 billion. Footnote 1

Clean Energy Applications
Minerals are enablers

Canada is primed to respond to growing demand for commodities required in clean energy technologies. The country is a key global producer of copper, nickel, and cobalt, and hosts advanced mineral projects for rare earth elements, lithium, and graphite. These commodities are crucial in the production of solar cells, high-density batteries, and wind turbines.

Canada ranks in the top five producing countries for 13 major minerals and metals. We are:

  • First in potash;
  • Second in uranium and niobium;
  • Third in nickel, cobalt, aluminum and platinum group metals; and
  • Fifth in gold and diamonds.

Mining is a general term that encompasses a range of activities, including mineral exploration, mineral development, mine production, mineral processing, mine site reclamation and much more. These activities contribute socio-economic benefits—be they exploration and mining in northern, remote or isolated communities, or legal and financial transactions taking place in urban centres such as Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal.

A pan-Canadian Industry

If you took a mining tour of Canada, you could start in the Yukon to experience the latest gold rush, and then travel to the Northwest Territories where diamonds shine (it is the world’s third largest producer of diamonds by value). In Nunavut, gold and iron ore mining provide a glimpse of the mineral potential of the territory. Heading to Newfoundland and Labrador, you would find significant iron ore and nickel. New Brunswick would highlight its smelting capacity, Prince Edward Island its quarrying operations, and Nova Scotia would reveal zinc and a resurgent gold mining industry. In Quebec you would see the most diversified mining industry in Canada, which includes products such as iron ore, zinc, gold and diamonds. Ontario—the largest minerals and metals producer in Canada—counts gold, copper and nickel as its main products, while Manitoba is the top Canadian producer of zinc. In Saskatchewan, you would enter a world-leading potash and uranium mining area, while Alberta produces metallurgical coal (an irreplaceable ingredient for steel making). The same “Met coal” is the top product of British Columbia, and the province is Canada’s largest producer of copper.

Ports in British Columbia are a major gateway to get Canadian minerals and metals to and from Asian markets. Ports in Quebec and Atlantic Canada serve the same purpose for European and South American markets, and ports on the Great Lakes, railways and roads serve the U.S. market.

Mining-related activity takes place across the country

Canada’s geological terrane provides a rich and abundant variety of mineral resources. There are currently over 60 minerals and metals produced from coast to coast to coast. Mineral exploration has also increasingly diversified, leading to the discovery of rare earth elements, graphite, chromite, coal and potash.

British Columbia

  • Elk Valley (metallurgical coal)
  • Kitimat (aluminum)
  • Northern BC (copper, gold, molybdenum, metallurgical coal)
  • Southern BC (copper, gold, molybdenum)
  • Vancouver (exploration, mine financing, allied industries)
  • Trail (lead, zinc)

Alberta

Saskatchewan

  • Northern Saskatchewan (uranium, gold)
  • Southern Saskatchewan (potash, coal)

Manitoba

  • Northern Manitoba (nickel, cobalt, gold)
  • Flin Flon (copper, zinc, gold)

Ontario

  • Northern Ontario (gold, palladium, platinum, copper, zinc, diamonds)
  • Sudbury (nickel, copper, cobalt, allied industries)
  • Timmins (gold, silver)
  • Toronto and southern Ontario (salt, uranium refining, exploration and mine financing, allied industries)

Northwest Territories

Nunavut

Quebec

  • Abitibi and James Bay Region (gold, copper, zinc, diamonds)
  • Rouyn-Norando and Val-d’Or (gold, copper, silver, zinc)
  • Havre St. Pierre and Sorel-Tracy (titanium)
  • Montreal and area (metal smelting and refining, allied industries)
  • Northern Quebec (nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum group metals)
  • Saguenay Region (aluminum refining, niobium)
  • Schefferville and Fermont (iron)

Newfoundland and Labrador

  • Labrador City and Wabush Area (iron ore)
  • Voisey’s Bay (nickel, copper, cobalt)
  • Island of Newfoundland (gold, nickel refining)

New Brunswick

  • NB (zinc, lead, metal smelting)

Prince Edward Island

  • PEI (peat, sand and gravel)

Nova Scotia

Yukon

The Minerals and Metals Industry

The industry is more than just mines. It is a community of Canadians employed in a range of activities, such as:

  • public geoscience
  • exploration
  • community engagement and consultation
  • environmental permitting and monitoring
  • health and safety
  • land use planning
  • financing and investment
  • mine construction and operation
  • technological innovation
  • services and equipment supply
  • the restoration of former mine sites
  • processing and refining

A key contributor to the economy

The minerals and metals industry is a major generator of wealth and employment for Canadians. In 2020, it directly or indirectly contributed $87 billion, or 3%, to Canada’s gross domestic product.

In the same year, it prov > Footnote 2

In 2020, the minerals sector invested $13.2 billion in new capital construction and in machinery and equipment, accounting for 6% of total non-residential capital investment in Canada. Two-thirds of this amount ($8.8 billion) went to mining and quarrying. Approximately one-third ($3.2 billion), went to “downstream” mineral-processing industries, including primary metal manufacturing, fabricated metal product manufacturing, and non-metallic mineral product manufacturing.

Capital expenditure for the minerals sector are spread across five sub-sectors

Source: Natural Resources Canada, 2020

Capital expenditures in Canada’s minerals sector are spread across five sub-sectors: 67% for mining and quarrying (except oil and gas), 5% for fabricated metal product manufacturing, 17% for primary metal manufacturing, 9% for non-metallic mineral product manufacturing and 2% for mining-related support activities.

