Resettlement from outside Canada Канада


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G5 sponsor survey

Please consider completing the CCR’s survey if you have experiences linked to Groups of 5 Sponsors and Community sponsors.

Participating in this survey would allow us to better understand and learn from your experience and ideas, and take action to – we hope – improve the experiences of future G5 sponsors

Deadline: Thursday 14 November.

When a sponsored persons arrives in Canada, they are immediately given a status of permanent resident which allows them to travel freely within Canada. However, If they wish to travel outside of Canada, they will have to apply for a Refugee Travel Document, as well as follow certain tips to avoid problems during and after the trip.

Topics covered:

Re-entry into Canada with a permanent resident card

Refugee Travel Document

Loss of refugee status (cessation)

Re-entry into Canada with a permanent resident card

Permanent resident cards are required to be able to re-enter Canada. If a sponsored person would like to leave Canada, it is always best to wait until they have their permanent resident card. If that is not possible, they must find out if other documents could be presented instead, or if it is necessary to apply for a permanent resident travel document while they are abroad. See here for more information.

Note!

Check to make sure that your permanent resident card will not expire while you are on your trip. It is possible to get a document while you are overseas, but it can be a hassle.

Refugee Travel Document

It is important that a person who has come to Canada through a refugee resettlement program no longer use their home country’s passport once they arrive in Canada as it could cause their status to be revoked (see below).

Sponsored persons arrive in Canada with a status of permanent resident. After fulfilling the necessary residency requirements, they are eligible to apply for Canadian citizenship and travel with a Canadian passport. As those who have obtained a refugee protection cannot travel with their own passport, and cannot get a Canadian passport right away, the government of Canada offers a Refugee Travel Document to bridge the gap.

A Refugee Travel Document can be used as a passport to travel to other countries. However, it is not the same as having a Canadian passport. Some countries which allow Canadians to enter visa-free require a visa from a sponsored person traveling with a Refugee Travel Document. It is the sponsored person’s responsibility to contact the consulate or embassy of the country where they would like to travel to check any visa requirements.

The processing time for the travel document can vary so it is recommended that a person refrain from making firm travel plans (ex. buying an airplane ticket) before receiving the document and obtaining any necessary visas.

To apply for a Refugee Travel Document fill out the application under ‘Travel document applications for stateless and protected persons in Canada’. See here for more information.

Loss of refugee status (cessation)

Canada offers protection to refugees because they have shown that they are in danger in their home country. However, Canada has the right to remove someone’s refugee status if they believe that they accepted the protection of their home country (known as “re-availment”) after obtaining their refugee status in Canada.

This could happen if a person:

  • Travels to their home country (even for a short visit)
  • Travels using the passport of their home country
  • Apply for a new passport from their home country

If a sponsored person has done one of the above-mentioned things it may not automatically be a problem. It is up to the Canada Border Services Agency to decide which cases to pursue.

As this is a very serious issue, it is important that the sponsored person understand which actions to avoid. For more information please see the CCR summary of Basic Information about Cessation.

Canada’s commitment to refugee resettlement

June 30, 2009 by wpengine

Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism Canada Minister Jason Kenney joined the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in observing World Refugee Day earlier this month. Canada’s longstanding commitment to providing a new home for refugees was acknowledged by the UNHCR, and current resettlement programs and integration initiatives were celebrated.

Every year, Canada’s refugee program provides protection to over 30,000 people from various regions around the world. Canada becomes the new home to 1 in 10 refugees who are resettled globally.

Since World War II, Canada has provided refuge to more than 1 million refugees.

Canada’s refugee protection system benefits from partnerships between the Canadian Government and non-governmental organizations and private citizens through the Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program. Introduced thirty years ago, this private sponsorship program has enabled Canadians to resettle 200,000 refugees.

“We are grateful to Canada for its commitment and long-standing support in responding to the needs of refugees and the world’s uprooted people,” said UNHCR representative Mr. Abraham Abraham.

In addition to resettlement programs, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) is also committed to helping newcomer refugees integrate into Canadian society.

CIC has recently announced that the Young Newcomers Internship Program (YNIP), which provides new Canadians with the opportunity to gain vital Canadian work experience through internships at Citizenship and Immigration Canada, will now become a permanent program.


