ranked ballot system Канада

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Canada Points System

Six selection factors influence the assessment of the Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) Canada point system. A score of 67 points or higher out of 100 is required for one to qualify to immigrate to Canada under the Federal Skilled Worker Program. In case one does not make to the mentioned mark it would be better to hone the required skills and try again.

  • English and/or French skills
  • Education
  • Experience
  • Age
  • Arranged Employment in Canada
  • Adaptability

Language Skills (Maximum 28 Points)

Being able to communicate and work in one or both of Canada’s official languages is very important. Knowing English, French or both helps you in the Canadian job market.

You can get up to 28 points for your skills in English and French. You will be given points based on your ability to

In order to prove that your language proficiency you would have to take a language test from an agency that is approved by the Citizenship and Immigration Canada(CIC). You will not get an invitation to apply if you do not include language test results for either English or French that show you meet the required level.

If you want to get points for your skills in both English and French, you must provide your language test results for each language at the same time. Once you take this test, you can use it to see exactly how many points you will get for the language selection factor.

Here is how the language points will be calculated

You must meet the minimum level of Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB 7) [in French: Niveaux de competence linguistique canadiens (NCLC)]. Your test results must be valid (less than two years old) when you complete your Express Entry profile, and when you apply for permanent residence. To get points for your second official language, you must meet the minimum level of CLB 5 in all four language areas(speaking, listening, reading and writing).Note: You can only get points for your second official language if you meet the threshold of CLB 5 in all four language abilities.

First Official Language Speaking Listening Reading Writing
CLB level 9 or higher 6 6 6 6
CLB level 8 5 5 5 5
CLB level 7 4 4 4 4
Below CLB level 7 Not eligible to apply
Second Official Language Points
At least CLB5 in all of the four abilities 4
CLB 4 or less in any of the four abilities

Education (Maximum 25 Points)

You can earn selection points for your education. To get points, all you have to do is:

  • prove that you earned a Canadian diploma or certificate or
  • have your foreign education assessed by an agency approved by CIC to show it is valid and equal to a completed Canadian credential.

You must include your Canadian credential or your foreign credential and Educational Credential Assessment (ECA) report when you apply.

Education Points
Eligible credential from a one-year post-secondary program 15 Points
Eligible credential from two-year post-secondary program 15 Points
Eligible credential from a post-secondary program of three years or more 30 Points
A university-level program at the master’s level 30 Points
A university-level program at the level of an entry-to-practice professional degree for an occupation listed in the NOC Matrix at Skill Level A for which licensing by a provincial regulatory body is required 30 Points
A university-level program at the doctoral level. 30 Points

Experience (Maximum 15 Points)

You can get points for the number of years you have spent in full-time paid work (at least 30 hours per week, or an equal amount of part-time).

National Occupational Classification (NOC)

The NOC is a system used to classify jobs in the Canadian economy. It describes duties, skills, talents and work settings for different jobs. CIC uses the 2011 edition of the NOC to assess skilled worker applications.

Points awarded for work experience are as below

Experience Points
1 year 9
2-3 years 11
4-5 years 13
6 years or more 15

Age (Maximum 12 Points)

You will get points based on your age on the day when the Centralized Intake Office gets your application.

Age Points
Under 18
18-35 12
36 11
37 10
38 9
39 8
40 7
41 6
42 5
43 4
44 3
45 2
46 1
47 and Older

Arranged Employment In Canada (Maximum 10 Points)

you can get points if you have a permanent, full-time job offer from a Canadian employer. The job must be arranged before you apply to come to Canada as a federal skilled worker.

A valid job offer has to be:

  • for full-time, permanent and not seasonal work, and
  • in an occupation listed as Skill Type 0 or Skill Level A or B of the National Occupational Classification (NOC).

Points will be awarded based on the chart below

If And Points
You currently work in Canada on a temporary work permit. Your work permit is valid both when you apply and when the visa is issued (or you are authorized to work in Canada without a work permit when your visa is issued).and

CIC issued your work permit based on a positive Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) from Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC). Your employer would have applied for the LMIA, which you then had to attach to your application to CIC.

You are working for an employer named on your work permit who has made a permanent job offer based on you being accepted as a skilled worker. 10 You currently work in Canada in a job that is exempt from the LMIA requirement under:an international agreement (such as, the North American Free Trade Agreement) or a federal-provincial agreement. Your work permit is valid both when you apply and when the visa is issued (or you are authorized to work in Canada without a permit when your visa is issued).and

Your current employer has made a permanent job offer based on you being accepted as a skilled worker. 10 You currently do not:have a work permit, or plan to work in Canada before you get a permanent resident visa.

You are currently working in Canada and a different employer has offered to give you a permanent full-time job.

You are currently working in Canada in a job that is exempt from a Labour Market Impact Assessment, but not under an international or federal-provincial agreement. An employer has made you a permanent job offer based on you being accepted as a skilled worker.and

The employer has a positive Labour Market Impact Assessment from ESDC. 10


  • You cannot get a Labour Market Impact Assessment from ESDC. Your employer must do this for you.
  • ESDC will only confirm permanent job offers for occupations listed in skill type O or skill level A or B of the NOC.
  • A CIC officer must be convinced that you are able to perform the job offered to you. If the occupation is regulated in Canada, the officer must also be convinced that you will be able to become licensed or certified when in Canada.

Adaptability (Maximum 10 Points)

If you have a spouse or common law partner who will immigrate with you to Canada, they can earn points for adaptability too. You can get points for each item only once.

The maximum number of points in this section is 10.

Система подсчета баллов Comprehensive Ranking System

С чего начать?


Express Entry: Комплексная система оценки (CRS)

Кандидаты, которые попали в базу данных ЕЕ (Express Entry pool), оцениваются согласно Комплексной системе оценки (Comprehensive Ranking System), которая упрощенно представляет собой калькулятор баллов. Она осуществляет подсчет баллов исходя из следующих факторов:

  • Основные человеческие факторы (возраст, образование, уровень языка)
  • Сопровождающий супруг, если такой есть
  • Skill transferability factors
  • Факторы связанные с провинциальной номинацией, трудовым договором, заключенным с канадским работодателем, учебой в Канаде и пр.

19 ноября 2020 года и 6 июня 2020 года Иммиграционная служба Канады внесла изменения в систему подсчета баллов CRS. Эта страница содержит уже обновленную информацию. CanadaMania

Как посчитать баллы в Express Entry.

  • Основные человеческие факторы (возраст, образование, уровень языка)
  • Сопровождающий супруг, если такой есть
  • Skill transferability factors — оценивают вероятность быстрой адаптации в Канаде.
  • Дополнительные факторы связанные с провинциальной номинацией, трудовым договором с канадским работодателем, учебой в Канаде.

1200 баллов – это максимум, который вы можете получить.

