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The Official MTO Drivers Handbook

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Download The Official MTO Drivers Handbook.

Description

The Official MTO Driver’s Handbook Handbook Update Working Group – Proposed Changes re: Cyclists & Pedestrians

Working Group: Yvonne Bambrick – Project Lead, Executive Director, Toronto Cyclists Union Margaret Hastings-James, Member, City of Toronto Cycling Advisory Committee; Member, City of Toronto Pedestrian Committee Constable Hugh Smith, Toronto Police Service, Traffic Services Stephanie Tencer, Member, City of Toronto Pedestrian Committee; Co-chair, Toronto Coalition for Active Transportation Barbara Wentworth, Bicycle Safety Education Coordinator, Toronto Parks, Forestry & Recreation

*page number* = page that has been edited

Pink text = additional text suggested by Working Group

(Pink (Pi nk text text)) = su este ested d edit edits/m s/modi odific ficati ation onss

Changes made on the following pages: 5 20, 24, 25, 26, 28 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 79 81, 82, 84, 87, 88 90, 93, 94, 95, 96 106, 107, 108, 109 110, 111, 112, 114, 115 121, 126 145 151, 153, 156, 157, 159 160, 161, 162

Introduction Ontario has the best road safety record in North America, according a ccording to the most recent fatality rate statistics (2006). The Ministry of Transportation has introduced a range of measures to maintain this record and to improve the behaviour of all drivers. In 2006, Ontario’s fatality rate per 10,000 licensed drivers declined to 0.87, its lowest level on record. In the 10-year period per iod 1997-2006, the number of traffic fatalities has decreased by 130. Fewer people were injured in 2006 (68,793) than in 2005 (71,850). Many collisions are caused by driver error or behaviours such as following too closely, speeding, failure to yield the right of way, improper turns, running red lights and frequently f requently changing lanes. There are drivers who unintentionally put others at risk by not obeying the rules for safely sharing the road with pedestrians and cyclists. There are also drivers who intentionally put others at risk through such reckless behaviour. Statistics show that new drivers of all ages are far more likely than experienced drivers to be involved in serious or fatal collisions. Provincial campaigns promoting the correct use of seatbelts and child car seats, and against drinking and driving, distracted driving and aggressive driving are making a difference. Graduated licensing, which lets new drivers gain skills and e xperience in low-risk environments, is also helping to develop better, safer drivers.

Ontario’s Drive Clean program is reducing smog causing pollutants and helping us make smart choices about the way we maintain and drive our vehicles. Smog is a serious healthrelated problem in Ontario and motor vehicles are the single largest domestic source of smog and a source of several other toxic contaminants. contaminants. Other modes of transportation such as public transit, walking and cycling should always be considered before choosing to drive. This handbook gives new drivers the basic information they need a bout learning to drive and sharing the road in Ontario: the rules of the road, safe driving practices and how to get a licence to drive a car, van or small truck. The ministry recommends that all drivers would would benefit from taking an advanced course in driver training. As you read, remember that this handbook is only a guide. For more detailed information about Road Worthy** , a driving textbook produced by the Ministry of driving you can read the book Road Transportation. For official descriptions of the laws, look in the Highway Traffic Act of Ontario and its Regulations, available at www.e-laws.gov.on.ca www.e-laws.gov.on.ca.. Information on how to get licences to drive other types of vehicles is available a vailable in Part Two of this handbook, the Official Motorcycle Handbook , the Official Truck Handbook , the Official Bus Handbook and Handbook and the Official Air Brake Handbook . (Reference to “Official Cycling Skills Guide”)

** Apparently this document is no longer used – please confirm

Introduction Ontario has the best road safety record in North America, according a ccording to the most recent fatality rate statistics (2006). The Ministry of Transportation has introduced a range of measures to maintain this record and to improve the behaviour of all drivers. In 2006, Ontario’s fatality rate per 10,000 licensed drivers declined to 0.87, its lowest level on record. In the 10-year period per iod 1997-2006, the number of traffic fatalities has decreased by 130. Fewer people were injured in 2006 (68,793) than in 2005 (71,850). Many collisions are caused by driver error or behaviours such as following too closely, speeding, failure to yield the right of way, improper turns, running red lights and frequently f requently changing lanes. There are drivers who unintentionally put others at risk by not obeying the rules for safely sharing the road with pedestrians and cyclists. There are also drivers who intentionally put others at risk through such reckless behaviour. Statistics show that new drivers of all ages are far more likely than experienced drivers to be involved in serious or fatal collisions. Provincial campaigns promoting the correct use of seatbelts and child car seats, and against drinking and driving, distracted driving and aggressive driving are making a difference. Graduated licensing, which lets new drivers gain skills and e xperience in low-risk environments, is also helping to develop better, safer drivers.

Ontario’s Drive Clean program is reducing smog causing pollutants and helping us make smart choices about the way we maintain and drive our vehicles. Smog is a serious healthrelated problem in Ontario and motor vehicles are the single largest domestic source of smog and a source of several other toxic contaminants. contaminants. Other modes of transportation such as public transit, walking and cycling should always be considered before choosing to drive. This handbook gives new drivers the basic information they need a bout learning to drive and sharing the road in Ontario: the rules of the road, safe driving practices and how to get a licence to drive a car, van or small truck. The ministry recommends that all drivers would would benefit from taking an advanced course in driver training. As you read, remember that this handbook is only a guide. For more detailed information about Road Worthy** , a driving textbook produced by the Ministry of driving you can read the book Road Transportation. For official descriptions of the laws, look in the Highway Traffic Act of Ontario and its Regulations, available at www.e-laws.gov.on.ca www.e-laws.gov.on.ca.. Information on how to get licences to drive other types of vehicles is available a vailable in Part Two of this handbook, the Official Motorcycle Handbook , the Official Truck Handbook , the Official Bus Handbook and Handbook and the Official Air Brake Handbook . (Reference to “Official Cycling Skills Guide”)

** Apparently this document is no longer used – please confirm

Getting Your Driver’s Licence This chapter tells you what licence you need to drive in Ontario and how to get it, whether you are a new driver, a visitor or a new resident in Ontario. If you are applying for your first licence, this chapter explains the graduated licensing system, how to apply for a licence, the tests you will have to pass and the driving privileges you will have at each licence level. Requirements for driving in Ontario If you live in Ontario, you must be at least 16 years old and have a valid Ontario driver’s licence to drive in this province. If you are a visitor to Ontario and want to drive while you are here, you must be at least 16 years old and have a valid driver’s licence from your own province, state or country. If you are from another country and visiting Ontario for more than three months, you need an International Driver’s Permit from your own country. If you don’t have an International Driver’s Permit, you can apply for an Ontario driver’s licence if you are taking up residence in Ontario. If you are a new resident in Ontario and have a valid driver’s licence from another province, state or country, you can use it for 60 days after you move to Ontario. If you become a resident of Ontario, you must get an Ontario driver’s licence. Ontario has licence exchange agreements with every Canadian province and territory, the United States, Japan, Korea, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain, France and Belgium.

Driver’s Licence Classification Chart Class D Class A Allowed to drive any tractor-trailer combination May also drive vehicle in class D and G

Allowed to drive any truck or combination provided the towed vehicle is not over 4,600 kg May also drive vehicle in class G

Diagram 1-1a-4 Diagram 1-1a-1

Class B Allowed to drive any school purposes bus May also drive vehicle in class C, D, E, F and G

Class E Allowed to drive any school purposes bus maximum of 24-passenger capacity May also drive vehicle in class F and G

Diagram 1-1a-5 Diagram 1-1a-2

Class C Allowed to drive any regular bus May also drive vehicle in class D, F and Ga school bus

Class F Allowed to drive any regular bus maximum of 24-passenger capacity — and ambulances May also drive vehicle in class G

Diagram 1-1a-6 Diagram 1-1a-3

*13* Class G Allowed to drive any car, van or small truck or combination of vehicle and towed vehicle up to 11,000 kg provided the towed vehicle is not over 4,600 kg

Level One of graduated licensing for motorcycles, including limited-speed motorcycles (motor scooters) and motorassisted bicycles (mopeds). Holders may drive a motorcycle under certain conditions.

Class G1 Level One of graduated licensing. Holders may drive Class G vehicles with an accompanying fully licensed driver with at least four years’ driving experience. Subject to certain conditions.

Level Two of graduated licensing for motorcycles, including limited-speed motorcycles (motor scooters) and motorassisted bicycles (mopeds). Holders may drive a motorcycle but only with a zero blood alcohol level. Holders may also drive a Class G vehicle under the conditions that apply to a Class G1 licence holder.

Class G2 Level Two of graduated licensing. Holders may drive Class G vehicles without accompanying driver but are subject to certain conditions.

Class M Allowed to drive any motorcycles, including limited-speed motorcycles (motor scooters) and motor-assisted bicycles (mopeds). Holders may also drive a Class G vehicle under the conditions that apply to a Class G1 licence holder.

Class M with L condition Holders may operate a limited-speed motorcycle or moped only. May operate a limited speed motorcycle or moped only

Class M2 with L condition Holders may operate a limited-speed motorcycle or moped only. May operate a limited speed motorcycle or moped only Note: A \»Z\» air brake endorsement is required on a driver’s licence to operate any air brake equipped motor vehicle.