In its first year, the four-month paid internship program was offered to 12 government-sponsored refugees from Sudan, Burma, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia, and Afghanistan.
They were placed in different branches of the department, learning about government operations through job-shadowing. At the end of the program, managers were so impressed by their interns that seven of them were hired full-time by Citizenship and Immigration Canada.

“The intent was to increase the employability of the interns, not necessarily to guarantee them jobs,” said CIC’s manager of recruitment, Jason Buccino. “There was nothing but praise for the hard work ethic and the type of work they put out.”

The first participants of the YNIP were selected through World University Services of Canada. They have all graduated from a Canadian university with a bachelor’s or master’s degree.

“The success of this program shows that when you have faith in newcomers and give them a chance, you see how much hard work they will do to prove themselves and make a meaningful contribution to Canadian society,” says Nasir Maimanagy who partook in the YNIP.

“Employers get the benefit of a diverse workforce of well-educated, dedicated people, and for the employees, it’s the opportunity of a lifetime. They want to make the most of it.”

In the past year, the Government of Canada has committed to increasing the number of privately-sponsored Iraqi refugees over each of the next three years. It has also selected 1,000 Bhutanese refugees from refugee camps in Nepal for immigration to Canada. The goal is to resettle 5,000 Bhutanese in all.

At the World Refugee Day ceremony, Minister Kenney acknowledged the international, national, provincial, and municipal organizations that help with refugee resettlement.

“At home, as well, we could not do what we do without the cooperation and contribution of provincial and territorial governments, service providers and private sponsors, because ensuring protection is only the beginning of restoring dignity and meaning to the lives of refugees.”

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Canada now brings in more refugees than the U.S.

For the first time in the history of the United Nations refugee program, the U.S. has slipped behind another country.

Canada’s status as a global leader in refugee resettlement—new figures show it has eclipsed the U.S. in the number of refugees it brings in—owes less to Canadian generosity than a cool disinterest from a neighbouring administration.

Robert Falconer, a Calgary-based researcher, had been following Washington’s retrenchment from refugee assistance under President Donald Trump out of both professional and personal interest: his father landed in Edmonton as a refugee after fleeing Augusto Pinochet’s 1970s dictatorship in Chile. Falconer wondered whether the U.S. refugee intake had begun to fall towards Canadian levels, which were lower than the height of 2020’s Syrian resettlement program but higher than recent years. But when he collected the figures, he was surprised. “I didn’t realize how drastic the change was,” says Falconer, who’s with the University of Calgary School of Public Policy.

The United States took in 24,000 refugees through the global refugee program last year and Canada accepted 28,000. This marks the first time that United States slipped behind another country in the history of the United Nations refugee program, which began in 1946 in the grim shadow of the Second World War. Canada’s resettled refugees are about double what the country took in earlier this decade, while the American levels are less than one-third of what they recently were, and the lowest in any year since 1977, according to the U.S. State Department.

The American plunge came a year after Trump demanded a freeze in the refugee program to study further vetting, a pledge made at the same time as he banned travellers from seven countries, most of them with Muslim majorities. Refugees entering the United States now face an “enhanced” vetting program.

Resettled refugees are in a system separate from asylum seekers, such as the ones who have walked across the border along the Quebec-New York border. While asylum seekers find their way into Canada and try their refugee claims before tribunals, resettled refugees have their cases and urgency vetted overseas, often in refugee camps, in concert with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.

The decline of the U.S. refugee program behind Canada’s comes at a time when the refugee crisis worldwide has reached unprecedented levels, with strife in Myanmar, Syria, Sudan and elsewhere. There are more than 25 million refugees worldwide, and annual resettlement is down to 102,800 worldwide, according to the UNHCR. “This gap between the number of refugees in need of resettlement and the number we actually resettle has grown substantially,” Falconer says. Canada has remained consistent in its acceptance of resettled refugees amid the Trump retrenchment and shifting moods in Europe, which has taken in vastly more asylum seekers in recent years than it has refugees through resettlement programs, though last year the European Union took in almost as many of those migrants as Canada did. Some European countries like Germany and United Kingdom aim to increase their resettlement levels as they tighten their acceptance of asylum claimants, while others like Hungary and Denmark are becoming less welcoming to desperate newcomers altogether, Falconer says.

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Becoming the top resettler of refugees likely won’t mean to Canada what it did to its neighbour. The United States would take the lead in urging other countries to join the program, and help negotiate their refugee levels. Canada likely lacks the comparable diplomatic or economic clout to take on that task, Falconer suggests. But what it could do, he says, is promote its thriving sponsorship program, through which individuals and private groups like churches take the initiative of settling refugees in Canada, as opposed to the government-assisted program.