Smelting and refining are among the downstream mineral processing activities that add value to mined products. Canada counts 31 nonferrous smelters and refineries in Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia. They process a range of products, including nickel, copper, aluminum, gold, silver, cobalt, lead, bismuth, platinum group metals and others.

The Canadian minerals and metals industry is a global business, accounting for $89 billion—or 19%—of Canada’s merchandise exports. Footnote 3

The U.S. accounts for 55% of this amount, followed by Europe at 22% and China at 5%. Publicly traded, Canadian-based companies have total mining and exploration assets of $256 billion at home and in more than 100 foreign countries across six continents. Footnote 4

Canada is the leading global centre for mining finance. The Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) and the TSX Venture Exchange are home to almost 50% of the world’s public mining companies, and in 2020, more than $189 billion of mining equity was traded on these exchanges. Combined, the TSX and TSX Venture Exchange list more mining and mineral exploration companies than any other exchange in the world and account for the largest share of global mining equity financing. Footnote 5

Mineral exploration companies invest heavily to discover new deposits and to advance mineral development projects. Their work focuses on “traditional” minerals and metals (gold, copper, nickel, etc.), as well those that support a greener economy, such as lithium, graphite and rare earth elements. These exploration activities leverage Canada’s deep pool of expert service and equipment suppliers, including environmental consultants, community consultation advisors, and drilling contractors. Footnote 6 More than 700 exploration and mine development companies are headquartered in British Columbia alone.

Public Geoscience Supports Informed Decisions

Public geoscience broadly refers to: geological, geophysical, and geochemical data; maps; surveys; information; and knowledge provided by governments free of charge.

The availability of public geoscience data and analysis helps exploration companies make informed decisions regarding their exploration plans. These companies leverage government geoscience data to identify areas of favourable mineral potential.

Mineral exploration activities are not always successful. Having a better understanding of geological environments allows explorers to focus on areas of higher prospectivity, while reducing investment risk. The availability of public geoscience data enhances Canada’s attractiveness as a destination for mineral exploration investment.

The geoscience activities of Canadian governments also generate information required for various public uses, such as studies related to land use and the environment, geohazards (e.g. earthquakes, landslides), public health, infrastructure planning, national defence, and sovereignty.

Canada’s competitive position

Canada has a long and successful history of sustainable mineral development and a strong, well-earned reputation as a leading mining nation. For example, in 2020 it received the Best Country Award for international leadership in governance and for showing the most improvement in terms of attractiveness to investors. Footnote 7 It is recognized as the safest place to invest resource capital, Footnote 8 and Saskatchewan and Manitoba are ranked the top two most attractive jurisdictions for mining investment in the world, while Quebec is sixth. Footnote 9

In the mining industry, comparisons are often made between Canada and Australia due to their similarities. Canada is ranked 10th for the size of its gross domestic product and Australia is ranked 14th. Footnote 10 Both countries have open economies with rich mineral endowments, strong public geoscience programs, and minerals and metals industries that remain a significant driver of economic activity. Both are home to a large junior mining sector, major mining companies, and mining service industries—all of which maintain a significant global presence. Geographic demand patterns for commodities including coal and iron have shifted towards Asia—and notably China. This favours Australia with its large-scale deposits near tidewater and its proximity to this key market.

The international investment community closely monitors developments in each country to determine the best location in which to allocate capital. Based on a compilation of publicly announced exploration budgets, Canada is the top destination for mineral exploration investment among countries. In 2020, Canada attracted 14% of the exploration budgets of firms, just ahead of Australia at 13%.

More mineral investment dollars come to Canada than any other counntry
(1,525 companies budgeting $7.9 billion)

Source: S&P Global, 2020

Canada leads in total mineral investments with 14% of the global share. As of 2020, this represented 1,525 companies budgeting $7.95 billion dollars. The total $1,101 million dollars of mineral investments amounts to more than any other country in the world.

But Australia is not our only competitor. A closer look reveals that while Canadian firms receive a greater share of exploration budgets than any other country, this share has declined in recent years. Over the same time, Australia’s share has remained relatively flat, and the region of Latin America has gained the most. Footnote 11

The number and value of major mining projects planned and under construction in Canada has decreased

From 2014 to 2020, the number and value of major mining projects planned and under construction in Canada have decreased. Value is measured by total investments ($ billion), which continue to steadily decline.

There are other indications that Canada’s position as a destination for mineral investment is being eroded. For instance, Canadian reserves of selected metals have been trending downwards and the country has experienced a decline in the production volumes of key commodities. Footnote 12 The number of mining-related projects (mine constructions, redevelopments, expansions and processing facilities) planned and under construction dropped from 150 in 2014 to 101 in 2020. The value for such projects also decreased over the same time, from $166 billion to $80 billion.

There are numerous external factors that can explain changes to investment plans and project development timelines (e.g. market conditions and the overall economic outlook). Nonetheless, this trend underscores the need to foster a mineral investment environment that supports the competitiveness of the industry and Canada’s ability to attract scarce investment dollars.

The Canada Brand

Canada’s leadership in mineral resource governance and sustainable development have helped build a “Canada Brand” that is recognized around the world. Leadership on social responsibility (including partnership with Indigenous peoples, relationships with local communities, and a commitment to environmental protection), unparalleled access to capital markets, innovation and expertise across the clean technology and mining services and supply chains, have all contributed to the brand.