*14* What kind of licence?

In Ontario, there are 14 different kinds of licences. Each one qualifies you to drive a different type of vehicle. The class of licence you have must match the type of vehicle you are driving. You need a Class G licence to drive a car, van or small truck. You must have a Class G licence before you can be licensed to drive any other type of vehicle. The only exception is motorcycles. You may get a motorcycle licence (Class M) without first getting a Class G licence. The Driver’s Licence Classification Chart shows you what class of licence you need to drive different vehicles. For information on the skills and knowledge you’ll need to get a Class M motorcycle licence, study the Official Motorcycle Handbook . You can get information on other kinds of licences classes A, B, C, D, E and F — in the Official Truck Handbook and the Official Bus Handbook . If you want to drive a vehicle equipped with air brakes, the Official Air Brake Handbook tells you how to qualify. Some recreational vehicles have special licence re quirements. If you plan to drive an off-road vehicle or snowmobile, read the Off-Road Vehicles section in the Official Driver’s handbook. You do not need a licence to ride a bicycle in Ontario.

Graduated licensing New drivers applying for their first car or motorcycle licence enter Ontario’s graduated licensing system. Graduated licensing lets new drivers get driving experience and skills gradually. The two-step licensing process takes at least 20 months to complete. To apply for a licence, you must be at least 16 years old, pass a vision test and pass a test of your knowledge of the rules of the road and traffic signs. After you pass these tests, you will enter Level One and get a Class G1 licence. You must pass two road tests to become fully licensed. Passing the first r oad test lets you move to Level Two (Class G2) and the second one gives you full Class G driving privileges. Applying for a licence To apply for a licence, you must show proof of your legal name, date of birth (showing day, month and year of birth) and signature. Documents must be original and valid. P hotocopies and expired documents are not acceptable. Any one of the following documents may be used to satisfy the requirement to provide proof of legal name, complete date of birth and signature:

Passport (Canadian or foreign)

Canadian Citizenship Card with photo

Permanent immigration documents

Permanent Resident Card (PRC) or

Record of Landing (Form 1000) or

Confirmation of Permanent Residence (Form IMM 5292)

Temporary immigration documents

Student Authorization (IMM 1442)

Employment Authorization(IMM 1442)

Visitor Record (IMM 1442)

Temporary Resident’s Permit (IMM 1442)

Refugee Status Claim (IMM 1434)

Acknowledgement of Intent to Claim Refugee Status (IMM 7703 with photo)

Report Pursuant to the Immigration Act (IMM 1442 with photo)

Additional documents Additional documents are required if the document presented from the list above does not indicate the legal name, complete date of birth (day, month, year) or signature. The additional documents must provide proof of the missing or incomplete information. The following documents are acceptable as proof of date of birth and legal name •

Canadian or U.S. Birth Certificate

The following documents are acceptable as proof of signature: •

Driver’s Licence (Canadian and U.S. only) Identity Card with signature(issued by Canadian province/territory or U.S. state authority)

Canadian Certificate of Indian Status

Ontario Student Card with signature

Ontario Health Card with applicant’s signature (Clients may choose to produce their Ontario Health Card for proof of signature. The Health Card and Health Number will not be recorded or photocopied.)

Proof of legal name If additional documents presented to prove date of birth or signature do not indicate the applicant’s legal name (i.e. name has been changed or is different on the two documents presented), the applicant will be required to provide additional documents as proof of legal name. The following additional documents are acceptable as proof of legal name: •

Marriage Certificate (Canadian or Foreign, government issued)

Change of Name Certificate

Court Order for adoption, change of name or divorce (must bear legal name, date of birth and court seal)

*16* To confirm complete date of birth where no or only partial date of birth is available: •

Sworn affidavit stating reason why partial or no date is available, with supporting documents. Please contact the Ministry of Transportation’s Driver and Vehicle Licensing Call Centre at (416) 235-2999 or toll free at 1-800-387-3445 (Canada-wide) for further information.

Note: Direct identification by a parent or guardian is not acceptable. The applicant is required to present an acceptable document with his or her own signature.

Declaration from a Guarantor If an applicant is unable to present one of the above documents as proof of signature, the applicant may present an original, completed Declaration from a Guarantor form attesting to their signature. Applicants must first ensure that no other acceptable documents for signature are available from the list identified above. To obtain a Guarantor form: •

download the Declaration from a Guarantor form from the Ministry of Transportation’s website at www.mto.gov.on.ca or the DriveTest website at www.drivetest.ca; or, request a copy of the form at any DriveTest Centre.

Bring the documents to a DriveTest Centre or Travel Point (a temporary DriveTest Centre where there is no regional centre). Phone ahead to find out where the nearest Travel Point is and when it is open. You will find the telephone number under «Drivers and Vehicles» in the Government of Ontario section of the blue pages in your phone book. You can also find it on the Internet at www.drivetest.ca. You must pay a fee when you apply. This fee includes the cost of the knowledge test, your first road test and a five-year licensing fee. There are more charges for your second road test and for any retests you may need to take. In order to schedule a road test appointment, you must prepay the road test fee. You must pay a fee when you apply. This fee includes the cost of the knowledge test, your f irst road test and a five-year licensing fee. There are more charges for your second road test and for any retests you may need to take. In order to schedule a road test appointment, you must prepay the road test fee. When you apply for your licence, you will be asked questions about your health. People with certain physical or medical conditions are not allowed to dri ve for safety reasons. If your physical or medical condition means you cannot be licensed, you will be told when you apply. Once you have a licence, you should report any change in your medical condition that may change your ability to drive safely. By law, doctors and optometrists must report the name and address of anyone over 16 who has a condition that may make it unsafe for him or her to drive.

*17* For further details on applying for a licence visit the Ministry of Transportation’s website at www.mto.gov.on.ca. Graduated licensing requirements Here are the rules you must follow at each level: •

Level One (Class G1)

G1 Knowledge Test — Checklist

G1 Exit Test — Checklist

Level Two (Class G2)

G2 Exit Test — Checklist

Graduated licensing requirements Level One (Class G1): Level One lasts 12 months. The Ministry of Transportation encourages all new drivers to take an approved driver education course to help learn the proper driving skills and knowledge. You should begin your training as soon as you become a Level One driver so you can get as much driving experience as possible. If you pass an approved course, you can complete Level One in eight months. While at Level One, the following rules apply: •

You must not drive if you have been drinking alcohol. Your blood alcohol level must be zero. You must not drive alone; an accompanying driver must sit in the front passenger seat. This is the only person who can be in the front seat with you while you drive. The accompanying driver must have a valid Class G (or higher) licence, at least four years of driving experience, and must have a blood alcohol level of less than .05 per cent when accompanying you. Time spent at the Class G2 level, as long as the G2 licence was valid (not suspended), does count toward the accompanying driver’s four years of experience. The accompanying driver’s licence may have demerit points, but it cannot be suspended. Each person in the vehicle must have a working seatbelt. You must not drive on 400-series highways with a posted speed limit over 80km/h. Also you must not drive on certain high-speed roads including the Queen Elizabeth Way, Don Valley Parkway and the Gardiner Expressway in the Greater Toronto Area, the E.C. Row Expressway in Windsor and the Conestoga Parkway in Kitchener-Waterloo. However, if your accompanying driver is a driving instructor, you may drive on any road. You must not drive between midnight and 5:00 a.m.

You must pass a road test of your driving skills to move to Level Two. At this time, you will be given a Class G2 licence. Graduated licensing requirements G1 Knowledge Test — Checklist Before taking the G1 knowledge test, make sure you have studied the Official Driver’s Handbook. Bring the following items to the test:

2 pieces of identification

Money for test fees — cash, debit or credit card

Glasses or contact lenses (if you need to wear them to drive)

G1 Exit Test — Checklist Before taking the G1 exit test, make sure you have studied the Official Driver’s Handbook. Bring the following items to the test: •

Vehicle in good working order

Money for test fees (if applicable)

Glasses or contact lenses (if you need to wear them to drive)

Beginner Driver Education Student Record (if licensed between 8 and 12 months)

Arrive at least 30 minutes before Road Test appointment Level Two (Class G2): Level Two lasts at least 12 months. At this level, you have more privileges because of your driving experience. At Level Two: •

You must not drive if you have been drinking alcohol. Your blood alcohol level must be zero. Each person in the vehicle must have a working seatbelt.

In addition, the following restrictions apply between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. to G2 drivers aged 19 years and under, including those who received a G2 licence prior to September 1, 2005. •

In the first six months after receiving your G2 licence, you are allowed to carry only one passenger aged 19 or under. After six months with your G2 licence and until you obtain your full G licence or turn 20, you are allowed to carry up to three passengers aged 19 or under.