Кандидаты, которые не состоят в официальном/гражданском браке, могут получить:

  • Максимум 500 баллов за основные человеческие факторы (Core Human Capital)
  • Максимум 100 баллов за Skill transferability factors (комбинации образования, опыта работы, языковых навыков)
    • максимум 50 баллов за комбинации (образование + основной язык) и (образование + опыт работы в Канаде)
    • максимум 50 баллов за комбинации (опыт работы вне Канады + основной язык) и (опыт работы вне Канады + опыт работы в Канаде)
  • Максимум 600 баллов за дополнительные факторы (провинциальная номинация, обучение в Канаде, сестра/брат в Канаде, трудовой договор с канадским работодателем, уверенный французский + английский)

Кандидаты, которые состоят в официальном/гражданском браке, могут получить:

  • Максимум 460 баллов за основные факторы основного заявителя
  • Максимум 40 баллов за основные факторы сопровождающего супруга
  • Максимум 100 баллов за Skill transferability factors (комбинированные факторы)
    • максимум 50 баллов за комбинации (образование + основной язык) и (образование + опыт работы в Канаде)
    • максимум 50 баллов за комбинации (опыт работы вне Канады + основной язык) и (опыт работы вне Канады + опыт работы в Канаде)
  • Максимум 600 баллов за дополнительные факторы.

Comprehensive Ranking System: Основные человеческие факторы (Core Human Capital)

ОЗ – основной заявитель, Супруг – подразумевает сопровождающего супруга (официальный или гражданский брак)

Возраст ОЗ иммигрирует в сопровождении супруга (макс. 100) ОЗ иммигрирует без сопровождающего супруга (макс. 110)
Меньше 18 0 баллов 0 баллов
18 90 99
19 95 105
20-29 100 110
30 95 105
31 90 99
32 85 94
33 80 88
34 75 83
35 70 77
36 65 72
37 60 66
38 55 61
39 50 55
40 45 50
41 35 39
42 25 28
43 15 17
44 5 6
45 >
Образование Иммиграция с супругом (ОЗ макс. 140, супруг макс. 10) Иммиграция без супруга (макс. 150)
Неполное среднее
Среднее 28 – ОЗ, 2 — Супруг 30
Годичная послешкольная программа 84 – ОЗ; 6 — Супруг 90
Двухгодичная послешкольная программа 91 – ОЗ; 7 — Супруг 98
Послешкольная программа 3 года и более 112 — ОЗ; 8 — Супруг 120
Две и более послешкольных программы, как минимум одна из которых не менее 3 лет 119 — ОЗ; 9 — Супруг 128
Магистр 126 — ОЗ; 10 — Супруг 135
Доктор наук (PhD) 140 — ОЗ; 10 — Супруг 150

Языковые навыки – Первый язык (английский или французский)

Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB) Иммиграция с супругом (ОЗ макс. 128, супруг макс. 20) Иммиграция без супруга (макс. 136)
CLB 3 и ниже
CLB 4 6 – ОЗ ; 0 — Супруг 6
CLB 5 6 — ОЗ; 1 — Супруг 6
CLB 6 8 — ОЗ; 1 — Супруг 9
CLB 7 16 — ОЗ; 3 — Супруг 17
CLB 8 22 — ОЗ; 3 — Супруг 23
CLB 9 29 — ОЗ; 5 — Супруг 31
CLB 10 и выше 32 — ОЗ; 5 — Супруг 34

Языковые навыки – Второй язык (английский или французский)

Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB) Иммиграция с супругом (макс. 22) Иммиграция без супруга (макс. 24)
CLB 4 или ниже
CLB 5 or 6 1 1
CLB 7 or 8 3 3
CLB 9 или выше 6 6

Канадский опыт работы

Количество лет Иммиграция с супругом (ОЗ макс. 70, супруг макс. 10) Иммиграция без супруга (макс. 80)
Менее года
1 35 — ОЗ; 5 — Супруг 40
2 46 — ОЗ; 7 — Супруг 53
3 56 — ОЗ; 8 — Супруг 64
4 63 — ОЗ; 9 — Супруг 72
5 и более 70 — ОЗ; 10 — Супруг 80

Comprehensive Ranking System: Skill Transferability Factors (комбинированные факторы)

Вы можете получить максимум 100 баллов за Skill transferability factors. Существует 5 различных комбинаций этих факторов, за каждую из которых можно получить 50 баллов. Но даже если в результате подсчета вы набираете более 100 баллов, вам необходимо помнить, что система все равно учтет только 100. Все кандидаты оцениваются одинаково, потому что сопровождающие супруги не могут получить каких-либо баллов по этим факторам.

Образование и канадский опыт работы

Образование 1 год работы в Канаде 2 года и более работы в Канаде
Послешкольное образование 1 год и более 13 25
Два и более послешкольных образований, первое из которых 3 года и более 25 50

Образование и языковые навыки

CLB — Canadian Language Benchmark, языковые навыки – аудирование, чтение, разговор, письмо

Образование CLB 7 или выше для каждого языкового навыка, и как минимум один из них ниже CLB 9 CLB 9 или выше для каждого языкового навыка
Послешкольное образование 1 год и более 13 25
Два и более послешкольных образований, первое из которых 3 года и более 25 50

Языковые навыки и опыт работы вне Канады

Опыт работы вне Канады CLB 7 или выше для каждого языкового навыка, и как минимум один из них ниже CLB 9 CLB 9 или выше для каждого языкового навыка
Нет опыта
1-2 года 13 25
3 года и более 25 50

Опыт работы в Канаде и опыт работы вне Канады

Опыт работы 1 год работы в Канаде 2 года и более работы в Канаде
Нет опыта работы вне Канады
1–2 года опыта работы вне Канады 13 25
3 года и более опыта работы вне Канады 25 50

Профессиональный сертификат (рабочие специальности) и языковые навыки

CLB — Canadian Language Benchmark, языковые навыки – аудирование, чтение, разговор, письмо

Профессиональный сертификат CLB 5 или выше для каждого языкового навыка, и как минимум один из них CLB 6 CLB 7 и выше для каждого языкового навыка
Квалификационный сертификат, выданный одной из канадских провинций 25 50

Comprehensive Ranking System: Дополнительные баллы

Вы можете получить 600 дополнительных баллов за провинциальную номинацию или официальный трудовой договор (job offer) с канадским работодателем с LMIA (но только за что-то одно).

Canada Need Not Import Australia’s Woes with Ranked Ballot Voting System

Newspaper article The Canadian Press

Canada Need Not Import Australia’s Woes with Ranked Ballot Voting System

Article excerpt

Australia no role model for electoral reform

OTTAWA — Australia’s deadlocked election last winter has been held up as a grim example of the chaos that could be unleashed in Canada were this country to adopt a system of ranked ballots — as Prime Minister Justin Trudeau at one time openly preferred.

Instability. A plethora of tiny, extremist or vanity parties. Unholy alliances among the micro-parties that wind up holding the governing party to ransom.

There’s just one problem with the warnings: neither Trudeau nor anyone else thus far has suggested that Canada adopt the Australian model.

In fact, Australia has two different voting models — a simple ranked ballot system for its House of Representatives (equivalent to Canada’s House of Commons) and a single transferable vote system (STV) for its elected Senate (Canada’s Senate is appointed).

STV is actually a complex form of proportional representation, which includes a ranked ballot. Yet some of the purported dire consequences of adopting a simple ranked balloting system here have been based on the worst features of Australia’s Senate elections.