Canada’s brand is important to industry activity abroad and it supports international trade. A key component of the brand is corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the voluntary actions of companies that serve to integrate social, environmental and economic considerations into their activities. Canadian companies operating abroad are expected to respect human rights and all applicable local laws, and to meet or exceed recognized international standards for responsible business conduct.

Both the Mining Association of Canada (MAC) and the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) have developed tools to help their members realize CSR abroad, and Canadian companies have demonstrated their commitment to do business responsibly (see sidebar).

Strong, trusted, and backed by a history of integrity and success, the Canada Brand provides a competitive advantage for the range of stakeholders participating in Canada’s minerals and metals industry. It identifies Canada as a trusted partner and as an attractive destination for investment.

Canadian Industry Providing International Leadership

Towards Sustainable Mining is MAC’s commitment to responsible mining. It is a set of tools and indicators to drive performance and ensure that key mining risks are managed responsibly at members’ facilities.

The program was established in 2004 to enable mining companies to meet society’s needs for minerals, metals and energy products in the most socially, economically and environmentally responsible way.

The program has been adopted by Finland, Argentina, Botswana and the Philippines. It was also included in Apple’s Supplier Responsibility Standards.

PDAC’s e3 Plus helps companies exploring for minerals improve their social, environmental, and health and safety performance. It was launched in 2009 by PDAC as its signature corporate social responsibility initiative.

The original incarnation of e3 Plus was simply e3, which stood for Excellence in Environmental Exploration. e3 was launched in 2003 and was quickly supplemented by the creation of toolkits designed to improve social and health and safety performance—the “plus” in e3 Plus.

We Want Your Ideas

Canada is a recognized leading mining nation with a strong domestic sector and a significant international presence. The minerals and metals industry is global, dynamic and highly competitive.

Canada must take steps to cement its status as a global mining leader, and to ensure that the industry continues to contribute to prosperity for Canadians.

Canada’s federal, provincial and territorial governments need your ideas to inform a Canadian Minerals and Metals Plan that will help us achieve our goals.

This discussion paper is a starting point.

It provides context, possible areas of focus and asks questions on how we can strengthen the minerals and metals industry.

Footnotes

Data include mineral shipments by Canadian producers from Natural Resources Canada’s Annual Census of Mines, Quarries and Sand Pits and Statistics Canada’s Coal Monthly Survey, and reflect 2015 actual values and 2020 preliminary estimates in Canadian dollars.

Minerals Sector Employment Information Bulletin, 2020, Natural Resources Canada, August 2020.
.Note: Includes extraction and initial processing of mineral products, as well as downstream processing and manufacturing of metal products.

Total exports include all goods leaving the country for a foreign destination. They consist of the sum of domestic exports and re-exports. Exports of imported merchandise that has been substantially enhanced in value are also included. Re-exports are goods that have previously entered Canada and are materially the same upon leaving.

Mineral Trade Information Bulletin, 2020, Natural Resources Canada, August 2020.

TSX.com, TMX, 2020

Natural Resources Canada based on The Survey of Mineral Exploration, Deposit Appraisal and Mine Complex Development Expenditures, 2020.

Mines and Money London, 2020.

World Risk Report, Mining Journal, 2020.

Annual Survey of Mining Companies: 2020, Fraser Institute.

World Development Indicators database, World Bank, April 2020.

Corporate Exploration Strategies 2020, S&P Global, 2020.

Senate of Canada

Article by Richard Foot
Published Online February 7, 2006
Last Edited February 25, 2020

The Senate is the Upper House of Canada’s Parliament. Its 105 members are appointed and hold their seats until age 75. The Senate’s purpose is to consider and revise legislation, investigate national issues, and most crucially according to the Constitution — give the regions of Canada an equal voice in Parliament. Long regarded by many Canadians as a place of unfair patronage and privilege, the Senate is a controversial institution; an unresolved debate continues about whether it should be reformed into an elected body accountable to the voters, or abolished.

Senators

Senators are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister. To qualify for appointment they must be Canadian citizens, at least 30 years old; have real property worth $4,000 free of mortgage and a net worth of at least $4,000 (amounts unchanged from when they were first enacted during Confederation in 1867); and reside in the province or territory for which they are appointed.

In Québec (which is divided into 24 senatorial divisions) Senators must reside or have their real property in the division for which they are appointed.

Senators lose their seats if they become aliens; become bankrupt, insolvent or public defaulters; are convicted of felony or any «infamous crime»; lose their residence or property qualification; or are absent for two consecutive sessions of Parliament. They receive a salary of $150,600 (as of 2020) plus additional pay if they hold special offices in the Senate (such as government or opposition whip or leader), as well as other expense and travel allowances.

Red Chamber

Located on the eastern end of Parliament’s Centre Block, the Senate chamber is adorned in royal red (versus the green of the House of Commons). It is where senators meet and debate, and where the Canadian sovereign or their representative the governor-general addresses Parliament and delivers the Speech from the Throne at the beginning of every new session of Parliament. This is also where the ceremony is held to install a new governor general.

Proceedings in the Senate chamber, and the proceedings of most senate committees, are open to public viewing.