Exemptions: The passenger restrictions for G2 drivers aged 19 and under do not apply if you are accompanied by a fully-licensed accompanying driver in the front passenger seat, or if the passengers are members of your immediate family (a guardian, or those related to you by blood, marriage, common-law relationship, or adoption). After 12 months at Level Two, you may take a road test to qualify for full licence privileges. You must pass this test to get a Class G licence. Note: A new, restricted Class M licence for limited-speed motorcycle and moped drivers was introduced on November 28, 2005. This new restricted licence has a condition that will allow licence holders to drive only a limited-speed motorcycle and moped. You are no longer permitted to drive a limited-speed motorcycle or moped on any driver’s licence other than a class M licence (including M1, M2(L), M2, M(L) or M). For more information on how to obtain a restricted Class M licence to drive a moped, and graduated licensing requirements, please read the Official Motorcycle Handbook .

Road tests Road tests check your driving skills in the vehicle and in traffic. You will be tested on your ability to follow the rules of the road and safe driving practices. The Level One road test deals with basic driving skills. The Level Two road test deals with more advanced knowledge and driving skills. Your performance in each of the tests will tell you whether you need more training or practice. When you feel qualified to drive safely and confident enough to take your road test, contact the Road Test Booking Call Centre at (416) 325-8580 or 1-888-570-6110, or go online to www.mto.gov.on.ca, to schedule an appointment. If you are unable to keep the appointment, call the Road Test Booking Call Centre or go online to cancel your test. If you fail to attend or you cancel your appointment without providing at least 48 hours notice, your prepaid road test fee will not be refunded. You must bring the appropriate vehicle to each of your road tests. Make sure it is in good working order and you feel comfortable driving it. Bring your current licence to the appointment. If you are a Level One driver, an accompanying driver must come with you to the test centre. If you are a Level Two driver, please be prepared to take alternate transportation home in case you fail your road test and are unqualified to drive. No pets or passengers other than the driver examiner are allowed in the vehicle during a road test. All road tests have a set time frame. Before you begin your test, the examiner will inform you of the amount of time you have to complete the test. You will not be asked to do anything illegal during the road test. The examiner will explain the test and you should follow her or his instructions. The examiner is not allowed to coach you during the test, so if you have any questions, ask them before you begin. While the Level One road test checks your basic driving skills, the Level Two road test is much more demanding. You should learn the proper driving skills as soon as you become a Level One driver so you can get as much driving experience as possible before ta king the Level Two test. For the Level Two test, you must demonstrate a high level of driving skill and knowledge. You will also have to show that you can drive well on a freeway or high speed highway. While you are taking the test, the examiner will be watching to see how well you control your vehicle and perform such driving tasks as starting, stopping, turning, parallel parking and threepoint turning.

*20* The examiner will check your observation skills, including when and how often you use the mirrors, where you look, and how you respond to traffic, signs, pavement markings a nd possible hazards. You will be tested on how well you manage the space around your vehicle, your ability to make safe lane changes and how closely you follow and stop behind other vehicles. How you communicate with other road users — using turn signals and brake lights and making eye contact with other drivers , cyclists and pedestrians — will also be noted, as well as the correctness of your driving decisions, such as knowing when to yield the right-of-way. For more information on the Level Two road test, click here. At the end of each test, the examiner will give you a complete report of your skills and explain any mistakes you have made. If you fail the test, the report will show you where you need to

improve. When you have had more practice, you can make an appointment to take the test again. You must wait at least 10 days between tests. G2 Exit Test — Checklist You must have highway driving experience (experience driving on highways with speed limits of at least 80 km/h) before taking the G2 exit test. You must complete a Declaration of Highway Driving Experience form, describing the highway driving experience you have, before ta king the road test. Bring the following items to the test: •

Vehicle in good working order

Money for test fees (if applicable)

Glasses or contact lenses (if you need to wear them to drive)

Arrive at least 30 minutes before Road Test appointment Failure to attend road test, or short notice cancellation If you cancel or reschedule your road test appointment with less than 48 hours notice, or if you fail to attend your appointment, your prepaid road test fee will not be refunded. Under certain extenuating circumstances only (such as a death in your immediate family), the road test fee will remain as a credit on your driving record. Out-of-order road test If your vehicle does not meet ministry standards for the purpose of a road test, or if there is a nonvehicle related reason for which the examiner determines that the road test cannot be completed, the examiner declares the road test out-of-order.

*21* If your road test is declared out-of-order, you lose 50% of your road test fee. The other 50% of the fee remains as a credit on your driving record, and may be applied when booking a new road test. In order to book the new road test, you will have to pay the 50% of the fee deducted due to the out-of-order. If you have any concerns that your road test may be declared out-of-order, contact the DriveTest Centre before your scheduled test to discuss it. New Ontario residents If you are a new resident of Ontario and have a valid driver’s licence from another province or country, you can use that licence for 60 days in Ontario. If you want to continue to drive after 60 days, you must get an Ontario driver’s licence. Effective May 1, 2006, licensed driving experience for out-of-country applicants will be credited as follows:

Requirements for all driver’s licence applicants: •

All applicants for an Ontario driver’s licence are required to present a valid foreign driver’s licence (if it is not in English or French, it is to be accompanied by a written translation from a qualified translator), pass a vision test and a written knowledge test regarding Ontario’s traffic rules, pay all applicable fees, and provide acceptable proof of identity. Applicants who fulfill these requirements can obtain a G1 licence.

All applicants must declare their licensed driving experience on the driver’s licence application form. Applicants are required to provide adequate proof of foreign licensed driving experience. However, if that is not possible, the ministry will accept an applicant’s declaration of their foreign licensed driving experience on the driver’s licence application for up to a maximum of 12 months licensed experience. This policy only applies to applicants for Class G licences.

Applicants declaring less than 12 months licensed driving experience within the preceeding three years: •

Applicants are credited with the amount of licensed driving experience declared on the driver’s licence application. Applicants must have 12 months licensed driving experience before attempting the G1 road test. If an applicant successfully completes a ministry-approved Beginner Driver Education course, the mandatory waiting time, prior to taking the G1 road test, will be reduced from 12 to 8 months.

The 8-12 months may be a combination of licensed driving experience in the foreign jurisdiction and licensed experience in Ontario.

Applicants declaring more than 12 months licensed driving experience but less than 24 months within the preceding three years: •

Applicants will be credited with 12 months licensed driving experience and may proceed to take the G1 road test without having to fulfill the mandatory 12-month G1 wait period. If the applicant passes the G1 road test, they will be issued a G2 licence and will not be subject to the six restrictions of the G1 licence, including the requirement to have a fully licensed driver accompany them in the vehicle and prohibition from driving on 400-series expressways. To obtain credit for more than 12 months licensed driving experience, applicants are required to obtain written authentication of their foreign licensed driving experience from the originating licensing agency, or from the Embassy, Consulate or High Commissioners’ offices representing the jurisdiction. The authentication letter must be on official letterhead and be written in either English or French. Applicants will be credited with their foreign licensed driving experience as certified on the authentication letter. Credited licensed driving experience will be applied toward the G2 12-month waiting period prior to taking the G2 road test. If applicants do not provide a letter of authentication, applicants must fulfill the 12-month mandatory waiting period prior to taking the G2 road test.

Applicants declaring a minimum of 24 months licensed driving experience within the preceding three years: •

To obtain credit for more than 12 months licensed driving experience, applicants are required to obtain written authentication of their foreign licensed driving experience from the originating licensing agency, or from the Embassy, Consulate or High

Commissioners’ offices representing the jurisdiction. The authentication letter must be on official letterhead and be written in either English or French. •

Applicants will be credited with their foreign licensed driving experience as certified on the authentication letter. Applicants have, pending a letter of authentication of a minimum of 24 months of foreign licensed driving experience, the option of attempting the G1 or G2 exit road tests (mandatory waiting times are waived).

If the applicant chooses to attempt the G1 road test and successfully completes it, the applicant will then be eligible to attempt the G2 road test. Upon successfully passing the G2 exit road test, applicants will be issued a G licence. If applicants do not provide a letter of authentication, applicants must pass the G1 road test and must fulfill the 12-month waiting period prior to taking the G2 road test. Who does the policy affect?

The policy applies to all applicants coming from either a foreign jurisdiction that does not have a driver’s licence reciprocal agreement with Ontario, or a U.S. state that is not part of the Interprovincial Record Exchange. This policy does not apply to drivers from the following jurisdictions: •

Canadian provinces and territories

Canadian Forces Europe

Austria, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Korea and Switzerland

Motorcycle licence exchanges Exchange agreements apply to licensed motorcycle drivers from Canada, the United States and Switzerland. If you hold a motorcycle licence from another Canadian jurisdiction that is equivalent to Ontario’s restricted Class M licence, you will be able to exchange your licence. If you have less than two years of driving experience, you may get credit for your experience and enter Level Two of the graduated licensing system. Once you have a total of two years of driving experience, you may take the Level Two road test to earn full driving privileges. There is no exchange agreement for motorcycle drivers from Japan, Korea, Austria, Germany, Great Britain, France or Belgium. However, credit for holding a motorcycle licence from one of these countries will be granted for previous motorcycle experience when applying for a Class M motorcycle licence in Ontario. Driving customs vary from place to place. That is why experienced drivers from other countries should familiarize themselves with Ontario’s laws. The Official Driver’s Handbook and the Ministry of Transportation website are good resources.