Canada resettled more refugees than any other country in 2020

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Canada resettled the largest number of refugees out of 25 countries in 2020, according to the UN’s refugee agency.

The country accepted just over 28,000 refugees last year, with the United States coming in second with 22,900.

Some 92,400 refugees were resettled globally in 2020, fewer than 7% of those awaiting resettlement worldwide.

This figures were contained in a newly released UN Refugee Agency report looking into the global refugee trends last year.

According to the US-based Pew Research Center, which looked the the UNHCR data, 2020 was the first time the US did not lead the world in refugee resettlement since 1980.

Pew noted that until 2020, the US resettled more refugees on an annual basis than the rest of the world’s countries combined.

«The sharp drop in US refugee resettlement is in part due to the Trump administration’s decision to set a considerably lower cap on the number of refugees allowed into the US than in previous years,» said the research organisation.

The number of refugees Canada resettled last year was in line with 2020 figures, while the US numbers dropped. In 2020, the US accepted some 33,000 refugees.

Australia, the UK, and France also resettled high numbers out of the 25 countries that resettled refugees in 2020, according to UN figures.

The number of people fleeing war, persecution and conflict exceeded 70 million globally last year — the highest number in the UN refugee agency’s almost 70 years of operations.


More than two thirds of all refugees worldwide came from Syria, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Myanmar and Somalia.

The UN report identifies three main groups in that global count, which include refugees, or people forced to leave their country because of conflict, war or persecution. In 2020, the number of refugees reached 25.9 million worldwide.

The second group is designated as internally displaced persons (IDPs). These people are displaced within their country and amount to 41.3 million globally.

Another group is 3.5 million asylum seekers. These are people outside their country of birth who are under international protection, but are yet to be granted refugee status.

The US is the world’s major recipient of new asylum applications, registering 254,300 applications in 2020.

Canada was ninth on the list of new asylum claims with 55,400 registered in 2020, behind the US, Peru, Germany, France, Turkey, Brazil, Greece and Spain.

An influx of asylum seekers crossing at the US-Canada border has become a political issue after approximately 40,000 people «irregularly» crossed into Canada between 2020 and 2020.

Canada currently is struggling with a backlog of almost 74,000 asylum claims with applicants waiting almost two years for a hearing.

Resettlement from outside Canada Канада

Canada offers refugee protection to people in Canada who fear persecution or whose removal from Canada would subject them to a danger of torture, a risk to their life or a risk of cruel and unusual treatment or punishment.

There are two types of refugees; Convention refugee and persons in need of protection.

Convention refugees are people who are outside their home country or the country where they normally live, and who are unwilling to return because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on:

  • Race
  • Religion
  • Political opinion
  • Nationality or
  • Membership in a particular social group, such as women or people of a particular sexual orientation.

A person in need of protection is a person in Canada whose removal to their home country or country where they normally live would subject them personally to:

  • A danger of torture;
  • A risk to their life; or
  • A risk of cruel and unusual treatment or punishment.

Refugee claims in Canada

There are two ways to apply for refugee protection in Canada:

  • You can make a claim when you arrive in Canada, at the port of entry. This could be at an airport, a seaport or a Canada-United States border crossing. At ports of entry, claims are received by officers of the Canada Border Services Agency.
  • You can also make a claim from within Canada at a Citizenship and Immigration Canada office.

You may or may not be eligible to claim refugee protection in Canada. Officers receiving your refugee claim will dec >Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB), an independent administrative tribunal that makes decisions on immigration and refugee matters. The IRB decides who is a Convention refugee or a person in need of protection.

Your refugee claim may not be eligible for referral to the IRB if:

  • You have been recognized as a Convention refugee by another country to which you can return;
  • You have already been granted protected person status in Canada;
  • You arrived via the Canada-United States border (see Safe Third Country Agreement below);
  • You are not admissible to Canada on security grounds, or because of criminal activity or human rights violations;
  • You made a previous refugee claim that was found to be ineligible for referral to the IRB;
  • You made a previous refugee claim that was rejected by the IRB; or
  • You abandoned or withdrew a previous refugee claim.

If you arrive at a land border, you may not be eligible to make a refugee claim because of an agreement between Canada and the United States known as the Safe Third Country Agreement.