«The ranked ballot in the Senate in Australia is a proportional system and that’s why typically you have quite a few independents and small parties, like the Green party, represented in the Senate,» says Arend Lijphart, professor emeritus at the University of California San Diego and a world-renowned expert on voting systems.

«The (simple) ranked choice ballot for . the House of Representatives, that has worked in Australia for a long time.»

Under a simple ranked ballot system, voters indicate their first, second and subsequent choices. If no candidate wins more than 50 per cent of the vote, the contender with the fewest votes is dropped from the ballot and his or her supporters’ second choices are counted. That continues until one candidate emerges with a majority.

Australia has added a couple of unique wrinkles.

For both its lower and upper houses, voters are required to sequentially number every candidate on the ballot, from first to last choice. Failure to number each of them results in a spoiled ballot.

Conservative democratic institutions critic Scott Reid has accused Trudeau of planning to impose the same requirement in Canada, aimed at rigging elections to the Liberals’ perpetual advantage and, thus, «destroying our democracy. …

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Ranked-choice voting (RCV)

Electoral system Ranked-choice voting Electoral systems by state Election dates Election agencies Election terms

A ranked-choice voting system (RCV) is an electoral system in which voters rank cand >[1] [2]

See the sections below for additional information on the following topics:

  1. Background: This section lists the general steps involved in ranked-choice voting (RCV) and details an example of its application.
  2. Ranked-choice voting in the United States: This section details the usage of ranked-choice voting systems in the United States.
  3. Support and opposition: This section details the arguments in favor of and opposed to ranked-choice voting.
  4. Noteworthy events: This section summarizes events relevant to ranked-choice voting in the United States.
  5. State legislation: This section lists state legislation dealing with ranked-choice voting.



How ranked-choice voting works

Broadly speaking, the ranked-choice voting process (sometimes referred to as instant runoff voting) unfolds as follows:

    Voters rank the cand >Example

Assume that there are four candidates for mayor in a hypothetical city. The table below presents the raw first-preference vote totals for each candidate.

Raw first-preference vote tallies in a hypothetical mayoral race
Candidate First-preference votes Percentage
Candidate A 475 46.34%
Candidate B 300 29.27%
Candidate C 175 17.07%
Candidate D 75 7.32%

In the above scenario, no candidate won an outright majority of first-preference votes. As a result, the candidate (Candidate D) with the smallest number of first-preference votes is eliminated. The ballots that listed candidate D as the first preference are adjusted, raising their second-preference candidates. Assume that, of the 75 first-preference votes for Candidate D, 50 listed Candidate A as their second preference and 25 listed Candidate B. The adjusted vote totals would be as follows:

Adjusted vote tallies in a hypothetical mayoral race
Candidate Adjusted first-preference votes Percentage
Candidate A 525 51.22%
Candidate B 325 31.71%
Candidate C 175 17.07%

On the second tally, Candidate A secured 51.22 percent of the vote, thereby winning the election.

Note: The above is a simplified example used for illustrative purposes. Specific procedures vary by jurisdiction and according to the nature of the election (i.e., whether it is a single-winner or multi-winner contest).

Ranked-choice voting in the United States

As of 2020, one state (Maine) had implemented RCV at the state level. Nine states contained jurisdictions that had implemented RCV at some level. Another four states contained jurisdictions that had adopted but not yet implemented RCV in local elections. See the map and table below for further details. [3]

Ranked-choice voting usage in the United States, as of 2020
State Ranked-choice voting
Alabama No
Alaska No
Arizona No
Arkansas No
California Yes; Oakland, San Francisco, San Leandro, and Berkeley
Colorado Yes; Telluride, Basalt, Carbondale
Connecticut No
Delaware No
Florida Adopted but not implemented; Sarasota
Georgia No
Hawaii No
Idaho No
Illinois No
Indiana No
Iowa No
Kansas No
Kentucky No
Louisiana No
Maine Yes; Federal and state elections
Municipal elections in Portland
Maryland Yes; Takoma Park
Massachusetts Yes; Cambridge, Amherst (adopted but not implemented), Easthampton (adopted but not implemented)
Michigan Yes; Eastpointe
Adopted but not implemented; Ferndale
Minnesota Yes; Minneapolis, St. Paul, and St. Louis Park (adopted but not implemented)
Mississippi No
Missouri No
Montana No
Nebraska No
Nevada No
New Hampshire No
New Jersey No
New Mexico Yes; Santa Fe and Las Cruces
New York Adopted but not implemented; New York City
North Carolina No
North Dakota No
Ohio No
Oklahoma No
Oregon Adopted but not implemented; Benton County
Pennsylvania No
Rhode Island No
South Carolina No
South Dakota No
Tennessee Adopted but not implemented; Memphis
Texas No
Utah Pilot program allowing for municipalities to use ranked-choice voting in 2020 elections (participating cities: Payson and Vineyard)
Vermont No
Virginia No
Washington No
West Virginia No
Wisconsin No
Wyoming No

Support and opposition


The Committee for Ranked Choice Voting, which supported the 2020 Maine ballot measure that approved the use of RCV in statew >[4]

Ranked choice voting ensures that cand >[5]
—Committee for Ranked Choice Voting

Greg Orman, in a 2020 article for Real Clear Politics, made the following argument in support of RCV: [6]

In a ranked-choice election, the only way to waste your vote is to actually vote against a cand >[5]
—Greg Orman

FairVote, an organization that advocates for the adoption of electoral reforms such as ranked-choice voting (RCV), argues that RCV, in combination with other electoral reforms, can foster the development of legislative bodies that better represent the diversity of their constituencies: [7]

All states and all congressional elections currently use winner-take-all rules that elevate district lines over voters. Legislatures elected by winner-take-all are characterized by distortions in partisan representation, entrenchment of incumbents in safe seats, regional polarization, and low representation of women and racial and ethnic minorities. When combined with multi-winner districts electing at least three members, ranked-choice voting helps to make elections fairer and more reflective in every district. This ends the cycle of gerrymandering, and creates competitive elections in which every vote really counts. [5]


Louis Jacobson, in a 2013 article for Governing, summarized some of the arguments against ranked-choice voting (RCV): [8]

To be sure, the system has also inspired opposition. For starters, it’s more complicated for voters to understand, at least until they get used to it. In addition, some say there may be value in having an actual final round of campaigning between two cand >[5]
—Louis Jacobson

In a 2020 article for Democracy, Simon Waxman contended that RCV is not necessarily more likely to produce more moderate cand >[9]

There is also little reason to believe that RCV will promote legislative moderation—or new campaign tactics—at the federal level, because it usually produces outcomes similar to what one would expect from a standard plurality system. In the 2013 Australian federal election, 90 percent of constituencies elected the cand >[5]
—Simon Waxman

Gordon Weil, a former Maine state agency head and municipal selectman, argued in a 2015 piece for CentralMaine.com that RCV runs counter to the democratic process: [10]

Ranked-choice proponents dislike [other types of] primaries, because fringe cand >[5]
—Gordon Weil

State legislation and ballot measures

State legislation

The map below provides the number of ranked-choice voting bills that have been introduced in each state as of November 2020. Hover over a state to see the exact number of bills. A darker shade of red indicates a greater number of relevant bills. In those states shaded in white, relevant bills have not been introduced. For state-specific details, click a state in the map below or select a state from the drop-down menu beneath the map. On doing so, a list of state legislation will display, including information about bill status and links to full text. This information is provided by BillTrack50.com. To return to the map, click «Back» in the upper righthand corner of the legislation list.