Could You Pass? The rest of this handbook gives you information you need to pass your tests and to keep your driving privileges once you get your licence. The written test may ask you about: •

traffic signs and lights

how to use headlights

getting on or off a freeway

what drivers must do when they meet streetcars and school buses

driver licence suspensions

the demerit point system

passing other vehicles

sharing the road with other road users

rules of the road

what drivers must do when they interact with cyclists and pe destrians

The road tests will test how well you use your knowledge while driving. You will be tested on: •

starting, stopping and turning

traffic signs and lights

passing vehicles, including bicycles, and driving in passing lanes

travelling through controlled and uncontrolled intersections

parallel parking and reversing

foreseeing hazardous conditions and being ready for them

manoevering in high pedestrian volume areas such as school zones

other safe driving practices

Make sure you know the information in this handbook before you take these tests. To see sample test questions that could appear on the knowledge test click here. Summary By the end of this chapter you should know: •

The legal requirements you must meet to obtain a driver’s licence

The different licence classifications and what type of vehicle they permit you to drive

The identification you need to provide when applying for a driver’s licence

The restrictions and testing requirements under the graduated licensing system

Safe and Responsible Driving Being a safe and responsible driver takes a combination of knowledge, skill and attitude. To begin, you must know the traffic laws and driving practices that help traffic move safely. Breaking these «rules of the road» is the major cause of collisions. Traffic laws are made by federal, provincial and municipal governments, and police from each level can enforce them. If you break a traffic law, you may be fined, sent to jail or lose your driver’s licence. If you get caught driving while your licence is suspended for a Criminal Code conviction, your vehicle may even be impounded.

But you need to do more than just obey the rules. You must care about the safety of others on the road, including cyclists and pedestrians. Everyone is responsible for avoiding collisions. Even if someone else does something wrong, you may be found responsible for a collision if you could have done something to avoid it. Because drivers have to cooperate to keep traffic moving safely, you must also be predictable, doing what other people using the road expect you to do. And you must be courteous. Courteous driving means giving other drivers and cyclists space to change lanes, not cutting them off and signaling your turns and lane changes properly. The rights and responsibilities of pedestrians must also be respected. You must be able to see dangerous situations before they happen and to respond quickly and effectively to prevent them. This is called defensive or strategic driving. There are collision avoidance courses available where you can practice these techniques. Defensive driving is based on three ideas: visibility, space and communication.

Visibility is about seeing and being seen. You should always be aware of traffic in front, behind and beside you. *26* Keep your eyes constantly moving, scanning the road ahead and to the side and checking your mirrors every five seconds or so. The farther ahead you look, the less likely you will be surprised, and you will have time to avoid any hazards. Make sure other drivers and cyclists can see you by using your signal lights as required. Managing the space around your vehicle lets you see and be seen and gives you time and space to avoid a collision. Leave a cushion of space ahead, behind and to both sides. Because the greatest risk of a collision is in front of you, stay well back.

Communicate with other road users to make sure they see you and know what you are doing. Make eye contact with pedestrians, cyclists and drivers at intersections and signal whenever you want to slow down, stop, turn or change lanes. If you need to get another person’s attention, use your horn.

Getting ready to drive Before you drive, make sure you are comfortable with your physical, mental, and emotional state, your vehicle and the conditions in which you will be driving. If you have doubts about any of them, don’t drive. Your ability to drive can change from one day to the next. Illness, fatigue, prescription and overthe-counter drugs, stress and your mental or emotional state can greatly diminish your ability to

operate a motor vehicle. You should consider these factors before you begin driving, and you should not operate a motor vehicle when you are not fit to do so.

Be physically and mentally alert You must be in good physical and mental condition to drive. Don’t drive when you ar e sick or injured or when you have been drinking alcohol or taking any drug or medication that may reduce your ability to drive. Don’t drive when you are tired. You might fall asleep at the wheel, risking the lives of others on the road. Even if you don’t fall asleep, fatigue affects your driving ability. Your thinking slows down and you miss seeing things. In an emergency, you may make the wrong decision or you may not make the right decision fast enough. Don’t drive when you are upset or angry. Strong emotions can reduce your ability to think and react quickly.

Know your vehicle Get to know your vehicle before you drive it. There are many types of vehicles available today with many different characteristics, including fuel ignition systems, anti-lock brakes, 4-wheel drive, and systems for traction control and stability control. Check the vehicle owner’s manual. For driving in difficult situations and conditions see the section on dealing with particular situations. The book Road Worthy can also help you with this.

*27* Make sure you know where all the controls and instruments are and what they do. Check that all warning lights and gauges work. Watch for a warning light that stays on after you drive away; it could mean a serious problem with your vehicle. Get to know the controls well enough to turn on wipers and washers, headlights, highbeams, heater and defroster without having to look. Learning to use these essential controls without taking your eyes off the road is an important part of driving. Get into position Make sure you sit properly behind the wheel. You should sit high enough in the driver’s seat to see over the steering wheel and hood. You should be able to see the ground four metres in front of the vehicle. Use a firm cushion if needed. Be sure that you are sitting straight upright in the seat with your elbows slightly bent. Adjust the seat so your feet reach the pedals easily. To check your position, try placing your feet flat on the floor under the brake pedal. If you can do this without stretching, you are seated properly. This keeps you in the proper, upright sitting position and gives you more stability when manoeuvring your vehicle. If your vehicle has an adjustable headrest, you should make sure it is at the right height. The back of your head should be directly in front of the middle of the headrest to protect you in a collision. Check that you have enough room in the front seat to drive properly and safely. Do not overcrowd your driving space with passengers or property. Keep a clear view

Keep a clear view when driving. Do not put anything in your windows that will block your view. Items dangling from your mirror can hide a pedestrian or cyclist from your field of vision. The windows of your vehicle must not be coated with any material that keeps you from seeing out in any direction. Neither should the windshield or front door windows be coated to keep someone from seeing inside the vehicle.

*28* *DIAGRAM 2-3* — add cyclist, pedestrians, sidewalk to image Find your blind spots Check and adjust your mirrors and find your blind spots — the area on each side of your vehicle where you cannot see. You may not see pedestrians or cyclists when they are in these spots. On some vehicles the blind spot is so large that a vehicle could be there and you would not see it. Adjust your mirrors so that there are as few blind spots as possible. Blind spots in most vehicles are to the back left and back right of the vehicle. To reduce the blind spots even more, position the interior mirror so that the centre of the mirror shows the centre of the rear window. You should be able to see directly behind the car when the interior mirror is properly adjusted. Position the left outside mirror by leaning towards the window a nd moving the mirror so that you can just see the rear of your car. Position the right outside mirror by leaning to the centre of the vehicle and moving the mirror so that you can again just see the rear of your car. Avoid overlap in what you can see in your mirrors. Because your side mirrors show only narrow angles of view, turning your head to do shoulder checks is the only way to make sure there is nothing in your blind spots. You should know the blind spots on your own vehicle. You can learn where and how large they are by having someone walk around your car and watching the person in the mirrors. Fasten your seatbelt The proper use of a seatbelt can save your life. Even a small increase in the number of people that wear their seatbelts can save many lives. Use your seatbelt every time you travel in any vehicle equipped with seatbelts. All passengers must be buckled up in their own seatbelt or child car seat. Drivers who do not buckle up can be fined up to $500 and given two demerit points. Drivers may also receive demerit points if they fail to ensure that all passengers under 16 years of age are properly buckled in a seatbelt or child car seat.

*29* Level One (G1) and Level Two (G2) drivers who do not wear a seatbelt or who do not ensure there is a working seatbelt for every passenger can lose their licence for 30 days. Seatbelts should be worn snugly enough to keep you in your seat during a collision. Never put more than one person into a seatbelt; this can cause serious injury or even death in a collision. Wear the shoulder strap over your shoulder, never under your arm. The lap belt should be worn low over the hips, not against the stomach. Use your seatbelt always, even when you are sitting in a position with an active airbag. Airbags do not replace seatbelts. In a collision, your seatbelt will keep you in position so that the airbag can protect you.