The chamber is an impressive architectural hall, with intricately-carved oak panelling, two massive bronze chandeliers, and a marble bust of Queen Victoria, Canada’s Queen at the time of Confederation, surveying the chamber from above the speaker’s chair. Most stunning are eight, huge oil paintings on the main walls of the chamber, depicting scenes of Canadian sacrifices during the First World War .

Creation

The Senate was created under the Constitution Act, 1867, primarily to protect regional interests but also to provide what George-Étienne Cartier called a «power of resistance to oppose the democratic element.» The House of Commons was to be elected on the basis of representation by population. In 1867 Ontario was the most populous, fastest-growing province, but Québec and the Maritimes were more important to the national economy than their population suggested. They dared not leave matters such as tariffs, taxation and railways to the mercy of an Ontario-dominated Commons, and they insisted on equal regional representation in the Upper House. Without that guarantee there would have been no Confederation.

Regional Representation

The Senate is therefore designed to balance out the power of the Commons, by giving voice to and protecting the rights of Canada’s regions, particularly regions with small populations that do not have strength-by-numbers in the Commons.

Of the 443 seats in Parliament (as of 2020), 338 or three quarters are in the Commons, while 105 or one quarter are in the Senate. Senate seats are divided equally among four «divisions:»

Québec Division — 24 seats

Ontario Division — 24 seats

There are also nine additional seats representing regions that were not part of the Divisions originally created at Confederation — (Newfoundland and Labrador—6, Northwest Territories—1, Yukon—1,Nunavut—1)

Although senators are technically appointed to represent a region, they have also tended to sit as members of political parties, either government or opposition, depending on whether their party held power in the Commons. As a result the Senate has operated for much of its history as a partisan political body — its members following instructions from their party leaders in the Commons — rather than as originally intended, as an independent voice for regional interests. This has also fuelled demands that it be reformed or abolished.

Despite its regional focus, the Senate was not set up to represent provincial governments or legislatures, or to protect the provinces against federal invasion of their powers. The courts protect provincial powers, and the protection of provincial interests in matters under federal jurisdiction sometimes falls to the ministers from each province in the federal Cabinet. Canada’s first Cabinet had five senators out of a total of 13 ministers. From 1911 to 1979, there were seldom more than two, often only one senator in the Cabinet. In 1979 the Conservatives were so short of Québec and French Canadian members in the Commons that they had to eke out their Québec and French Canadian representation in the Cabinet with three senators; from 1980 to 1984, the Liberals were equally short of western members and did the same.

Sober Second Thought

The Senate was also intended to provide «sober second thought» on legislation introduced in the Commons. One of its most effective functions is the quiet, in-depth study and review of national issues (including the hearing of expert witnesses) by Senate Committees. Committees go over proposed bills clause by clause and often hear voluminous evidence, sometimes over a period of months. Committees are usually non-partisan and can draw on a vast reservoir of members’ knowledge and experience: former federal and provincial ministers, former members of the Commons and provincial assemblies, veteran lawyers and business people, farmers, women and ethnic representatives, and even an occasional trade unionist. Senate committees have produced careful studies on unemployment, land use, science policy, poverty, aging, the mass media (see Communications) and Indian affairs. Senate investigations have often led to important changes in government policy or legislation.

Senate Powers

The Senate has almost the same powers as the House of Commons. Bills are read three times in the Commons as well as in the Senate. The Senate can only delay constitutional amendments for 180 days. But no bill can become law without its consent, and it can veto any bill as often as it likes. The Senate cannot initiate money bills (taxes or expenditures). Neither House can increase amounts in money bills. The Senate has not vetoed a bill from the Commons since 1939. The Senate now very rarely makes amendments of principle. The amendments it does make to bills now are almost always related to drafting — to clarify, simplify and tidy proposed legislation.

In 1987 the Senate temporarily blocked Bill C22 (pharmaceutical patents) but eventually agreed to amendments. In 1990 the Liberal dominated Senate effectively blocked plans of the Conservative government to pass the legislation for the unpopular Goods and Services Tax (GST). This led Prime Minister Brian Mulroney to use his power to fill eight vacant senate seats, in order to ensure passage of the legislation in 1990.

The Senate’s legally absolute veto was expected to be really no more than a delaying veto because, until the late 1860s, governments were usually short-lived, and none, it seemed, would be able to build up a large enough majority in the Senate to block a successor government of the opposition party. But most Canadian governments since then have been long-lived, and as appointments are almost invariably partisan. The Senate has often had a large opposition majority, and also, through much of the late 20th Century, a heavy preponderance of Liberals. After the election of Stephen Harper’s Conservative government in 2006, however, party power in the Senate shifted. By 2020, there were 42 Conservative senators, 25 Liberals, 21 independents and 17 vacancies.

Senate Reform

A traditional objection to the Senate is that too often its members are given seats in the Chamber as a reward for service or loyalty to the party of the prime minister of the day, and that such patronage appointees have no right to a position of authority in a modern democracy.

Proposals to make the Senate more representative of regional interests were introduced by the Liberal government in 1978 but received little support. An appointed rather than an elected Upper House, with a legal absolute veto on legislation, has come to seem anomalous, whatever its original purpose. A push for Senate reform was resurrected in the constitutional debates of the late 1980s, and widely debated during the struggles over the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords.