The following is a list of recent ranked-choice voting bills that have been introduced in or passed by state legislatures. To learn more about each of these bills, click the bill title. This information is provided by BillTrack50 and LegiScan.

Note: Due to the nature of the sorting process used to generate this list, some results may not be relevant to the topic. If no bills are displayed below, no legislation pertaining to this topic has been introduced in the legislature recently.

Ballot measures

The term ballot measures describes all questions or issues that appear on election ballots for voters to approve or reject. Ballot measures may apply to state and local jurisdictions (including cities, counties, special districts, etc.). Initiatives permit citizens to propose (or initiate) statutes or constitutional amendments via petition. Referenda allow citizens to refer statutes passed by legislatures to the ballot for enactment or repeal by voters. Legislative referrals appear on voters’ ballots as a result of actions taken by legislatures; these can include state statutes, constitutional amendments, and bond issues.

The sections below list ballot measures related to electoral systems and campaign laws in 2020 and 2020. These are proposed measures that may or may not make the ballot. For additional information about the status of these measures, click the links below.

Ballotpedia has tracked the following ballot measure(s) pertaining to electoral systems for 2020.

Ballotpedia has tracked the following ballot measure(s) pertaining to electoral systems for 2020.

See also

Select a state on the map below to read more about electoral systems in that state.

Конкурсная система оценивания

Система совокупного рейтинга (Comprehensive Ranking System или CRS) являет собой своеобразный механизм оценки кандидата и составления его профиля в экспресс-базе данных, который основан на количестве набранных баллов. С помощью системы совокупного рейтинга (CRS) оценивается информация, предоставленная кандидатом для своего профиля. Профиль или онлайн анкета кандидата включает:

  • навыки и умения,
  • опыт и стаж работы,
  • уровень владения языком,
  • образование и некоторые другие аспекты.

Установлено, что все эти факторы играют важную роль для финансового процветания эмигрантов после приезда в Канаду. Те кандидаты, которые уже имеют предложения на получение рабочего места или являются кандидатами на рабочее место в рамках программ на уровне провинций и других административно-территориальных делений Канады, получают дополнительные баллы. Об этом мы писали в нашей предыдущей статье. Министерство гражданства и иммиграции Канады (CIC) будет регулярно выбирать кандидатов с самым высоким рейтингом из базы данных и приглашать их подать пакет документов на постоянное место жительства в Канаде.

Целью создания списка кандидатов (базы данных) системы Express Entry является обеспечение тесной взаимосвязи между экономической иммиграцией и состоянием рынка труда Канады. По этой причине высококвалифицированные специалисты, которые уже имеют предложения на получение рабочего места, высоко ценятся и получают приглашения на собеседования. Но в этом случае работодатель должен предоставить экспертное заключение о необходимости такого специалиста. Экспертное заключение должно быть одобренно Департаментом Оценки Рынка Труда (Labour Market Impact Assessment — LMIA). Это заключение (LMIA) нужно для того, чтобы подтвердить, что специалиста нужного профиля среди граждан Канады ему найти не удалось. Кандидаты на рабочее место в рамках программ на уровне провинций и других административно-территориальных делений Канады тоже получают дополнительные баллы и имеют более высокий рейтинг.

Формула составления совокупного рейтинга

Все кандидаты, занесенные в базу данных системы Express Entry, оцениваются определенным количеством баллов, максимальное число которых составляет 1200. Формула совокупного рейтинга имеет четыре составляющие:

  • Навыки и опыт работы (они являются ключевыми факторами финансового успеха эмигрантов).
  • Наличие супруги/супруга или партнеров по гражданскому браку (их владение языком и образование, как правило, способствует улучшению финансового благосостояния как кандидата, так и всей семьи).
  • Готовность к переквалификации, дополнительные навыки и умения (фактор, который повышает шансы найти работу).
  • Дополнительные баллы для участников региональных программ или кандидатов с реальными предложениями работы.

Максимальное количество баллов для кандидатов по четырем составляющим:

Навыки, умения, трудовой стаж 500 460
Семейное положение 40
Готовность к переквалификации, дополнительные навыки и умения 100 100
Дополнительные баллы 600 600
Всего 1200 1200

Итак, первый фактор — это возраст, необходимый для иммиграции в Канаду

Возраст Если заявление подаётся с супругой или супругом (максимальное кол-во баллов: 100) Если заявление подаётся в одиночку (максимальное кол-во баллов: 110)
до 18 0 баллов 0 баллов
18 90 99
19 95 105
20-29 100 110
30 95 105
31 90 99
32 85 94
33 80 88
34 75 83
35 70 77
36 65 72
37 60 66
38 55 61
39 50 55
40 45 50
41 35 39
42 25 28
43 15 17
44 5 6
45 и старше

Следующий фактор — образование, необходимое для иммиграции в Канаду


Уровень образования С супругой / супругом Иммиграция в одиночку
Нет образования или неполное среднее образование
Аттестат об окончании средней школы 28 + 2 за супр. 30
Один год среднего специального или университетского образования на уровне Бакалавра 84 + 6 за супр. 90
2-х годичное среднее специальное или универститетское образование на уровне Бакалавра 91 + 7 за супр. 98
Более трёх лет среднего специального или университетеского образования 112 + 8 за супр. 120
Несколько образований: два и более дипломов или сертификатов о среднем специальном или высшем образовании (обучение по одному из них длилось минимум 3 года) 119 + 9 за супр. 128
Степень кандидата наук или магистра 126 + 10 за супр. 135
Степень доктора наук 140 + 10 за супр. 150

Следующий критерий — это знание одного или более языков, которые необходимы для иммиграции в Канаду — английского или французского


Тест CLB Если заявление подаётся с супругой или супругом Иммиграция в одиночку
Максимально можно набрать 32 балла + 5 за супр 34 балла
CLB 3 и меньше
CLB 4 6 + 0 за супр. 6
CLB 5 6 + 1 за супр. 6
CLB 6 8 + за супр. 9
CLB 7 16 + 3 за супр. 17
CLB 8 22 + 3 за супр. 23
CLB 9 29 + 5 за супр. 31
CLB 10 и больше 32 + 5 за супр. 34

Если подающий заявление на иммиграцию в Канаду кандидат знает более одного из основных языков Канады, то второй знания второго языка оценивается по дополнительной шкале и даёт дополнительные баллы. Таким образом, тот кто владеет и английским и французским языком получают значительное преимущество и их шансы попасть в Канаду гораздо выше.