Note: The safest place a passenger can travel is inside a vehicle, properly buckled in. It is not safe to travel outside a vehicle, such as in the back of a pickup truck, or in a trailer that is being towed. It is important for passengers to be secured within a vehicle to avoid being thrown from the vehicle during a collision. For more information on seatbelts call Service Ontario Transportation Info Line (416) 235-4686 (1-800-268-4686) or visit www.mto.gov.on.ca. Child safety To be safely protected in a vehicle, children must be properly secured in a child car seat, booster seat or seatbelt, depending on their height, weight and/or age. Research shows that a correctly used child car seat can reduce the likelihood of injury or death by 75 percent. As a driver, you are responsible for ensuring that passengers under 16 years of age are properly buckled into a seatbelt or child car seat. The fine for not using a child car seat as required by law is up to $500 plus two demerit points. In Ontario, parents, grandparents and caregivers are all required to use proper child car seats when transporting children. Child car seats must meet Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (CMVSS). Buckles and straps must be fastened according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

*30* Newer vehicles that come equipped with a lower Universal Anchorage System (UAS) for securing a child car seat for infants and toddlers, do not require a seatbelt to secure the child car seat to the vehicle. A booster seat requires a lap and shoulder belt combination. Infants who weigh less than 9 kg (20 lbs.) must be buckled into a rear-facing child car seat attached to the vehicle by a seatbelt or the UAS. Never put a rear-facing child car seat in a seating position that has an active airbag. If the airbag inflates, it could seriously injure the c hild. Toddlers nine to 18 kg (20 to 40 lbs.) must be buckled into a child car seat attached to the vehicle by a tether strap at the top and at the base by a seatbelt or a UAS. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when installing a child car seat in your vehicle. Booster seats provide 60 percent more protection than seatbelts alone. These must be used by preschool and primary grade-aged children who are under the age of eight and weigh 18 kg or more but less than 36 kg (40-80 lbs.), and who are less than 145 cm (4 feet, 9 inches) tall. Booster seats raise a child up so that the adult seatbelt works more effectively. You must use a booster seat with a lap/shoulder belt. The child’s head must be supported by the top of the booster, vehicle seat or headrest. The lap/shoulder belt should be worn so that the shoulder belt fits closely against the body, over the shoulder and across the chest and the lap belt sits firmly against the body and across the hips. If your vehicle has lap belts only, secure the child by the lap belt only. Never use a lap belt alone with a booster seat. Children may start using a seatbelt alone once any one of the following criteria is met: •

the child turns eight years old;

the child weighs 36 kg (80 lbs) or more; or,

the child is 145 cm (4 feet 9 inches) tall or taller.

Do not place a child in a seating position in front of an air bag that is not turned off or cannot be turned off. The safest place for a child under age 13 is in the back seat.

*31* Correct installation of a child car seat is key for ensuring a child’s safety. Your local public health unit is a good resource for finding out how to properly install a child car seat. For more information on child car seats call ServiceOntario Transportation Info at (416) 2354686 (1-800-268-4686) or visit www.mto.gov.on.ca. Note: Be careful if buying a used child car seat. Ensure that the seat comes with complete manufacturer’s instructions and all necessary equipment; does not show signs of deterioration; has not been in a collision; is not under recall; and, is not expired or more than 10 years old.

Seatbelts and child car seats save lives Seatbelts and child car seats reduce the risk of injury or death in collisions. •

Seatbelts help keep you inside and in control of the vehicle during a collision. People who are thrown from a vehicle have a much lower chance of surviving a collision. Seatbelts keep your head and body from hitting the inside of the vehicle or another person in the vehicle. When a vehicle hits a solid object, the people inside keep moving until something stops them. If you are not wearing your seatbelt, the steering wheel, windshield, dashboard or another person might be what stops you. This «human collision» often causes serious injury. Fire or sinking in water is rare in collisions. If it does happen, seatbelts help keep you conscious, giving you a chance to get out of the vehicle. In a sudden stop or swerve, no one can hold onto a child who is not in a seatbelt or child car seat. Infants or children who are not wearing seatbelts can be thrown against the vehicle’s interior, collide with other people or be ejected. When using a child car seat, make sure that the seat is tightly secured by the vehicle seatbelt or by the UAS, and for a forward-facing car seat, ensure the tether strap is also used. When installing the child car seat, press one knee into the seat and use your body weight to push it into the vehicle seat, then tighten the seatbelt or the car seat UAS strap as much as possible. The installed child car seat should move no more than 2.5 cm (1 inch) where the seatbelt or UAS strap is routed through the child car seat. Use a locking clip where needed to ensure that the seatbelt stays locked into position and will not develop slack during a collision. If a rear-facing child car seat does not rest at the proper 45-degree angle, then you can prop up the base of the seat with a towel or a Styrofoam bar (» pool noodle»). Eighty per cent of the base of a forward-facing car seat should be firmly supported by the vehicle seat.

*32* Turn on headlights at night and in poor conditions Headlights make it easier for you to see and be seen at night and in poor light conditions. Your vehicle’s headlights must shine a white light that can be seen at least 150 metres in front and is strong enough to light up objects 110 metres a way. You must also have red rear lights that can be

seen 150 metres away and a white light lighting the rear licence plate when headlights are on. Turn on headlights one-half hour before sunset and keep them on until one-half hour after sunrise. You must always use lights when fog, snow or rain keeps you from clearly seeing people or vehicles less than 150 metres away. Please see the section on driving at night and in bad weather.

Diagram 2-6 – Highbeams

*DIAGRAM 2-6* “Highbeams” — add cyclist with lights and reflectors to night-time riding image

Diagram 2-7 — Lowbeams Don’t drive with only one headlight or with lights that are not aimed properly.

*33* Have your headlight adjustment checked regularly, keep them clean, and replace burned-out bulbs as soon as possible. Parking lights are only for parking. In low light, use your headlights, not parking lights. When you use highbeam headlights, remember to switch to lowbeams within 150 metres of an oncoming vehicle. Use your lowbeams when you are less than 60 metres behind another vehicle unless you are passing it. These rules apply to all roads, including divided ones. Studies show that using daytime running lights makes it easier f or other drivers , cyclists and pedestrians to see you. Remember to switch to regular headlights one-half hour before sunset. Driving with your vehicle’s full lighting system turned on at all times is recommended. This ensures that the rear lights are on, making you more visible to other drivers (replace ‘drivers’ with ‘all road users’). Summary By the end of this section you should know:

The concepts of safe and responsible and defensive driving

Factors that may affect your physical and mental readiness to drive

How to familiarize yourself with your vehicle’s controls and how to set your seating position

The legal requirements surrounding seatbelts, booster seats, and child car seats

How and when to use your vehicle’s lighting system

Driving along Always be aware of traffic around you as you drive , this includes not only other drivers but also pedestrians and cyclists . Develop a routine for looking ahead, behind and from side to side. Check your mirrors every five seconds or so, and check your blind spots by turning your head to look over your shoulder. Keep other drivers out of your blind spot by changing your speed and don’t drive in other vehicles’ blind spots. This is especially true when driving around large commercial vehicles as they typically have large blind spots to the sides and back. Be extra careful at dusk and dawn when everyone has difficulty adjusting to the changing light. Keep a cushion of space around your vehicle and be prepared for the unexpected. Anticipate other road users’ movements and make allowances for every possible error. Look well ahead and watch for people in parked vehicles — they may be about to pull out in front of you or to open a door. You must also pay close attention to smaller vehicles, bicycles and pedestrians.

*34* Steer smoothly All steering should be smooth and precise. You should do most steering and lane changes without taking either hand off the wheel. You must be able to steer in a straight line while shifting gears, adjusting controls or checking your blind spot. Picture the steering wheel as a clock and place your hands at nine o’clock and three o’clock.

Use signals Signals tell other road users what you want to do, alerting them to your intention to turn or stop. Use your turn signals and brake lights to signal before stopping, slowing down, turning, changing lanes, leaving the road or moving out from a parked position. Give the correct signal well before taking the action and make sure other drivers can see it. Check that the way is clear before you act — just signalling is not enough. Follow the r ules for turns, whether left or right, on lane changes and on yields to other vehicles and pedestrians. If your turn signals and brake lights are not working, use hand and arm signals. The pictures on this page show how to make hand and arm signals. When watching for signals made by others, remember that cyclists may signal right turns by holding their right arms straight out. (*add image*) After signaling, move only when it is safe to do so.

Images of cyclist signaling

Diagram 2-8 *DIAGRAM 2-8* — Add image of cyclist doing signals – from ON Cyclists Handbook

Keep right Keep to the right of the road or in the right-hand lane on multi-lane roads unless you want to turn left or pass another vehicle. This is especially important if you are driving more slowly than other vehicles.

*35* Obey speed limits Obey the maximum speed limit posted on signs along the road, but always drive at a speed that will let you stop safely. This means driving below the maximum speed in bad weather, in heavy traffic, in construction zones, or to accommodate bike/pedestrian traffic . School zones and construction zones often have lower speed limits to protect children and those who work on or near the road. Where there are no posted speed limits, the maximum speed is 50 km/h in cities, towns, villages and built-up areas and 80 km/h elsewhere. Cruise control is a driver aid that can improve fuel economy and prevent you from inadvertently exceeding the speed limit. However, there are some circumstances in which cruise control should not be used, such as adverse driving conditions (wet, icy or slippery roads), in heavy traffic, or when you are feeling fatigued. Speed measuring warning devices are illegal. If you get caught driving with such a device, you will be fined and accumulate demerit points. Obey police When police officers are directing traffic, you must follow their directions, even if the directions are different from traffic lights or signs. When a police officer signals you to pull your vehicle over, you must pull over as far to the right as you safely can and come to a complete stop. Stay in your vehicle and wait for the police officer. You must immediately, upon the police officer’s request, surrender your driver’s licence,

vehicle permit (or copy) and insurance. Contrary to popular belief, you do not have 24 hours to present these documents. If you do not obey a police officer’s direction to pull over, you risk being fined (up to $25,000), having your licence suspended or even serving time in prison. Maintaining space As a general rule, drive at the same speed as traffic ar ound you without going over the speed limit. Leave a cushion of space around your vehicle to let other drivers and cyclists see you and to avoid a collision. Whenever you follow another vehicle, you need enough space to stop safely if the other vehicle brakes suddenly. A safe following distance is at least two seconds behind the vehicle in front of you. This lets you see around the vehicle ahead and gives you enough distance to stop suddenly. Do not block the normal and reasonable movement of traffic. *Reference to Passing section.