Refugee claims from outside Canada

Resettlement is the term used by Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) to describe the legal process of bringing a refugee to Canada to live as a permanent resident.

CIC relies on the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), other referral organizations and private sponsorship groups to identify and refer refugees for resettlement in Canada.

Private sponsoring groups are groups or corporations that have signed an agreement with Canada’s Minister of Citizenship and Immigration. In this agreement, they promise to provide funds and carry out certain duties to sponsor refugees who come to Canada.

CIC uses three legal processes, which are divided into refugee classes, for resettling refugees in Canada. The three refugee classes are:

Convention Refugees Abroad Class

You are a Convention Refugee if you are outside your home country, or the country where you normally live, and can’t return to that country because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on:

  • Race
  • Religion
  • Political opinion
  • Nationality or
  • Membership in a particular social group, such as women or people with a different sexual orientation.

You must also be:


  • Outs >United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), another referral organization or a private sponsorship group and
  • Selected as a government-assisted or privately sponsored refugee, or have the funds needed to support yourself and any dependants after you arrive in Canada.

Canada relies on the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), other referral organizations and private sponsorship groups to identify and refer Convention Refugees Abroad to be resettled in Canada.

A Canadian visa officer then decides whether the person identified meets the requirements of Canada’s Refugee and Humanitarian Resettlement Program, and if the person will be admitted to Canada.

Country of Asylum Class

The Country of Asylum Class is for people in refugee-like situations, who do not qualify as Convention refugees.

You are eligible for the Country of Asylum Class if you:

  • Are outside your home country or the country where you normally live
  • Have been, and continue to be, seriously and personally affected by civil war or armed conflict, or have suffered massive violations of human rights
  • Cannot find an adequate solution to your situation within a reasonable period of time and
  • Will be privately sponsored or have the funds required to support yourself and your dependants.

Canada relies mainly on private sponsorship groups to identify and refer refugees who meet the criteria of the Country of Asylum Class.

A Canadian visa officer then decides whether a person meets the requirements of Canada’s Refugee and Humanitarian Resettlement Program, and if the person will be admitted to Canada.

Source Country Class

You are in the Source Country Class if you:

  • Live in a country that has been named a source country of refugees
  • Live in your home country
  • Have been, and continue to be, seriously and personally affected by civil war or armed conflict
  • Have lost the right of freedom of expression, the right of dissent or the right to engage in trade union activity, and have been detained or imprisoned as a result
  • Fear persecution because of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion
  • Cannot find an adequate solution to the situation within a reasonable period of time and
  • Will be assisted by the Government of Canada, be privately sponsored or have the funds needed to support yourself and your dependants after you arrive in Canada.

If you live in one of the following countries, you can apply directly for resettlement to Canada. Contact the Canadian visa office serving your region.

Country Visa Office
DR Congo Nairobi, Kenya
Sudan Cairo, Egypt
El Salvador Guatemala City, Guatemala
Guatemala Guatemala City, Guatemala
Colombia Bogota, Colombia
Sierra Leone Accra, Ghana

Please note the list of source countries changes from time to time. If the country where you live is not listed, you cannot apply for direct resettlement. You must be referred by a referral organization such as the UNHCR or a private sponsorship group.

To qualify in the Source Country Class, you must also:

  • Be seriously and personally affected by civil war or armed conflict
  • Have suffered serious violation of your right to freedom of expression, right to dissent or right to engage in trade union activity, and have been detained or imprisoned as a result
  • Fear persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion
  • Be unable to find an adequate solution to your situation within a reasonable period of time or
  • Be assisted by the Government of Canada or privately sponsored, or have adequate financial resources to support yourself and any dependants after you arrive in Canada.

You will have to pass a medical examination and security and criminal checks.

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Private sponsorship groups >Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). In unusual cases, people can apply directly for resettlement in Canada through the Source Country Class.

A Canadian visa officer then decides whether a person meets the requirements of Canada’s Refugee and Humanitarian Resettlement Program, and if the person will be admitted to Canada.

Sponsoring refugees

Each year, millions of people around the world are forced to flee their homelands to escape persecution, war or severe human rights abuses. Often these people are never able to return home.

Groups and individuals can sponsor refugees from abroad who qualify to come to Canada.