Тест CLB Если заявление подаётся с супругой или супругом Иммиграция в одиночку
CLB 4 и ниже
CLB 5 or 6 1 1
CLB 7 or 8 3 3
CLB 9 or higher 6 6

Канадский опыт работы — один из важных критериев отбора:


Стаж Если заявление подаётся с супругой или супругом Иммиграция в одиночку
Менее 1 года 0 баллов 0 баллов
1 год 35 + 5 за супр. 40
2 года 46 + 7 за супр. 53
3 года 56 + 8 за супр. 64
4 года 63 + 9 за супр. 72
5 лет и более 70 + 10 за супр. 80

Далее учитываются более сложные факторы, такие как способность к адаптации и интеграции в рынок труда Канады:


CLB 7-9 суммарно за языки, причём один из языков минимум 7* CLB 9 или выше за языки
Неполное среднее образование
1 год или больше среднего специального или высшего образования 13 25
Несколько образований: два и более дипломов или сертификатов о среднем специальном или высшем образовании (обучение по одному из них длилось минимум 3 года) 25 50
  • Например английский CLB 7 а французский -1

1 год опыта работы в Канаде 2 и более лет опыта работы в Канаде
Неполное среднее образование
1 год или больше среднего специального или высшего образования 13 25
Несколько образований: два и более дипломов или сертификатов о среднем специальном или высшем образовании (обучение по одному из них длилось минимум 3 года) 25 50

CLB 7-9 суммарно за языки, причём один из языков минимум 7* CLB 9 или выше за языки
Нет стажа работы вне Канады
1-2 года стажа работы вне Канады 13 25
3 и более лет стажа работы в Канаде 25 50
КОМБИНИРОВАННЫЙ СТАЖ (канадский+полученный вне канады)

1 год опыта работы в Канаде 2 и более лет опыта работы в Канаде
Нет стажа работы вне Канады
1-2 года стажа работы вне Канады 13 25
3 и более лет стажа работы в Канаде 25 50
Квалификационный языковой сертификат выданный провинцией

CLB 5 или выше, причём один из языков CLB 5 или 6 CLB 7 и выше суммарно за языки
Имеется квалификационный языковой сертификат выданный провинцией 25 50

Кроме того огромное количество баллов можно получить за наличие двух документов (но только за один из них даже если есть оба, т.е. максимальное количество баллов по этому разделу будет 600):

Ranked Ballots for Canada

Parties elect their leaders with 1,2,3 ranked ballots. Let’s elect MPs that way!

2020 Federal Results Show the Need For Preferential Voting

Preliminary results of the federal election show us that 123 ridings (surely that number is a sign) were won with more than 50% of the votes. That means that for 215 other ridings, we do not know whether the elected MP is the one that the voters actually prefer. In a lot of cases, the vote is split several ways.…

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The Year 2020 in Electoral Reform

2020 has been a good year for electoral reform, with many jurisdictions deciding to leave First Past the Post behind. It has not, however, been a good year for Proportional Representation. And a clear pattern has emerged of when electoral reform was successful and when it failed. British Columbia held its third referendum on Proportional Representation. This one had several…

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Is floor crossing legitimate?

The recent decision by Leona Alleslev to change political parties two years after being elected has caused some people to question whether this change is legitimate, that is to say whether voters elect an individual or vote for a party. Those who are loyal to their political party in particular are convinced that everyone votes for the party, not the person. …

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BC Chooses Dishonest Electoral Reform Referendum

There is good news and bad news on the BC electoral reform front. The good news is that BC has decided to use preferential voting in its referendum. The bad news, part of it anyway, is that preferential voting can only be used if you support proportional representation. The bad news continues: preferential voting is not one of the four options that…

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Current Ontario Elections Shows Why Preferential Voting Is Needed

The current Ontario election is a perfect situation demonstrating why preferential voting is needed. The polls show that this election is not about which candidate or government voters want, it is about which one they do not want. According to a recent poll, a third of total voters, and half the voters for candidates of one party are voting only…

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Preferential vs Proportional, why can’t we all get along?

As an organization, 123 Canada tries its best not to criticize those who support proportional representation, and we don’t think that there is anything inherently wrong with wanting more proportional election results. It’s simply not high on our list of priorities. However, mathematics is unforgiving, and there are few electoral systems that guarantee more proportionality without going in the wrong direction on the…

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Who Should Dec > November 20, 2020 • 0 Comments

Two recent elections in proportional representation electoral systems illustrate a major difference between those and single-member plurality or majority systems. New Zealand spent a month without knowing who would form the government. Candidates of the National Party won 41 of the 71 electorate seats and Labour won 29. New Zealand First won none. However, compensatory seats are awarded to parties who…

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Two Elections, Two Reminders Why Preferential Is Better

The presidential elections in France were on April 23 and the BC provincial elections were on May 10. Both were close races with strong newcomers. France elects its president directly, with a two-round system. In the first round four candidates got between 20% and 24% of the vote. All but the top two were eliminated, including the candidates of both…

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Statement by 123 Canada regarding the April 3, 2020 byelections

123 Canada, the national non-partisan electoral reform organization, wishes to congratulate all candidates, volunteers, and voters who took part in the five April 3, 2020 byelections. This is a rare day in Canadian electoral history: every riding has a true majority. Welcome to the House of Commons, Bob Benzen, Stephanie Kusie, Mary Ng, Mona Fortier, and Emmanuella Lambropoulos, who at the time of writing all seem headed…

Canada The new Liberal voter coalition looks a lot like the last one

Bloc Québécois says it’s satisfied with Hochelaga result, asks for end to recount

The judicial recount for the Quebec riding of Hochelaga has been terminated by a judge at the request of the Bloc Québécois. The party requested the recount after Liberal candidate Soraya Martinez Ferrada beat Bloc Québécois candidate Simon Marchand by just 328 votes in the Montréal riding. An Elections Canada official told CBC News that after an unspecified number of ballot boxes were opened, the Bloc Québécois decided Monday that a recount would not change the result of the election.The official would not say how many ballot boxes were reopened for the recount before the party asked a judge to call it off.

Only 62 ridings changed hands on election night, and Liberals won many of the same voters as 2015. A deep dive into Statistics Canada shows where the Tories fell short.

«They look back on a past where they were an economically significant part of the economy,» Nugent said. «Pittsburgh has a lot of nostalgia for its Like the U.S., the UK has struggled to regain robust growth following the 2008 global financial crisis. In 2015, the UK economy expanded 2.3 percent and

When John Brassard was knocking on doors in Barrie, Ont. in this fall’s election, he could sense that his Conservative party’s platform was a winner. Brassard, the incumbent in Barrie-Innisfil, was confident voters would give him a second term on the strength of a tax cut the Conservatives said would save the average family $850 a year, a public transit tax credit that could save long-distance commuters almost $600 a year, and a children’s fitness tax credit that could save hundreds more.

Jagmeet Singh to lay out NDP priorities in meeting with Trudeau Thursday

OTTAWA — NDP Leader Jagmeet Singh will meet with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on Thursday, where he will lay out his priorities in the hopes of using his party’s position in a minority Parliament to get policies and laws that reflect New Democrat platform commitments. The party was reduced to fourth place in the House of Commons behind the Liberals, Conservatives and Bloc Quebecois after winning just 24 seats in the recent election, down from the 39 it held before the Oct. 21 vote. But despite these losses, party and caucus members were cheering on election night and have since been viewing the upcoming re-opening of Parliament as a positive for the party.