Some provinces proposed that Senate appointments be turned over to the provincial governments. Senators could act as provincial representatives, defending regional interests. Critics charged that such a system would run counter to the principles of federalism and representative democracy. In the long negotiations over the Charlottetown Accord, the proposal for a so-called «Triple-E Senate» — elected, effective and equal — championed particularly by Alberta premier Don Getty, became a primary focus of debate. Following the collapse of the Meech Lake Accord, Alberta held a provincial election to fill a vacant Senate seat. Although not constitutionally bound to do so, Brian Mulroney appointed the nominee, Stan Waters, to the Senate in 1990. Since then Alberta and British Columbia have held further non-binding Senate elections, out of which a list of names is given to Ottawa for consideration, whenever Senate seats from those provinces become vacant.

Under the present Constitution, turning the Senate into an elected House would require a constitutional amendment and therefore the consent of seven provincial legislatures, representing at least half the population of the 10 provinces. So, too, would any change in the Senate’s powers, or in the number of senators from any province.

Reform Under Harper

The government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper tried twice since 2006 to reform the Senate, each time by submitting legislation through Parliament that sought to avoid a constitutional amendment. Harper’s first Senate reform bill was delayed in the then-Liberal dominated upper house, and never became law. His second attempt — Bill C-7, the Senate Reform Act — was introduced in Parliament in 2011. The bill would have limited Senate terms to nine years, and allowed provinces to elect their senators, if they chose to do so.

By the end of 2013, the bill had not been debated in Parliament for many months, but had come under renewed scrutiny because of a high-profile scandal involving the Prime Minister’s Office and three Harper-appointed senators accused of filing improper expense claims (see below: «Expense Scandal»).

As the scandal was underway, the Québec Court of Appeal, acting on a request by the Québec government, issued a ruling in October 2013 that Bill C-7 was unconstitutional. The Court said the bill’s proposals require a formal constitutional amendment, not mere parliamentary legislation, if they are to be enacted. The following month the Supreme Court of Canada, acting on a request from the federal government, opened its own hearings into Bill C-7 to determine whether the Senate can be reformed without a constitutional change process — which by its nature would force Ottawa into negotiations with the provinces.

The federal government also asked the Court for direction on how the Senate could be abolished. The Harper government argued that under the Constitution, abolition only requires the approval of Parliament plus seven provinces representing 50 per cent of Canada’s population. Most provinces, however, say abolition requires the formal consent of all 10 provinces.

The Supreme Court issued a unanimous decision on the matter on 25 April, 2014. The Court said creating an elected Senate with nine-year term limits required the consent of seven provinces with 50 per cent of the population. And it said abolishing the Senate required the consent of all 10 provinces. In each case, a constitutional amendment would be necessary.

«The Senate is a core component of the Canadian federal structure of government,» the Court said. «As such, changes that affect its fundamental nature and role engage the interests of the stakeholders in our constitutional design — i.e. the federal government and the provinces — and cannot be achieved by Parliament acting alone.»

Harper called the ruling «a decision for the status quo.» He said there was little likelihood of Senate reform under his government, because the country had no interest in constitutional negotiations that would be required to achieve it.

Reform Under Trudeau

In January 2014, federal Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau expelled his party’s then-32 senators from the Liberal Party parliamentary caucus (which had included Liberal members of both the House of Commons and the Senate), saying senators who had previously served as Liberals would instead become independent members. The change effectively freed Liberal senators from having to vote along party lines – theoretically reducing the Senate’s role as a partisan body. However, critics said Trudeau made the change not in the spirit of reform, but to distance himself and his party, in the months preceding a federal election, from the expenses scandal that was tarnishing the Senate’s image at the time.

Following this change, the Liberal senators divided themselves into two camps – one group sitting as independent senators, a larger group choosing to call itself the Senate Liberal Caucus (albeit removed from the Liberal caucus in the House of Commons). Many Liberal and independent (former Liberal) senators remained card-carrying members of the Liberal Party of Canada. There was no similar change applied to Conservative senators, who were still members of the Conservative Party parliamentary caucus.

After becoming prime minister, Trudeau in 2020 appointed 22 new independent senators. The first seven of the new group were chosen by a Trudeau-created Independent Advisory Board for Senate Appointments. The remaining 15 were picked by the Advisory Board under a new process in which more than 2,700 Canadians applied for Senate jobs (the first time the government had issued a general public call for applications for Senate membership).

One of the first seven appointments, Peter Harder, became the Trudeau government’s «representative» in the Senate – responsible for stewarding government legislation through the upper chamber. Previously, the senator in Harder’s post was known as the «government leader in the Senate» and was usually a member of the federal Cabinet. They could command party members in the Senate to support government legislation. Harder would have no such caucus to command – therefore it remained unclear at the time of his appointment how the Liberal government intended to steer its legislation and its agenda with any confidence through Parliament’s upper house.

As of February 2020, the Senate’s 105 seats were divided as follows: 58 members of the Independent Senators Group, 31 Conservatives, 9 Liberals and 7 non-affiliated senators.

Expenses Scandal

In November 2013 the Senate voted to suspend Conservative senators Mike Duffy, Pamela Wallin and Patrick Brazeau, as part of a widening scandal into alleged improper expense claims for housing and travel allowances by these and dozens of other Conservative and Liberal senators. Brazeau, Duffy and former Liberal senator Mac Harb were also charged with alleged crimes including fraud and breach of trust in relation to the expense scandal.

Duffy was tried first, and acquitted of all charges in court, and reinstated as a senator (putting the prosecution of the other cases in doubt). However, Duffy’s trial highlighted the lax rules and enforcement governing how senators spend Senate funds, prompting renewed demands for the institution to modernize its internal financial controls.