Diagram 2-9 To give yourself a two-second space, follow these steps: 1. Pick a marker on the road ahead, such as a road sign or telephone pole. 2. When the rear of the vehicle ahead passes the marker, count «one thousand and one, one thousand and two». 3. When the front of your vehicle reaches the marker, stop counting. If you reach the marker before you count «one thousand and two,» you are following too closely. Remember that the two-second rule gives a minimum following distance. It applies only to ideal driving conditions. You will need extra space in certain situations, such as bad weather, when following motorcycles or large trucks, or when carrying a heavy load. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

How to steer and use your vehicle’s signalling system and hand signals

The importance of maintaining space and how to measure following distance

Where to position your vehicle on the road and to obey speed limits and police

*37* Sharing the road with other road users Ontario’s roads accommodate a variety of road users including pedestrians, motorcycles, limited speed motorcycles, mopeds, bicycles, large trucks, buses and farm machinery. Be aware of other road users, the speed at which they travel and the space they occupy on the road. Suggested change to: — Ontario’s road users include pedestrians, bicycles, limited-speed motorcycles, mopeds, motorcycles, large trucks, buses and farm machinery. Be aware of and courteous to other road users, the speed at which they travel and the space they occupy – all are entitled t o be on the road.

1. *on pg. 38 – include bullet point regarding cyclists, and reorder these bullets. 2. Sharing the road with motorcycles and bicycles (limited-speed motorcycles)*remove* Motorcycles, limited-speed motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles are harder to see because of their size. Drivers of these vehicles may make sudden moves because of uneven road surfaces or poor weather conditions. Because they are less protected, they are more likely to be injured in a collision. Motorcycles use a full lane; treat them like other vehicles when driving. Cyclists generally occupy only part of the lane but are entitled to use the full lane as needed. They should be treated the same as other vehicles in this circumstance. Since many motorcycle turn signals do not automatically shut off, be careful when turning left in front of an oncoming motorcycle with its turn signal on. Make sure the motorcyclist is actually turning; he or she may have just forgotten to switch off the turn signal.

*DIAGRAM 2-10 and 2-11* Add pedestrians *38* 1. (from pg. 37) Sharing the road with cyclists

The Ontario Highway Traffic Act defines the bicycle as a vehicle that belongs on the road. Many people cycle for transportation or recreational purposes in all seasons and vary in ages from young children to senior citizens. Drivers must be aware that cyclists may be very experienced riding in traffic (commuter cyclists, bike couriers,) or more novice riders (young children learning to ride and occasional cyclists). Use care and caution when driving around cyclists. Cyclists are more vulnerable to the weather and to road conditions that will not affect drivers to the same degree. Cooperative drivers will slow down and facilitate the safe passage of cyclists. Remember to look for cyclists. Because they take up less room on the road then motor vehicles, scanning for bikes is a critical skill for drivers. Be especially cautious on curves and in underpasses where bicycles are more difficult to see and w hen cyclists are crossing tracks. Cyclists need more room to maneuver at both low speeds (ie. when climbing a hill) and high speeds (ie. when descending a hill) so increase your passing distance or stay behind until the cyclist can move back to the right side of the lane. Drive as though every road has a bike lane on it in order to provide the space needed for cyclists. Bicycles and mopeds that cannot keep up with traffic are expected to keep to the right of the lane; however, they can use any part of the lane , or take the whole lane if necessary for safety, such as to avoid potholes and sewer grates. Cyclists need a metre on either side of themselves as a safety zone. When passing a cyclist, allow at least one metre between your car and the cyclist – pass in the next lane at higher speeds. If the lane is too narrow to share, change lanes to pass the cyclist. When turning right, signal and check your mirrors and the blind spot to your right to make sure you do not cut off a cyclist. Cyclists may be traveling faster than you think. When parked on the side of the street, look behind you and check your mirrors and blinds spots for a passing cyclist before opening a door. Your passenger should do the same. Exit your vehicle safely and avoid keeping the driver’s side door open into traffic for longer than necessary.

3. Sharing the road with large commercial vehicles It is extremely important to know how to drive safely when sharing the road with large commercial vehicles such as tractor-trailers and buses. Rece nt data shows that the majority of fatalities resulting from collisions involving large commercial trucks are not the result of the truck driver’s actions but of the other driver’s actions. Therefore, sharing the road with large commercial vehicles means you must always be aware of a large vehicle’s capabilities and limitations. Be aware of the following:

1. Blind Spots — Large commercial vehicles have big blind spots on both sides. Avoid tailgating a large vehicle. The driver cannot see you if you are directly behind and if the vehicle stops suddenly, you have no place to go. Remember that if you can’t see the driver’s face in the large vehicle’s side view mirror, the driver cannot see you.

Diagram 2-12 blind spot

*DIAGRAM 2-12* Add motorcycles near right blindspot. 39* 2. Stopping Distance — Large commercial vehicles require a much longer distance to stop than smaller vehicles. When passing a large vehicle, do not cut in front closely. Not only is this discourteous, it is dangerous; it reduces the space c ushion large vehicles require in order to stop safely. Allow more room when passing a large vehicle.

3. Wide Turns — When making a right turn, a large vehicle may need to first swing wide to the left and around in order to avoid hitting the right curb. If a large vehicle in front of you is making a right turn, do not move up into the space that opens up in the right lane; you are putting yourself into a very dangerous position. Once the front of the vehicle has cleared the corner, the rest will move partially back into the right lane. If you are in that lane, your vehicle will be squeezed between the trailer and the curb. Stay well back until the truck has completely cleared the lane. This situation can occur on expressway off-ramps that have two left turning lanes. Do not drive up into the left lane when a large vehicle is making a left turn in front of you. Stay well back until the truck has cleared the left turn, or else you may get squeezed between the truck and the curb.

4. Rolling Back — Leave plenty of room if you are stopped behind a large vehicle. When the driver of a large vehicle releases the brakes after being stopped, the vehicle may roll back. 5. Spray — In bad weather, large vehicles are capable of spraying up large amounts of mud, snow and debris, which could land on your windshield and temporarily block your vision. *40* 6. Turbulence — Due to various factors such as air pressure and airflow, a large vehicle can create heavy air turbulence. This may affect your ability to control your vehicle when passing a large vehicle. Sharing the road with municipal buses Many municipal roadways have special indented stopping areas for municipal buses, called bus bays, where passengers can get on and off. There are three types of bus bays: •

mid-block indented bays;

indentations immediately before and after intersections; and

bus stop areas between two designated parking areas.

When a bus in a bus bay begins flashing its left turn signals, indicating that it is ready to leave the bus bay, and you are approaching in the lane adjacent to the bus bay, all drivers and cyclists must allow the bus to re-enter traffic. You must also pay attention for pedestrians exiting and entering bus. •

A: Mid — block indented bays

B: An indentation before an intersection

C: An indentation after an intersection

D: Bus stops between legally parked cars

Sharing the road with farm machinery Farm machinery moves quite slowly compared to other road users. Most tractors and combines have a maximum speed of 40 km/h, but travel at less than 40 km/h when towing implements or wagons. Farm machinery is often oversized, wide or long or both, making it difficult for the driver to see vehicles coming up from behind. Farmers often turn directly into fields rather than roads or lanes, or move from lane to lane. Remember that it is common for farmers to be on the roads after dark during peak planting and harvesting seasons. Farm machinery on the road must display an orange and red slow-moving vehicle sign [link to the slow-moving vehicle sign on page 105.] on the rear of the vehicle. The sign warns other drivers that the vehicle is travelling at 40 km/h or less. If you see one of these signs, slow down and be cautious. Stay well back and do not pass until it is safe to do so.

*41* Sharing the road with pedestrians Pay special attention to pedestrians, whether they are crossing roads in traffic, walking or jogging alongside roads, or using crosswalks or crossovers (generally known as crossings). Always yield the right-of-way to pedestrians at designated crossings. Watch for children. Drive slowly and cautiously through school zones, residential areas and any other area where children may be walking or playing. You never know when a child might dart out from between parked cars or try to cross a street without checking for oncoming traffic. Be very cautious at twilight when children may still be playing outside, but are very difficult to see. Watch out for Community Safety Zone signs as they indicate areas where the community has identified that there is a special risk to pedestrians. Elderly pedestrians or those with disabilities need extra caution and courtesy from drivers as they may be slow in crossing the road. Be alert for pedestrians who are blind, visually impaired, hearing impaired, people in wheelchairs or people walking slowly due to some other physical impairment and give them appropriate consideration. Pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired may use a white cane or guide dog to help them travel safely along sidewalks and across intersections. Caution signs are posted in some areas where there is a special need for drivers to be alert. Persons operating mobility devices (motorized wheelchair and medical scooters) are treated the same way as pedestrians. Usually these operators will travel along a sidewalk but if there is no sidewalk available, persons using a mobility device should travel, like pedestrians, along the left shoulder of the roadway facing oncoming traffic.