Sponsors are responsible for providing financial settlement assistance (except for Joint Assistance Sponsorship cases) for refugees once they arrive in Canada. Sponsors must also provide emotional and significant settlement assistance for the duration of the sponsorship period.

Most sponsorships last for one year, but some refugees may be eligible to receive assistance from their sponsors for a longer period of time.

Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program

There are several ways that individual Canadians, permanent residents and organizations can get involved in helping refugees build a new life in Canada.

Sponsorship agreement holders and their constituent groups

A number of organizations across the country have signed sponsorship agreements with the Government of Canada to help support refugees from abroad when they resettle in Canada. These organizations are known as sponsorship agreement holders. They can sponsor refugees themselves or work with others in the community to sponsor refugees.

Most sponsorship agreement holders are religious, ethnic, community or service organizations.

Groups of five


A group of five is made up of five or more Canadian citizens or permanent residents over the age of 18 who want to sponsor one or more refugees abroad to come to Canada and settle in their community.

The group must agree to support the refugee(s) it is sponsoring emotionally and financially for the full duration of the sponsorship-usually one year.

Community sponsors

Some community organizations can sponsor refugees to come to Canada.

The organization must agree to support the refugee(s) it is sponsoring emotionally and financially for the full duration of the sponsorship. Community sponsorships usually last one year.

Joint Assistance Sponsorship

The Joint Assistance Sponsorship (JAS) program enables organizations to work in partnership with Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) to resettle refugees with special needs.

These organizations are called sponsorship agreement holders and their constituent groups. A sponsorship agreement holder is an incorporated organization that has signed a sponsorship agreement with the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration.

Refugees under the JAS program receive income support from the Government of Canada. They are also matched with a private sponsorship group.

CIC provides financial assistance to cover the cost of food, shelter, clothing and essential household goods. Private sponsors provide help to refugees adjusting to life in Canada, significant settlement assistance and emotional support

Sponsors in Quebec

Quebec has its own process for sponsoring refugees. Sponsors who live in the province of Quebec should contact the Quebec ministry that handles immigration

Canada now brings in more refugees than the U.S.

For the first time in the history of the United Nations refugee program, the U.S. has slipped behind another country.

Canada’s status as a global leader in refugee resettlement—new figures show it has eclipsed the U.S. in the number of refugees it brings in—owes less to Canadian generosity than a cool disinterest from a neighbouring administration.

Robert Falconer, a Calgary-based researcher, had been following Washington’s retrenchment from refugee assistance under President Donald Trump out of both professional and personal interest: his father landed in Edmonton as a refugee after fleeing Augusto Pinochet’s 1970s dictatorship in Chile. Falconer wondered whether the U.S. refugee intake had begun to fall towards Canadian levels, which were lower than the height of 2020’s Syrian resettlement program but higher than recent years. But when he collected the figures, he was surprised. “I didn’t realize how drastic the change was,” says Falconer, who’s with the University of Calgary School of Public Policy.

The United States took in 24,000 refugees through the global refugee program last year and Canada accepted 28,000. This marks the first time that United States slipped behind another country in the history of the United Nations refugee program, which began in 1946 in the grim shadow of the Second World War. Canada’s resettled refugees are about double what the country took in earlier this decade, while the American levels are less than one-third of what they recently were, and the lowest in any year since 1977, according to the U.S. State Department.

The American plunge came a year after Trump demanded a freeze in the refugee program to study further vetting, a pledge made at the same time as he banned travellers from seven countries, most of them with Muslim majorities. Refugees entering the United States now face an “enhanced” vetting program.

Resettled refugees are in a system separate from asylum seekers, such as the ones who have walked across the border along the Quebec-New York border. While asylum seekers find their way into Canada and try their refugee claims before tribunals, resettled refugees have their cases and urgency vetted overseas, often in refugee camps, in concert with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.

The decline of the U.S. refugee program behind Canada’s comes at a time when the refugee crisis worldwide has reached unprecedented levels, with strife in Myanmar, Syria, Sudan and elsewhere. There are more than 25 million refugees worldwide, and annual resettlement is down to 102,800 worldwide, according to the UNHCR. “This gap between the number of refugees in need of resettlement and the number we actually resettle has grown substantially,” Falconer says. Canada has remained consistent in its acceptance of resettled refugees amid the Trump retrenchment and shifting moods in Europe, which has taken in vastly more asylum seekers in recent years than it has refugees through resettlement programs, though last year the European Union took in almost as many of those migrants as Canada did. Some European countries like Germany and United Kingdom aim to increase their resettlement levels as they tighten their acceptance of asylum claimants, while others like Hungary and Denmark are becoming less welcoming to desperate newcomers altogether, Falconer says.