The Duffy trial occurred in the wake of a 2015 audit of senate expenses by the federal Auditor General, who said 30 former and sitting senators had been improperly reimbursed a total of $992,000 in expenses. Many of the senators repaid portions of their disputed expenses. Fourteen others appealed the Auditor General’s findings to a binding arbitration process led by retired Supreme Court of Canada justice Ian Binnie. Binnie ruled that 45 per cent of the expenses questioned by the Auditor General were in fact legitimate Senate expenses. However, each of the 14 senators who disputed the claims against them still had to pay back a portion of their reimbursed expenses – an amount totalling $178,000.

The expenses scandal, and the Duffy trial, dominated public discourse in Canada through much of 2014, 2015 and 2020, and may have contributed, some observers said, to the defeat of Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s Conservative regime in 2015. It also put pressure on the Senate to establish clear, enforceable rules for travel and living expenses, and for stricter rules requiring actual residency in the provinces that senators are appointed from.

The scandal also raised questions about the personal or political work that many senators do, such as partisan campaigning, professional career work, or serving on corporate boards. The affair raised questions about whether senators should be required to abstain from such practices and instead devote themselves full-time to Senate business during their tenure in Parliament.

Рассказы о Канаде / Profiles of Сanada. Учебная книга для чтения на английском языке

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Рассказы о Канаде / Profiles of Сanada. Учебная книга для чтения на английском языке

Код для вставки

Издательство: АСТ, Астрель, 2003 г.
Количество страниц: 192
Вид издания: Книга
Находится в разделах: Английский язык

В книгу вошли тексты по истории, географии, экономике, социальным проблемам, образованию в Канаде. Она может быть использована в старших классах гимназий, лицеев, школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, на младших курсах колледжей и вузов, а также широким кругом читателей.

___ Canada

Location map of Canada

Destination Canada, the second largest country in the world occupies most of the northern part of North America, covering the vast land area from the United States in south to the Arctic Circle in the north. It is a country of enormous distances and rich natural resources.

Long time part of colonial North America, Canada became a self-governing colony in the mid 19th century (1867) while retaining ties to the British crown.

Canada is bordered by Alaska (USA) in west, and by 12 US states of the continental United States in south, the country shares maritime borders with Greenland (an autonomous territory of Denmark) and Saint Pierre and Miquelon, an island which belongs to France.

Hudson Bay, the large shallow inland sea indenting east-central Canada.

Canada’s landscape offers a wide range of natural sceneries and is divided into multiple geographical regions. The Canadian Shield, which is the largest geographical area, encompasses half the country and centers on Hudson Bay. The southeastern region of Canada is dominated by lowlands, bordered by the Great Lakes: Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.

The country occupies an area of 9,984,670 km², making it the largest country in the Western Hemisphere. Compared it is slightly larger than the US, or 18 times the size of France.

36.3 million people (in 2020) live in the country, this is about 10% of the population of neighboring USA. Capital city is Ottawa, largest city is Toronto, spoken languages are English and French.

Canada | Canadá | Kanada

Country Profile

Background:
The vast land in Northern North America is rich of natural resources, home to 41 national parks and hundreds of provincial parks, Canada is a natural playground!

The United Nations ranked Canada one of the best country in the world in which to live. Canada is globally recognized for its outstanding quality of life, stable, progressive political environment and one of the healthiest economies in the world. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border.

Official Sites of Canada

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

Government of Canada
The Official Canada Government Site.

Governor General
Represents The Queen (Queen Elizabeth II) who is the Head of State.

Government of Canada Departments and Agencies
Index of Government of Canada Departments, Agencies, Crown Corporations, Special Operating Agencies and various affiliated organizations.

Diplomatic Missions
Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations
Information about Canada’s Permanent Mission to the UN.
Canadian Embassy
Embassy of Canada in Washington.
Consulate General of Canada in New York
Canadian Embassies and Missions worldwide
Address List of Canadian Diplomatic Missions Abnroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Canada
Address List of Foreign Diplomatic Missions accredited to Canada.
Canada’s International Gateway
Links to government services, information and resources, for citizens of other countries.

Statistics
Statistics Canada
Canadian statistics and more.

Map of Canada
Administrative Map of Canada with international borders,
provincial boundaries, provincial capitals, major cities, and major airports.

Google Earth Map Canada
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada.
Google Earth Map Ottawa
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada’s capital city.
Google Earth Map Calgary
Searchable map and satellite view of Calgary City.
Google Earth Map Montreal
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada’s second largest city.
Google Earth Map Quebec
Searchable map and satellite view of Quebec City.
Google Earth Map Toronto
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada’s largest city.
Google Earth Map Vancouver
Searchable map and satellite view of Canada’s third largest city.

Map of North America
Reference Map of North America.

More Maps:
Map of Canada
Interactive political map of Canada.
Canada Relief map
Interactive relief map of Canada.
Canadian Geographic Enterprises
Canada à la carte — various theme maps by the Canadian Geographic Magazine.

The National Atlas of Canada
Geography and Maps of Canada
Natural Hazards of Canada
Depicts the locations, types and magnitudes of significant natural disasters that have affected Canada.
Topographic Maps of Canada
Clickable maps to Canada’s topography.