If liberals voted at the same rate as conservatives, Democrats would control the Senate. Clinton or Barack Obama could then have filled the recent Supreme Court vacancy, and that justice would hold the tiebreaking vote on campaign finance, labor unions and other issues.

The new Liberal voter coalition looks a lot like the last one : In the last election only 62 ridings changed hands, and Liberals won many of the same voters as 2015. To get a clearer picture of what was happening below the surface Nick Taylor-Vaisey takes a deep dive into Statistics Canada census

And he did comfortably hold his riding, even after Prime Minister Justin Trudeau paid Barrie two visits during the 40-day campaign. If Trudeau didn’t manage to oust Brassard, though, election results across the suburban swath that starts just south of his seat show why the Liberals tried so hard. Brassard, who represents plenty of Toronto commuters, was the exception, not the rule. His win says a lot about who voted for the Conservatives and who stuck with the Liberals.

GO Transit commuter trains reach the end of the line in Barrie-Innisfil, where thousands of Brassard’s constituents make the daily trek to downtown Toronto or nearby suburbs. The r >census data . But the former city councillor and firefighter draws a distinction between the 705—his riding’s area code—and the 905 region just to the south.

2020 CMA Awards: See the best photos from ins > 2020 CMA Awards: See the best photos from inside and backstage

In the middle of it all, voters in Colorado and Washington legalized cannabis for all adults As with the last crackdown, US attorneys are likely to select symbolic targets meant to maximize deterrence. Meanwhile, in New Jersey, Gov. Phil Murphy has promised to follow through with a campaign vow to

Conservatives and Liberals have rarely looked more alike than this week. Beyond Stephen Harper’s call-the-cops management of the Helena Guergis affair Conservatives who set the target of replacing Liberals as the default natural governing party are hitting the bull’s eye by being every bit as cynical.

READ MORE: Who wins Election 2020 under a ranked-ballot system

For one, outside of Barrie and a handful of other residential areas, Brassard represents farmers. And half of the commuters in his riding travel less than 30 minutes each way—meaning many aren’t lured away by the GTA. Brassard tailored his pitch to each constituent, pushing affordability measures like the transit credit in commuter-heavy areas, and slamming the federal carbon tax whenever he talked to a farmer who said their costs were through the roof. The Conservative platform may have inadvertently been tailored for a riding like Barrie-Innisfil—dense enough to be considered urban, pock-marked with suburban communities, stitched together by wide rural expanses—at the expense of more densely packed GTA ridings.

The stark truth of the 2020 election was that fewer than one in five seats changed hands. The vast majority of Canada voted the same way as four years ago. Only 62 ridings flipped out of 338. The victorious Liberals were still the biggest losers. They shed 21 seats to the Tories and only gained two back; they watched eight of their seats fall to the Bloc Québécois, a Fredericton seat go Green and a Vancouver district elect Jody Wilson-Raybould.

‘Extremely concerned’: Protesters decry Ontario health-care cuts, changes

Around 200 health-care workers and unions protested cuts to Ontario health care on Saturday, decrying the Ford’s government’s planned changes to public health and ambulance services at a rally in Toronto. «We’re extremely concerned about these cuts,» said Natalie Mehra, executive director of the Ontario Health Coalition, which organized the rally in Nathan Phillips Square.Public health should be preventing illness, but «with these cuts we’re going to be more reactionary,» said Sandra Bearzot, who represents GTA nurses with the Ontario Nurses Association. «This to me spells more deaths.

The Liberal Democrat leader Tim Farron has ruled out any form of coalition with the Tories or Labour after the general election as he sets out a bold ambition to attract The new approach is also designed to spike Tory claims that a vote for the Lib Dems could lead to a “ coalition of chaos” after the election.

If the “broad church” Liberals go along with it, they will find themselves in a very narrow Liberal party indeed – one that looks a lot more like One The new prime minister will visit farmers in Queensland tomorrow on his first official outing. Scott Morrison, the new prime minister of Australia, addresses

The opposition parties traded a handful of seats, but the enduring story was just how many voters, especially in the GTA, sent Liberals back to Ottawa. And the new Liberal coalition looks a lot like the last one, if a bit slimmer.

An avalanche of post-election analysis blames the Conservatives’ loss on Andrew Scheer’s social conservatism, the poor judgment of his senior staff, a lack of reliable voter data , an inadequate plan to fight climate change and an uninspiring set of platform promises. Tories have dispatched John Baird, a longtime Tory MP and cabinet minister, to assess the party’s lacklustre performance. As he goes about his work, detailed Statistics Canada riding profiles with detailed census data on income, employment, ethnicity and age help to piece together the voter coalition that turned away from Scheer and gave Trudeau a second term. (Important caveats: The census data is from 2020, which means it’s three years old—particularly relevant in fast-growing communities where demographics change. Also, data on journey to work, ethnicity and education were based on 25 per cent samples of private households in Canada.)

Liberal winners, losers gather in Ottawa after disappointing election result

OTTAWA — Re-elected, newly elected and defeated Liberal MPs are gathering on Parliament Hill to mull over the disappointing results of the Oct. 21 election and contemplate the best way forward in a challenging new world of minority government. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says it’s a day of celebrating wins and also mourning losses as the Liberals seek to chart a new course. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says it’s a day of celebrating wins and also mourning losses as the Liberals seek to chart a new course.

At first glance, Bernie Sanders’s voters in Iowa this week looked a lot like Barack Obama’s from 2008. Both were strongest among young, independent-leaning, liberal men. Yet with the actual results of the Democratic caucuses in and counted, it is clear that Mr. Sanders’s coalition is very different.

Unsurprisingly, voters like the idea of having a greater say – 71% agreed with the proposition that “every day people should play a bigger part (than they currently do) in governmental decisions that impact their lives, e.g. health, education, transport, taxes”.


Liberals utterly dominated urban Canada. In 2015, the Liberals won 123 out of 176 ridings with a density of 300 per sq.-km., which our analysis defines as urban. In 2020, they held 107 of those ridings, bleeding 10 to the Tories and four to the Bloc. (Nine of those Tory swings were west of Ontario.) Conservatives struggled mightily to win in cities, managing only to win the 67th densest riding in the country—Edmonton-Griesbach. Rural Canada was, of course, a different story: Tories won 80 of 150 ridings after managing to win only 69 in 2015.


Trudeau’s well-worn pitch to the middle class “and those working hard to join it” appears to have worked—again. Of the 152 ridings in which the median household income was between $40,000 and $60,000 in 2020, the Liberals held 73 and picked up four from the NDP. They lost only a smattering to other parties. The Tories fared better in the 138 ridings with median incomes between $60,000 and $80,000. They didn’t lose an inch to other parties, holding 47 ridings and swiping 13 from the Liberals. The two parties split the 41 ridings, 20 apiece, with median incomes between $80,000 and $100,000. (Only four ridings had median incomes over $100,000, and Tories won three, each in Alberta. The fourth, Oakville on the GTA’s western flank, went Liberal.)