Becoming the top resettler of refugees likely won’t mean to Canada what it did to its neighbour. The United States would take the lead in urging other countries to join the program, and help negotiate their refugee levels. Canada likely lacks the comparable diplomatic or economic clout to take on that task, Falconer suggests. But what it could do, he says, is promote its thriving sponsorship program, through which individuals and private groups like churches take the initiative of settling refugees in Canada, as opposed to the government-assisted program.

Canada resettled more refugees than any other country in 2020

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Canada resettled the largest number of refugees out of 25 countries in 2020, according to the UN’s refugee agency.

The country accepted just over 28,000 refugees last year, with the United States coming in second with 22,900.

Some 92,400 refugees were resettled globally in 2020, fewer than 7% of those awaiting resettlement worldwide.

This figures were contained in a newly released UN Refugee Agency report looking into the global refugee trends last year.

According to the US-based Pew Research Center, which looked the the UNHCR data, 2020 was the first time the US did not lead the world in refugee resettlement since 1980.

Pew noted that until 2020, the US resettled more refugees on an annual basis than the rest of the world’s countries combined.

«The sharp drop in US refugee resettlement is in part due to the Trump administration’s decision to set a considerably lower cap on the number of refugees allowed into the US than in previous years,» said the research organisation.

The number of refugees Canada resettled last year was in line with 2020 figures, while the US numbers dropped. In 2020, the US accepted some 33,000 refugees.


Australia, the UK, and France also resettled high numbers out of the 25 countries that resettled refugees in 2020, according to UN figures.

The number of people fleeing war, persecution and conflict exceeded 70 million globally last year — the highest number in the UN refugee agency’s almost 70 years of operations.

More than two thirds of all refugees worldwide came from Syria, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Myanmar and Somalia.

The UN report identifies three main groups in that global count, which include refugees, or people forced to leave their country because of conflict, war or persecution. In 2020, the number of refugees reached 25.9 million worldwide.

The second group is designated as internally displaced persons (IDPs). These people are displaced within their country and amount to 41.3 million globally.

Another group is 3.5 million asylum seekers. These are people outside their country of birth who are under international protection, but are yet to be granted refugee status.

The US is the world’s major recipient of new asylum applications, registering 254,300 applications in 2020.

Canada was ninth on the list of new asylum claims with 55,400 registered in 2020, behind the US, Peru, Germany, France, Turkey, Brazil, Greece and Spain.

An influx of asylum seekers crossing at the US-Canada border has become a political issue after approximately 40,000 people «irregularly» crossed into Canada between 2020 and 2020.

Canada currently is struggling with a backlog of almost 74,000 asylum claims with applicants waiting almost two years for a hearing.

Taxation for Canadians travelling, living or working outside Canada

Canadians travelling extensively, living or working abroad may still have to pay Canadian and provincial or territorial income taxes. It is important that you know your residency status and the income tax rules that apply to you while you are outside Canada.

Your residency status depends on why and how long you are staying outside Canada, the ties you establish in your new country, how long and how often you return to Canada and your residential ties to Canada.

This will determine whether you will be considered a factual resident, deemed resident, a non‑resident, or a deemed non-resident of Canada for income tax purposes and will assess the amount of Canadian income tax you will pay.

If you are planning to be outside Canada for an extended period of time, you must inform the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) before you leave to determine your residency status.

If you are not sure of your residency status, you can complete Form NR73, Determination of Residency Status (Leaving Canada).

If you are outs >.

Factual residents of Canada for income tax purposes

You are a factual resident of Canada if you keep significant residential ties to Canada while you are living or travelling outside of the country. You could be a factual resident of Canada if you are:

  • working temporarily outside Canada
  • teaching or attending school in another country
  • commuting (going back and forth daily or weekly) from Canada to your place of work in the United States, or
  • vacationing outside Canada.
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This is also the case if you spend part of the year in the United States for health reasons or on vacation, and you still maintain residential ties to Canada.

For more information, see Individuals – Leaving or entering Canada and non-residents. You will find information about certain income tax requirements that may affect you.