Some streetcar stops have a special safety island or zone for passengers getting on and off. Pass these safety islands and zones at a reasonable speed. Always be ready in case pedestrians make sudden or unexpected moves. (Insert image of streetcar w/ a special safety island. Include people in the image.) Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

The importance of sharing the road with other road users, especially large vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians How to share the road with other road users safely and appropriately

*42* Driving through intersections Be alert as you come to intersections and look carefully for traffic, yield signs, stop signs, traffic lights, cyclists and pedestrians. *change order* look carefully for pedestrians, cyclists, motor vehicle traffic, yield signs, stop signs and traffic lights. There are two main types of intersections: controlled and uncontrolled.

Diagram 2-15 *DIAGRAM 2-14* add pedestrian and cyclist

Controlled intersections Controlled intersections have traffic lights, yield signs or stop signs to control traffic ( Diagram 216). At a controlled intersection where you face a green light, drive carefully through the intersection at a steady speed. If the light has been green for a while, be prepared to stop when it turns yellow. However, if you are already so close that you cannot stop safely, drive through the intersection with caution. Where you face a red light, come to a complete stop and wait until the light turns green.

Diagram 2-16 *DIAGRAM 2-15* add pedestrian and cyclist When you approach an intersection on a main road, and the intersection is blocked with traffic, stop before entering the intersection and wait until the tr affic ahead moves on. This does not apply if you are turning left or right.

At a controlled intersection where you face a yield sign, slow down or stop if necessary and wait until the way is clear before driving through the intersection. At a controlled intersection where you face a stop sign, come to a complete stop. Drive through the intersection only when the way is clear (Diagram 2-16).

Uncontrolled intersections Uncontrolled intersections have no signs or traffic lights. They are usually found in areas where there is not much traffic. Be extra careful around these intersections. Watch closely for cyclists and pedestrians. If two vehicles come to an uncontrolled intersection from different roads at the same time, the (driver) vehicle on the left must let the (driver) vehicle on the right go first. This is called yielding the right-of-way.

*43* Yielding the right-of-way There are times when you must yield the right-of-way. This means you must let another driver , cyclist or pedestrian go first. Here are some rules about when you must yield the right-of-way. At an intersection without signs or lights, you must yield the right-of-way to a vehicle , including bicycles approaching the intersection before you, and if you arrive at the same time, the vehicle approaching from the right has the right-of-way (Diagram 2-15). At an intersection with stop signs at all corners, you must yield the right-of-way to the first vehicle to come to a complete stop. If two vehicles stop at the same time, the vehicle on the left must yield to the vehicle on the right (Diagram 2-16). At any intersection where you want to turn left or right, you must yield the right-of-way. If you are turning left, you must wait for approaching traffic, including cyclists to pass or turn and for pedestrians in or approaching your path to cr oss. If you are turning right, you must wait for pedestrians to cross if they are in or approaching your path. You must also check your blind spot for cyclists on your right or approaching from behind. (Diagram 2-17). A yield sign means you must slow down or stop if necessary and yield the right-of-way to traffic in the intersection or on the intersecting road.

Diagram 2-17 *DIAGRAM 2-16* add cyclist stopped at intersection and travelling through intersection. When entering a road from a private road or driveway, you must stop prior to sidewalk and yield to all motorized and non-motorized vehicles on the road and (pedestrians on the sidewalk ) (Diagram 2-18). *change order, pedestrian first.*

*insert text and image re Pedestrian Scramble intersections.*

*44* You must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing at specially marked pedestrian crossovers (Diagram 2-19). Remember, signalling does not give you the right-of-way. You must make sure the way is clear.

Diagram 2-19 *DIAGRAM 2-18* remove right lane car, replace with cyclist Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

The difference between controlled and uncontrolled intersections and how to safely navigate them The concept of right-of-way and common situations where you must yield to other road users

Stopping Knowing how to stop safely and properly is an important driving skill.

Diagram 2-20 *DIAGRAM 2-19* add cyclist and pedestrian If there is no stop line, stop at the crosswalk, marked or not. If there is no crosswalk, stop at the edge of the sidewalk. If there is no sidewalk, stop at the edge of the intersection (Diagram 2-21). Wait until the way is clear before entering the intersection.

Diagram 2-21 *DIAGRAM 2-20* add cyclist

*45* Safe and responsible drivers see stops ahead, check their mirrors, begin braking early and stop smoothly. Braking is easier when you sit properly. Use your right foot for both brake and gas pedals so you won’t step on both pedals at the same time or activate your brake lights unnecessarily. Press the brake pedal firmly and e venly. In a vehicle with manual transmission, try shifting into a lower gear going down long, steep hills. This will help control your speed and you won’t have to brake as sharply. Downshift before starting downhill since it may not be possible once you are going downhill. As a guide, you should be in the same gear going downhill as uphill. You must come to a complete stop for all stop signs and red traffic lights. Stop at the stop line if it is marked on the pavement (Diagram 2-20). Stopping at railway crossings All railway crossings on public roads in Ontario are marked with large red and white ‘X’ signs. Watch for these signs and be prepared to stop. You may also see yellow advance warning signs and large ‘X’ pavement markings ahead of railway crossings. Some railway crossings have flashing signal lights and some use gates or barriers to keep drivers from crossing the tracks when a train is coming. Some less travelled crossings have stop signs posted. Remember it can take up to two kilometres for a train to stop under full emergency braking. On private roads, railway crossings may not be marked, so watch carefully.

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*46* When you come to a railway crossing, remember: •

Slow down, listen and look both ways to make sure the way is clear before crossing the tracks. If a train is coming, stop at least five metres from the nearest rail or gate. Do not cross the track until you are sure the train or trains have passed. Never race a train to a crossing.

If there are signal lights, wait until they stop flashing and, if the crossing has a gate or barrier, wait until it rises, before you cross the tracks. Never drive around, under or through a railway gate or barrier while it is down, being lowered or being raised. It is illegal and dangerous. Avoid stopping in the middle of railway tracks; for example, in heavy traffic, make sure you have enough room to cross the tracks completely before you begin to cross. Avoid shifting gears while crossing tracks. If you get trapped on a crossing, immediately get everyone out and away from the vehicle. Move to a safe place and then contact authorities. Buses and other public vehicles are required to stop at railway crossings that are not protected by gates, signal lights, or a stop sign. School buses must stop at railway crossings whether or not they are protected by gates or signal lights. Watch for these buses and be prepared to stop behind them. If you are approaching a railway crossing with a stop sign, you must stop unless otherwise directed by a flagman.


Stopping at school crossings Where a school crossing guard displays a red and white stop sign you must stop before reaching the crossing and remain stopped until all persons, including the school crossing guard, have cleared your half of the roadway and it is safe to proceed. If you have any doubts on when it is safe to drive forward, wait until all the children and the guard have cleared the crossing. Drivers who don’t follow the stopping requirements may be fined between $150 and $500 and get 3 demerit points. Stopping for school buses School buses in Ontario come in a range of sizes. All are chrome yellow and display the words «School Bus.» You must stop whenever you approach a stopped school bus with its upper alternating red lights flashing, regardless of whether you are behind the bus or approaching it from the front.

*47* When approaching the bus from the front, stop at a safe distance for children to get off the bus and cross the road in front of you. If you are coming from behind the bus, stop at least 20 metres away. Do not go until the bus moves or the lights have stopped flashing.

Diagram 2-24 *DIAGRAM 2-23* add cyclist in front of red car and beside blue car If you are on a road with a median strip, only vehicles coming from behind the bus must stop. (A median is a physical barrier such as a raised, lowered, earth or paved strip constructed to separate traffic travelling in different directions. Vehicles cannot cross over a median strip.) You must obey the school bus law on any road, no matter how many lanes or what the speed limit. Be prepared to stop for a school bus at any time, not just within school hours. As well as the upper alternating red flashing lights, school buses use a stop sign arm on the driver’s side of the bus. This arm, a standard stop sign with alternating flashing red lights at top and bottom, swings out after the upper alternating red lights begin to flash. Remain stopped until the arm folds away and all lights stop flashing. *48* Note: It is illegal to fail to stop for a stopped school bus that has its red lights flashing. If you don’t stop, you can be fined $400 to $2,000 and get six demerit points for a first offence. If you are convicted a second time within five years, the penalty is a fine of $1,000 to $4,000 and six demerit points. You could also go to jail for up to six months. In Ontario, school bus drivers and other witnesses can report vehicles that have illegally passed a school bus. If you are the vehicle’s registered owner, these same fines, but not demerit points or jail time, may be applied to you. Watch for school buses near railway crossings. All school buses must stop at all railway crossings. The upper alternating red lights are not used for these stops, so be alert. Stopping for pedestrian crossovers

Diagram 2-25 *DIAGRAM 2-24* remove blue car and replace with cyclist. Add pedestrian walking bicycle across. Pedestrian crossovers (also commonly called crosswalks) are designated areas that allow pedestrians to safely cross roads where there are no traffic lights.