There’s another new faction in the Senate: the Progressive Senate Group

The Independent Liberal Senate caucus is disbanding today and all of its members are about to join a new entity called the Progressive Senate Group as the reorganization of Canada’s upper house continues apace. Dismantling the Liberal caucus in the chamber means the upper house will be left without a sitting Liberal senator for the first time since Confederation.The interim leader of the group, New Brunswick Sen. Joseph Day, said the senators are united by a belief in liberty and equality and a commitment to a progressive vision of Canada, where the government has a positive role to play in advancing the public interest.

It sounds like a joke — a political version of the old Yogi Berra one -liner about a local restaurant The Democratic electorate is extremely broad in ideological terms. During the last presidential cycle Joe Biden, still the Democratic frontrunner in most national polls, draws a lot of support from this faction

«Young voters , liberals and first-time caucus-goers. That is the Obama coalition in Iowa,» says John Heilemann. And like the 2008 Obama supporters, they’ve got their hammers ready to put the last few nails in Nothing says fresh and new ideas more than two candidates with a combined age of 140.


Trudeau also won big where the most families are paying at least 30 per cent of their income on housing. Of 157 ridings where 40 to 50 per cent of households spend that much on rent, the Liberals won 93 to the Tories’ 44. In ridings where only 30 to 40 per cent of renting households pay that much, the Conservatives won 56 of 133 (and the Liberals won 50). The trend holds for homeowners, too. The Liberals won 52 of 68 ridings where 20 to 30 per cent of homeowners spent at least 30 per cent of income on housing. The Tories won more seats in ridings that spent less proportionally on their homes.

Liberals also dominate ridings with the highest proportion of lone-parent households: they won 35 of 55 ridings in which more than lone parents make up 20 per cent of households, and 79 of 152 ridings where 15-20 per cent of households have just one parent. Conversely, Tories won 64 of 129 ridings where that number is only 10-15 per cent.


The Conservatives didn’t manage to win back many of the GTA seats with large immigrant communities they won in 2008 and 2011–and lost in 2015—after years of work spearheaded by then-cabinet minister Jason Kenney. Heading into the election, Liberals held five ridings in which Statistics Canada says visible minorities comprised more than 80 per cent of the population. The Tories held one. None of those ridings changed the way they voted. Before the election, Liberals held 20 of 23 ridings where visible minorities made up between 60 and 80 per cent of residents. The Tories held one. On election night, the Liberals won 18 and ceded two to the Tories. Conservatives only won a plurality of seats where the number of visible minorities was under 20 per cent.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, king of Jordan to meet in Ottawa Monday

OTTAWA — Prime Minister Justin Trudeau meets today with the king of Jordan. It is King Abdullah II’s fifth visit to Canada in his twenty years on the throne of the Middle Eastern country. The Prime Minister’s Office says the two will discuss the partnership between Canada and Jordan and efforts to promote diversity and counter violent extremism. They’ll also discuss ongoing regional security concerns, exacerbated in recent weeks by the repeated violation of a ceasefire in the Syrian civil war.

A significant majority of Britons would like a return to one -party government after The report notes: “Apparently, any hopes that the Liberal Democrats might have had that voters would come to accept coalitions once they saw one in action have been dashed by the experience of the last five years.”

Liberalism is like a big river with many currents and eddies, rather than a monolith. Liberal Currents will be the voice of the new liberal , one willing to look back for insights and forward to a better future. Parties are coalitions , and to form a coalition with the retrograde Republican minority who


On education, too, the electoral divide is clear. Liberals won 14 of 15 ridings where Statistics Canada says 80 per cent or more of adults aged 25-64 have completed post-secondary education. They won 43 of 75 ridings where that proportion is 70 to 80 per cent, and 62 of 126 where that number is 60 to 70 per cent. Tories won a plurality—56 of 109—where post-secondary rates dropped to 50 to 60 per cent.

Even if younger voters skew left, as post-election analyses often show, the median age of a Tory constituent, 41.3 years old, is roughly comparable to a median Liberal constituent, at 41.2 years old. The Greens’ three ridings are some of Canada’s oldest, which explains their constituents’ median age of 47.3. The NDP’s median constituent is the youngest, at 40.1 years old.


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  • ‘Canadian voters deserve pity!’

Quebec, swimming in cash, plans $850 million in new spending aimed at families .
Quebec’s economy is humming, allowing the government to shower Quebecers with more than $850 million in extra spending this fiscal year — mostly on families with children — and pay down billions of dollars of debt. The province should finish the 2020-2020 fiscal year with a $1.4-billion surplus, fuelled by a 2.4 per cent increase in GDP in 2020 — 0.6 per cent higher than the growth rate forecast in the spring budget, Finance Minister Eric Girard announced Thursday.

Five Rank Ballot Voting Systems You Might Not Know

This is part three of a series analyzing the 12 best voting-systems. See the introductory article for the series here. The five voting systems described here, although less well known, are an essential ingredient to this series of articles constituting my magnum opus on election methods. The five systems discussed below are:

  • MMPOsc (MinMax Pairwise Opposition symmetric completion)
  • IC,MMPO (Improved Condorcet, MinMax Pairwise-Opposition)
  • MAM (Maximize Affirmed Majorities)
  • MAPW2 – (Majority-Approval Pairwise)
  • MAPW

(The numbering below is continued from previous article)

8. MMPOsc:

That stands for “MinMax Pairwise Opposition symmetric completion.” You vote a candidate-ranking. The winner is the candidate over whom fewest voters have ranked some same other candidate. To say it more wordily, but maybe more clearly:

For each candidate, find which other candidate is ranked over hir by the most voters. The number of voters ranking that candidate over hir is hir “max defeatedness”.

The winner is the candidate whose max defeatedness is the least.

An additional rule:

For any pair of candidates that you don’t rank, you’re counted as ranking each one over the other, with half of a vote.


“IC,MMPO” stands for “Improved Condorcet, MinMax Pairwise-Opposition”. This is a 2-part method, making its definition a little longer:

1. First, find out who is unbeaten:

X beats Y if the number of people ranking X over Y is greater than the number of people ranking Y over X, plus the number of people ranking both X & Y at top.

In other words, the only thing different about this definition of “beats” is that ranking both candidates at top counts as a vote against either one beating the other.

The purpose of that unusual definition of “beats” is to avoid any possible incentive to rank a compromise over your favorite. Without it, a search for an unbeaten candidate would create such an incentive for some voters.

2. Choose among the unbeaten candidates by MMPO.

For the purposes of determining a candidate’s max defeatedness in this MMPO-count, use hir greatest defeatedness by any candidate, not just the unbeaten ones. (This second rule is likewise for the purpose of avoiding any incentive to vote a compromise over your favorite.)


Electing an unbeaten candidate is, of course, an advantage. Also, this method improves on MMPOsc’s protection between your upper & lower middle-ranked candidates. (Details in the Comparisons section.)