Deemed residents of Canada for income tax purposes

Certain people who live outside Canada and who sever their residential ties with Canada may be may be considered to be deemed residents of Canada for tax purposes.

You may be a deemed resident of Canada if you are:

  • a federal, provincial or territorial government employee who was a resident of Canada just before being posted abroad or who received a representation allowance for the year
  • a member of the Canadian Forces
  • a member of the Canadian Forces overseas school staff who chooses to file a return as a resident of Canada
  • working under a Canada International Development Agency assistance program if you were a resident of Canada at any time during the three-month period just before you began your duties abroad
  • a dependent child of one of the four persons described above and your net income for the year was not more than the basic personal amount (line 300 in the General Income Tax and Benefit Guide) or
  • a person who, under an agreement or convention (including a tax treaty) between Canada and another country, is exempt from tax in that other country on 90 percent or more of their income from all sources because of their relationship to a resident (including a deemed resident) of Canada

For more information, see Individuals – Leaving or entering Canada and non-residents. You will find information about certain income tax requirements that may affect you.

Non-residents of Canada for income tax purposes

Generally, when you leave Canada to live in another country (emigrate), you become a non‑resident of Canada for income tax purposes. For more information about the tax rules that apply for the year you become an emigrant from Canada, see Individuals – Leaving or entering Canada and non-residents

You are a non-resident of Canada for income tax purposes if you:

  • normally or routinely live in another country and are not considered a resident of Canada
  • do not have significant residential ties to Canada, and
    • live outside Canada throughout the tax year, or
    • stay in Canada for less than 183 days in the tax year


Non-residents of Canada are required to pay taxes only on certain income from Canadian sources.

For more information, see Individuals – Leaving or entering Canada and non-residents. You will find information about certain income tax requirements that may affect you.

Deemed non-residents of Canada for income tax purposes

If you are a factual resident or a deemed resident of Canada and are considered to be a resident of another country that has a tax treaty with Canada, you may be considered a deemed non‑resident of Canada for income tax purposes.

If you are a deemed non-resident, you must follow the same rules as a non-resident of Canada and declare your income from Canadian sources.

What If Your Canadian Permanent Res >

July 30, 2020 – Canadian permanent residents must now present their permanent resident card or permanent resident travel document to board a flight to Canada, or enter the country by any other commercial means. Not carrying the card or document may result in a permanent resident not being allowed to board a flight, train, bus or boat.

In the first instance, before a permanent resident leaves Canada, it is important they check their permanent residence card will still be valid when they return. A new card can be applied for if the current one expires within six months.

If a permanent resident is already outside Canada when their card expires, they still have options.

When Returning by Commercial Vehicle: Plane, Bus, Train, or Boat

The permanent resident needs to apply for a permanent resident travel document, or they may not be allowed to travel. Apply for the document here.

Once back in Canada, a permanent resident can apply for a new card.

When Returning by Private Vehicle

The Canadian government publishes a list of other documents a permanent resident can use to establish their identity and re-enter the country. The list is here.

Once back in Canada, a permanent resident can apply for a new card.

How Long Is a Permanent Resident Card Valid For?

Most permanent resident cards are valid for five years, with some valid for one year. A resident is advised to apply for a new card if their card expires inside six months.

Current processing time for a new card is 64 days, but there is also an option for urgent processing.

Renouncing Permanent Resident Status

Statistics show a significant increase in the numbers of Europeans, Britons and Australians choosing to give up their status just so they can board a flight to Canada.

While there has been a surge in the number of dual citizens applying for their Canadian passport because of new Canada eTA rules, for permanent residents the trend is in the opposite direction.

The statistics show that since November 10, 2020, when the eTA became mandatory after a series of grace periods, Canadian permanent residents have been renouncing their status in significantly higher numbers.

In the last 18 months, more than 2,500 Britons have renounced their status, compared with a 2015 figure of 305. Some 571 Germans have done the same, compared to a few more than 150 in 2015. In Australia, 509 renounced their status in the last year-and-a-half, compared to 30 in 2015. The French are at it too, with 775 in 18 months compared to 117 in 2015.

Numbers Renouncing Canadian Permanent Res >

Last 18 months 2015 Britons 2,500 305 Australians 509 30 Germans 571 150 French 775 117

There are many reasons for a trickle of permanent residents renouncing their status each year, including anything from a reluctance to pay taxes to not liking the weather.

But the reason for the surge appears to be linked to the process of applying for the eTA.