Canadian Geographical Names
Interactive and authoritative source of over 350 000 official and formerly official geographical names in Canada.

Canada’s Senate chamber in the Centre Block on Parliament Hill, in center the three thrones, for the Canadian monarch, the consort of the monarch, and the Speaker of the Senate.
Image: © Saffron Blaze

News from Canada

__Newspapers
Cananada Newswire
Canadian News Agency.
Canadian Newspaper Association
With «The Ultimate Guide to (Canadian) Newspapers».
The Canadian Press
Canada’s national news and photo wire.
Canoe
Canada news, sports, entertainment.
The Globe and Mail
News, information, commentary and interactive discussion
from Canada and around the world.
Politics Watch — Canada’s Political Portal
Provides political background information.
The Toronto Star
National and International News.

__TV/Radio
Cable Public Affairs Channel — cpac
Canada’s Political Channel.
CBC — Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canada’s national public broadcaster.
CBC4Kids
Science, news, music & more.
CBC News
Canada’s Online News Resource.
CBC Radio
Listen to CBC Radio, Canada’s National Broadcaster.
CTV
«CTV Inc. is Canada’s pre-eminent broadcast communications company». CTV News
Current news from Canada and the world.
Radio Canada International
Canadas Voice to the World.
Radio Canada Nouvelles
Canada News (in French)

Online News
canada.com
Canadian related portal with news. Canada.com is owned and operated by Postmedia Network Inc., Canada’s largest publisher by circulation of paid English-language daily newspapers.

Bookmark/share this page

Haie, an immersive installation by Sébastien Bilodeau from Architecturama, invites passers-by to walk through a labyrinth of six luminous panels.
Image: Jean Gagnon

Arts & Culture

__Contemporary and Fine Arts

Art Gallery of Ontario
The eighth largest art museum in North America presents 1000 years of extraordinary art.
Canada Council for the Arts — Le conseil des arts du Canada
An agency which fosters the development of the arts in Canada through grants, services and awards. (Canadian artists only)
McMichael Canadian Art Collection
Paintings, sculptures, drawings and prints by First Nations, Inuit and contemporary Canadian artists.
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Fine Arts collections.
Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal
Contemporary Québec art and international contemporary art.
National Gallery of Canada
Musée des Beaux-Arts du Canada.
Vancouver Art Gallery
Contemporary art.

CBC Arts
A guide to cultural events by CBC.
broken pencil
The guide to alternative culture in Canada.
Images Canada
Picturing Canadian Culture.
Radio-Canada.ca — Zone Culture
A spot on cultural events (in French)
Well Known People Who Happen to be Canadian
Canadian Celebs.

Canlit — Canadian Literature Archive
Information about Canadian writers, novelists, poets, playwrights, essayists, Canadian literary organizations, magazines, publications, texts and library archives.

Canada Aviation Museum
Airplanes from the Pioneer Era until Post-1960.
Canadian Museum of Civilization
Virtual Museum of Canada’s Civilization.
Canadian Museum of Nature
More than a natural history museum.
Museum of Anthropology MOA
Objects and expressions of human creativity.
Museum of Civilization in Quebec City
Site of the Human Adventure.
Royal British Columbia Museum
The human and natural history of British Columbia.
Royal Ontario Museum
The ROM will inspire wonder and build understanding of human cultures and the natural world.
Royal Tyrrell Museum
Canadian dinosaurs.
Textile Museum of Canada
The permanent collection contains more than 10 000 textiles and spans almost 2 000 years and 190 world regions.
Virtual Museum of New France
History of the French exploration of North America.

Virtual Museum of Canada
A Guide to Canadian Museums and Galleries and other cultural institutions.

Business & Economy

Canada is among the world’s wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Seven (G7). The backbone of Canada’s economy is the service industry, which employs about three quarters of the country’s workforce. Other major economic bases are the logging and oil industries, and the manufacturing sector with its automobile and aircraft industries.

__Banks and Stock Exchanges

Bank of Canada
Canada’s central bank.
Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC)
A federal Crown corporation wholly owned by the Government of Canada.
Royal Bank of Canada
Canadian multinational financial services company, the largest bank in Canada.

Bourse de Montréal
The Montréal Stock Exchange (MX), owned by Toronto- based TMX Group.
TSX Group
The Toronto Stock Exchange is in the Top10 of the world’s largest stock exchanges.

Canada Business Network
Government Services for Canadian Businesses.

Canadian Chamber of Commerce
‘The Voice of Canadian Business’.
Canadian Economy Online
Information on the Canadian economy, includes links to key Canadian economic indicators for the last ten years.
Strategis — Canada’s Business Information Site
A guide to Canadian Business and Industries, Company Directories, Consumer Information.

_Railroad
British Columbia Rail
GO Transit
The Rocky Mountaineer
Ontario Northland
VIA Rail Canada

Parliament building on Parliament Hill, Ottawa
Photo courtesy City of Ottawa

Montréal skyline from the Old Port
Photo: © Tourisme Montréal, Stéphan Poulin

Education, Science & Research

Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada
Up-to-date information on Canadian higher education.
Canadian Communities Atlas Project
An Internet based network of Community Atlases that will be accessible to schools and the world.

Canadian Virtual University — Université Virtuelle Canadienne
A partnership of universities across Canada, committed to delivering university-level programs that can be completed from anywhere in the country or beyond.

Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences
HSSFC promotes teaching, research, and scholarship in the humanities and social sciences.
Study in Canada
Informational site on educational studies in Canada.