10. MAM:

MAM stands for “Maximize Affirmed Majorities”.

1. X “beats” Y if more people rank X over Y than vice-versa.

2. If X beats Y, then Y has a “defeat” by X.

3. The strength of a Y’s defeat by X is measured by the number of people who rank X over Y.

4. A “cycle” is a cyclic sequence of defeats, such as X beats Y beats Z beats X.

5. A defeat is “affirmed” if it isn’t the weakest defeat in a cycle whose other defeats are affirmed.

The part of this definition that distinguishes MAM from other Condorcet methods is that latter paragraph, paragraph #5.

Paragraph #5 is stated briefly, recursively. It defines the method, but it doesn’t tell a procedure.

So, here is a procedure to achieve what paragraph #5 calls for:

a) Arrange all of the pairwise defeats in a vertical list, ordered with the stronger defeats higher in the list.

b) Starting from the top, consider each defeat as follows:

Affirm it if it isn’t in a cycle with defeats that have already been affirmed.

Otherwise, skip it and consider the next defeat in the list.

c) When you’ve considered each defeat in the list, of course some of them will be affirmed.

That’s the procedure for determining which defeats are affirmed.

Now, resuming the rules:

6. A candidate wins if s/he has no affirmed defeats.

As you notice, MAM’s definition is wordy. But, once the definitions of “beats”, “defeat” “cycle”, & “defeat-strength” have been said, the recursive (non-procedural) version of paragraph #5 is all that’s needed, and that paragraph says it very briefly, with one sentence.


For a pairwise-count method, MAM gives the best protection from the kinds of offensive strategy that pairwise-count methods are subject to. That’s largely because, in addition to being fully truncation-proof (as are MDDA & IC,MMPO), MAM deters (instead of merely foiling) burial. Those 2 offensive strategies will be defined in the Comparison section.


Doesn’t have an easy, built-in way to avoid the chicken-dilemma. (IRV, Benham, MDDA, MDDAsc, MMPOsc, & IC,MMPO, MAPW, & MAPW2 do have that.)

Doesn’t meet FBC, meaning that, for some overcompromisers, there can be some strategic incentive to rank a compromise over their favorite. (Approval, Score, Bucklin, MDDA, MDDAsc, MMPOsc, & IC,MMPO, MAPW, & MAPW2 meet FBC.)

11. MAPW2:

“MAPW” stands for “Majority-Approval Pairwise. The “2” refers to the fact that it’s a 2nd version (the 1st version is defined next). Here is the definition of MAPW2:


You can rank, in order of preference, the candidates you most want to win. You’re counted as approving all of the candidates you rank, but you can individually un-approve any 1 or more candidates that you want to.


1. If no one is majority-approved (approved by a more than half of the voters), then just do MDDA, MDDAsc, MMPOsc, or IC,MMPO.

2. If 1 candidate is majority-approved, s/he wins.

3. If 2 or more candidates are majority-approved, then choose among them by MDDA, MDDAsc, MMPOsc, or IC,MMPO.

…but, for the purposes of that MDDA, MDDAsc, a candidate is majority-disqualified if any candidate (not just a majority-approved candidate) is ranked over hir by a majority. For the purpose of MMPOsc or IC,MMPO, a candidate’s greatest pairwise-opposition is hir greatest pairwise opposition among all of the candidates, not just the majority-approved ones.

(That provision in the paragraph before this one is for the purpose of avoiding any incentive to rank a compromise over your favorite.)

Meets FBC & provides an easy way to avoid chicken-dilemma (as do MDDA, MDDAsc, MMPOsc, IC,MMPO, & MAPW).


More Approval-like than MDDA or MDDAsc is.


Its greater Approval-likeness, and its lesser use of pairwise defeats, and the fact that it sometimes chooses entirely by Approval—Those things make less suitable to satisfy the needs &/or wants of people who need or want rankings. …and satisfying those needs &/or wants is one of the reasons to use rankings.

Because of that disadvantage, I wouldn’t propose MAMDDA to current electorates. But its greater Approval-like-ness, for a method without a chicken-dilemma problem, might be desirable for some future electorates.

12. MAPW:

MAPW stands for “Majority-Approval Pairwise”


You rank the candidates whom you most want to win. You’re counted as approving all the candidates you rank, but you can individually un-approve any 1 or more candidates you want to.


1. If no one is approved by more than half of the voters, then do MDDA, MDDAsc, MMPOsc, or IC,MMPO.

2. Otherwise, elect the most approved candidate.


Meets FBC, and provides a convenient, easy, reliable way to avoid chicken-dilemma.

Similar to MAPW2, with same advantages & disadvantage, but uses Approval more, and pairwise-count less.

It’s MAPW2, but moreso.

About Michael Ossipoff

Michael Ossipoff writes for Democracy Chronicles from Miami, Florida and is one of our earliest and most prolific authors and creators. His writing covers the world of election method reform verifiable election counts and the importance of independent and third party candidates.

Ranked ballots for Toronto, proportionality for Parliament

Ontario’s non-stop election marathon is over. During the last 18 months, we’ve elected our provincial government, local city councils and a new federal government.

This rare alignment gives voters an unusually long break before the next round of elections, an electoral holiday providing us with an opportunity to step back and explore opportunities to improve our democracy.

Canada has the dubious distinction of being the only OECD country using first-past-the-post universally for all elections (local, provincial and federal). It’s a system that works fine for a two-candidate race, but in a multi-party system it completely breaks down. That’s why the Liberal Party won 54 per cent of the seats in our new Parliament, even though only 39 per cent of Canadians voted for them. And that’s why so few western democracies use it.

Consensus is slowly building that our current system has to go. The question is, which system do we replace it with? There’s no simple answer and there’s no one-size-fits-all solution.

Here in Toronto, with a non-partisan council, there’s a groundswell of support for a simple ranked ballot. Also known as a preferential ballot, this much-needed reform would allow us to hold an “instant runoff” in each ward, where the winner is required to win 50 per cent of the vote. Currently, candidates are “winning” their local races with results as low as 17 per cent, which arguably defeats the whole point of having an election. Local campaigns are increasingly divisive, voters are encouraged to vote “strategically,” and we repeatedly elect councils that don’t reflect the diversity of Toronto.

Meanwhile, cities across the U.S. using ranked ballots are experiencing friendlier campaigns, more accurate results, the freedom to “vote with your heart,” and a measurable increase in diversity and representation. It’s the right reform for Toronto and will hopefully be in place for 2020.

But while a simple ranked ballot is an important step forward for Toronto, there’s one important thing that it doesn’t deliver: proportionality. For our federal party-based elections, the need for proportional representation (PR) is crucial. The concept behind PR is simple: If you win 20 per cent of the popular vote, you should end up with 20 per cent of the seats.

Ranked ballots can produce proportional results, but only when they’re used in multi-member districts where you have four or five MPs per riding (this is called the Single Transferable Vote, or STV). But a ranked ballot in single-winner ridings does not deliver proportionality. In fact, a recent report by the Broadbent Institute predicts that under a simple ranked ballot, the Liberals would likely have won an additional 33 seats, distorting their majority even further.

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