Anyone travelling from a visa-exempt country into Canada by plane requires an eTA. Canadian permanent residents are exempt from the requirement. However, problems begin when permanent residents arrive at an airport without their PR card, with an expired PR card, or to find their status has lapsed for another reason, such as not spending enough time in Canada.

When this situation arises, the only way the person can travel that day is to renounce their permanent residence status and apply for the eTA as a visitor. And it seems there are thousands taking this option.

Meanwhile, the eTA rules are causing Canadians with dual nationality to apply for passports in droves. Canadian consulates all over the world are being inundated with Canadian passport requests.

As part of eTA requirements, Canadian dual citizens must use a Canadian passport to fly into Canada. Previously, they could use the passport of their other country of citizenship.

It means the new eTA rules have forced thousands of dual citizens to apply for a Canadian passport.

Canadian missions in Australia, the UK, France and Germany say the increase in application numbers has caused processing times to double in some cases.

The dual citizenship issue was one of a number of problems with the eTA roll-out, for which the federal government face severe criticism.

The argument was that not enough was done to promote the new requirement, with travellers turning up at airports only to be told they could not fly.

A special measure introduced to assist dual citizens remains available as a result of the eTA problems. It was due to expire in January 2020.


The measure allows dual citizens to apply for special authorization to travel on their non-Canadian passport. The authorization lasts for four days and can only be applied for if you are flying in the next 10 days.

To apply for special authorization, you must:

  • have a flight to Canada that leaves in less than 10 days,
  • have a valid passport from a visa-exempt country,
  • have previously received a certificate of Canadian citizenship, or
  • held a Canadian passport in the past, or
  • you were granted Canadian citizenship after having been a permanent resident of Canada.

You can apply for special authorization here.

You need an eTA if you are travelling to Canada by air from a visa-exempt country. A full list of visa-exempt countries is available here.

The following are exempt from requiring an eTA:

  • Those who have already obtained a valid visa to enter Canada.
  • Anyone entering by land or sea.
  • Armed Forces visiting Canada on official duty.
  • Students who have a valid Canadian study permit dated on or after August 1, 2015.
  • Flight crew, civil aviation inspectors, accident investigators.
  • Temporary Foreign Workers who have a valid Canadian work permit date on or after August 1, 2015.
  • French citizens who live in and are travelling from St. Pierre and Miquelon.
  • Persons entering from the United States or St. Pierre and Miquelon, while holding valid status in Canada.
  • Accredited diplomats.
  • Canadian citizens and dual citizens (provided you are travelling on a Canadian passport)
  • Canadian permanent residents (you need your PR card or point of entry documentation)
  • US citizens (US permanent residents, or green card holders, DO require an eTA when travelling by air)

Special Case: Brazilian, Romanian and Bulgarian Nationals

As of May 1, 2020, Brazilians, Romanians and Bulgarians who have held a Canada visa in the last 10 years, or currently hold a US visa, do not require a visa to travel to Canada by air.

Citizens of all three countries do need an eTA to travel to Canada by air.

Citizens of all three countries still require a Canada visa to cross the border by car, bus, train or boat.

Special Case: Mexican Nationals

Mexicans were granted the right to travel to Canada without a visa as of December 1, 2020. They therefore require an eTA to travel by air.

Mexicans with a visa still valid from before December 1, 2020 do not require an eTA.

How do I get an Electronic Travel Authorization?

You can apply for an eTA through the Canadian federal government website.

Before you apply, you will need:

  • Valid passport
  • As a US permanent resident, you can apply with:
    • Valid US refugee travel document (I-571)
    • Valid permit to re-enter the US (I-327)
  • Credit card to pay the $7 fee
  • Valid email address

To apply for an eTA click here.

The Canadian government advises you to apply as soon as you know your travel itinerary.

However, an eTA can be obtained at the last minute via a smartphone. All you need is an internet connection. The email authorization often only takes a few minutes to come through.

There is no requirement to print an eTA. It is electronically linked to your passport or travel document.

How long is an Electronic Travel Authorization valid for?

An eTA can be valid for five years, or until your passport or travel document expires.

Interested employers: Kindly contact us here to receive further information.

Interested candidates: Find out whether you qualify to Canada by completing our free on-line evaluation. We will provide you with our evaluation within 1-2 business days.

Read more news about Canada Immigration by clicking here.

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