Science
Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS)
Canada from space — plus a remote sensing tutorial.
Canadian Space Agency
Be prepared for the future.
The Royal Canadian Geographical Society
Société géographique royale du Canada.
National Museum of Science and Technology
National Research Council
Canada’s premier science and technology research organization.
The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
The national instrument for making strategic investments in Canada’s capability in science and technology.
Ontario Science Centre

Castle Mountain within Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies.
Image: ThartmannWiki

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Canada — Travel Guides

Discover Canada: Canadian Rockies, Jasper National Park, Rocky Mountains, Columbia Icefield, Banff National Park, Moraine Lake, Niagara Falls, Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory, Lake Ontario, Toronto Islands, Nahanni National Park Reserve,
hotels, accommodation, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, nature, biking, skiing, climbing, tours and much more.

About Canada
Canadian attractions, events and experiences. Extensive information on Canada for travelers, tourists and all who are interested in Canada.

Travel Canada
A comprehensive travel and tourism guide to Canada by the Canadian Tourism Commission.

Destination Canada
The official Business Site of the Canadian Tourism Commission.

Waterton Glacier International Peace Park
UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1932 Waterton Lakes National Park (Alberta, Canada) was combined with the Glacier National Park (Montana, United States) to form the world’s first International Peace Park.

The Virtual Reference Library — VRL
Explore Ontario, present, past and future, through historic photographs, maps, digitized books, videos, and blog posts.

City Guides
Ottawa
The Official Website of Canadas Capital.
Ottawa SmartCapital gateway
Online services for all sectors of the City of Ottawa.

Toronto
Toronto’s official website.

Montreal
The city of Montreal.

Vancouver
Official Vancouver website.

The Canadian Provinces and Territories
more links and travel information on Canada and its Provinces and Territories: the ten provinces and three territories: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Yukon.

__ Canada Reference

Canadian Social Research Links
A collection of Canadian and US related Social Research Links.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Canada
L’anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
Archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland. The remains of an 11th-century Viking settlement are evidence of the first European presence in North America.
Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump
One of the world’s oldest, largest, and best preserved buffalo jumps, a buffalo jump is a cliff formation which Native Americans historically used in order to hunt and kill plains bison.
Historic District of Old Québec
The only city in North American that has preserved its ramparts, together with its numerous bastions, gates and defensive works which still surround Old Québec.

Environment & Nature

Environment Canada’s Green Lane
Environment Canada’s Internet resource for weather and environmental information. The Green Lane TM helps connect Canadians, exchange information and share knowledge for environmental decision-making.

Canadian Biodiversity
Canadian Biodiversity Information Network
Official information site of Biodiversity in Canada.
The Canadian Biodiversity Web Site
Site about biodiversity and especially Canada’s biodiversity.

Canadian landscapes and landforms
Parks Canada
A guide to Canadian National Historic Sites and National Parks.
Canadian Landscapes
A great collection of photos of Canadian landscapes and landforms.

Nature Conservation
Nature Canada
Site of Nature Canada, one of Canada’s leading conservation groups.

Oceans
Canadian Waters
Web site about Canada’s oceans and fish habitat by Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Wildlife
Canadian Wildlife Federation
The Hinterland Who’s Who — Canadian Wildlife Service
Created in the early 1960s to interest the public in wildlife conservation, now online.

Others
Canadian Museum of Nature
More than a natural history museum.
Natural Resources Canada
Government information about Energy Sources and Distribution, Mining, Forestry in Canada, and Climate Change.

History

Library and Archives Canada
Online access to resources, services and the collection of the Library and Archives Canada.

Canadian History
List of online resources about Canada’s history by the Canadian Government.

The History of Canada Online
HCO is a browsable, searchable history textbook published by Northern Blue Publishing, with supporting resources, including image galleries and text libraries, timelines, quotations, learning activities and other features.

Canadian Heritage Gallery
A collection of historical Canadian pictures and photographs.

Canadian Heritage Information Network
Gateway to museums, galleries, and heritage information.

CBC Archives
The site provides a timeline and radio and television clips from the archives of the CBC about Canada’s newer history.

The history of Canada
Wikipedia articles about Canada’s history, covering the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.

First Nations

Assembly of First Nations — Assemblée des Premières Nations
Canadian The national representative organization of the First Nations in Canada.

Aboriginal Heritage
Government information about Canada’s First Nations and aboriginal heritage.

Ojibwe Cultural Foundation
Foundation to preserve and revitalize the language, culture, arts, spirituality, and traditions of the Anishinaabe people.

American Indians online
OWNO page about the First Nations of North America.

Ojibwe Cultural Foundation
Image: Plismo

Sources and additional Information on New Zealand

The World Factbook — Canada

Other Countries of North America:
Mexico | USA
One World — Nations Online . let’s care for this planet

Promote that every nation assumes responsibility for our world.

«Рассказы о Канаде / Profiles of Canada», Истомина Е.А.

Мягкий переплет, очень хорошее состояние.

Издательства: АСТ, Астрель, 2003 г.
Мягкая обложка, 192 стр.
Серия: Учебная книга для чтения на английском языке

От издателя
В книгу вошли тексты по истории, географии, экономике, социальным проблемам, образованию в Канаде. Она может быть использована в старших классах гимназий, лицеев, школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, на младших курсах колледжей и вузов, а также широким кругом читателей.

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