*49* Always watch for pedestrians and people using wheelchairs at these crossings. Pedestrians may push a button to make overhead yellow lights flash to warn drivers. Pedestrians should point across the road to show they want to cross before entering the roadway. Drivers, including cyclists, must stop and allow pedestrians to cross. Once people have cleared your side of the road, you can proceed with caution. Do not pass any vehicle within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossover.

*More info needed on vehicles stopping to load/unload passengers. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

Where to position your vehicle when stopping at stop lights and stop signs The importance of stopping at railway crossings and how to position your vehicle to stop for them

How and when to stop for school crossings and school buses

How and when to stop for pedestrian crossovers

Before you turn a corner, back up, change lanes or turn around, you need to know what is (beside) ahead, to your right, left, and behind you. Always check your mirrors and over your shoulder to make sure the way is clear and you have enough space to complete the move safely. Turning a corner

To turn a corner, signal well before the turn. When the way is clear, move into the proper lane either the far right lane for a right turn or the far left lane in your direction for a left turn. Signal your turn and look from side to side to make sure the way is clear. Check your blindspots for cyclists and pedestrians. Slow down before you enter the turn; the sharper the turn, the slower you should go. To keep full control of the vehicle, finish braking before you turn the steering wheel. For a sharp turn, turn the steering wheel with one hand and cross the other hand over it.

*50* Grip the wheel on the other side and continue turning. This is called » hand over hand steering.» When you have completed the turn, relax your grip on the steering wheel and let it slip or gently feed it through your hands to return to the straight-ahead position. Do not turn the steering wheel with one finger or the flat palm of your hand. Gradually increase speed as you complete the turn.Remember, drivers often lose control of vehicles and skid because they try to do more than one thing at a time. Try not to brake and steer at the same time.

Right turns Unless signs or pavement markings tell you not to, always begin and end a right turn close to the right side of the road. *Refer to pg. 151. To make a right turn, signal well before the turn and move into the right-hand lane when the way is clear. If the right-hand lane is not marked, keep as far to the right of the road as possible. Look ahead, left, right and left again before starting to turn. If you have not seen any (smaller vehicles or pedestrians), pedestrians or cyclists check your right rear blind spot. Cyclists may be going faster than you think. Let cyclists, limited-speed motorcycles, or moped riders go through the intersection before you turn. When it is safe, complete your turn into the right-hand lane of the road you are entering.

Diagram 2-26 *DIAGRAM 2-25* add multiple pedestrians crossing intersection, cyclist waiting at light.

Right turn on a red light Unless a sign tells you not to, you may turn right on a red light as long as you first come to a complete stop (insert image highlighting exactly where the vehicle is to stop) and wait until the way is clear. Remember to yield to pedestrians and others using the road.

Left turns Unless signs or pavement markings tell you not to, always begin and end a left turn in the far left lane in your direction. To make a left turn, signal well before the turn and move into the far left lane when the way is clear. Look ahead, behind, left, right and left again and check your blind spots. Make your turn when the way is clear.

When you are stopped at an intersection waiting for approaching traffic to clear, don’t turn your steering wheel to the left until you can complete the turn. With your wheels turned to the left, your vehicle could be pushed into the path of oncoming traffic.

*51* The following diagrams show you the correct way to turn left on different types of roads:

Diagram 2-27: Two-way road to a two-way road. Turn from the lane closest to the centre line to the lane right of the centre line, following a smooth arc. Then, when you can, move into the right curb lane.

Diagram 2-27 *DIAGRAM 2-26* add cyclist and pedestrian

Diagram 2-28: Two-way road to a one-way road. Turn from the lane closest to the centre line to the left curb lane.

Diagram 2-28 *DIAGRAM 2-27* add cyclist and pedestrian

Diagram 2-29: One-way road to a two-way road. Turn from the left curb lane to the lane just right of the centre line. Then, when you can, move into the right curb lane.

Diagram 2-29 *DIAGRAM 2-28* add cyclist and pedestrian

Diagram 2-30: One-way road to a one-way road. Turn from the left curb lane to the left curb lane.

Diagram 2-30 *DIAGRAM 2-29* add cyclist and pedestrian

*52* When two vehicles coming from opposite directions meet in an intersection waiting to turn left, each should turn to the left of the other after yielding the right-of-way to pedestrians and oncoming traffic. Motorcycles, bicycles, limited-speed motorcycles and mopeds turn left at intersections in the same way as larger vehicles. If you are making a left turn behind one of these vehicles, do not

pull up beside it to make your turn at the same time. Stay behind and turn when the way is clear. Wait for the smaller vehicle to move right before you pass.

Left-turn lanes Some roads have special lanes for vehicles turning left (Diagram 2-31). At an intersection where left-turn lanes are marked on the pavement, make your turn from the marked lane. Keep this lane position as you turn onto the other road.

Diagram 2-31*REMOVE DIAGRAM 2-30* Replace with diagram showing cyclist turning left with motorized vehicles and pedestrians present. The centre lane of some roads is used as a two-way left-turn lane (Diagram 2-32). This lets leftturning vehicles from both directions wait for a chance to turn without holding up traffic. To use a two-way left-turn lane, follow these steps: 1. Signal and move into the centre lane shortly before your turn. Slow down. 2. Carefully move forward to a spot opposite the road or driveway where you want to turn. 3. Make your turn when the way is clear. Remember that vehicles from the opposite direction also use this lane to turn left.

*53* As they wait in front of you, it may be hard for you to see oncoming traffic. Only go when you are sure the way is clear. These left turn lanes are not to be used for passing.

Left turn on a red light You may turn left from a one-way road to a one-way road on a red light after coming to a complete stop and making sure the way is clear. Yield to pedestrians and traffic.

Driving through roundabouts Approaching: •

Slow down and watch for pedestrians on the approach to the yield line at the entrance of the roundabout. Stay in your lane. Entering:

Visual checks: Do visual checks of all vehicles already in the roundabout and those waiting to enter (including cyclists). Look left: Traffic in the roundabout has the right-of-way. When preparing to enter the roundabout, pay special attention to the vehicles to your left. Adjust your speed or stop at the yield sign if necessary. Adequate gap: Watch for a safe opportunity to enter the roundabout. Enter when there is an adequate gap in the circulating traffic flow. Don’t enter directly beside another vehicle already in the roundabout, as that vehicle may be exiting at the next exit. Travel counter-clockwise: Once in the roundabout, always keep to the right of the central island and travel in a counter-clockwise direction. Keep moving: Once you are in the roundabout, do not stop except to avoid a collision; you have the right-of-way over entering traffic. Signal: Always signal lane changes. Exiting:

Signal: Be sure to signal your exit and watch for pedestrians and cyclists. Maintain your lane: Stay to the left if you entered from the left lane, or stay to the right if you entered from the right lane. Maintain your position: Maintain your position relative to other vehicles. Signal intent to exit: Once you have passed the exit before the one you want, use your right-turn signal. Left lane exit: If exiting from the left lane, watch out for vehicles on the right that continue to circulate around the roundabout.

Diagram 2-33 *DIAGRAM 2-32* add cyclist and pedestrian

Dealing with particular situations at a roundabout: Consider large vehicles Allow extra room alongside large vehicles (trucks and buses). Large vehicles may have to swing wide on the approach or within the roundabout. Give them plenty of room.

Pull over for emergency vehicles If you are in a roundabout when an emergency vehicle approaches, exit at your intended exit and proceed beyond the traffic island before pulling over. If you have not entered the roundabout yet, pull over to the right if possible and wait until the emergency vehicle has passed.

Driving a large vehicle in a roundabout A driver negotiating a roundabout in a large vehicle (such as a truck or bus) may need to use the full width of the roadway, including the apron (a mountable portion of the centre island adjacent to the roadway) if provided. Prior to entering the roundabout, the vehicle may need to occupy both lanes. Give large vehicles plenty of room to manoeuvre.

*55* Backing up Take extra care and move slowly when backing up (reversing) your vehicle. Before you begin, check that the way is clear behind you. Be especially careful to look for children and cyclists. While firmly holding the steering wheel, put the gear selector in reverse and turn sideways in your seat to look over your shoulder in the direction you are moving. If you are reversing straight back or to the right, turn your body and head to the right and look back over your right shoulder (Diagram 2-34).

Diagram 2-34 If you are reversing to the left, turn your body and head to the left and look over your left shoulder (Diagram 2-35). Always check the opposite shoulder as well. If you are turning as you reverse, check that the front end of your vehicle does not hit anything. You don’t have to wear a seatbelt while backing up. If you need to remove your seatbelt to turn your body to see properly when reversing, do so. But don’t forget to buckle up again before moving forward.

Diagram 2-35 It is illegal to drive in reverse on a divided road that has a speed limit of more than 80 km/h. This applies to the travelled section of the road and the shoulder. The only exception to this rule is if you are trying to help someone in trouble.

Turning around You may need to turn around when driving if you miss a turn or go too far along a road. There are several ways to do this safely. The simplest and safest way is to drive around the block, but there may be times when this is not possible. In such cases, a U-turn or a three-point turn may be necessary.

*56* U-turn Before you make a U-turn, check to make sure there is no sign saying not to. To make a U-turn safely, you must be able to see well in both directions. It is illegal to make a Uturn on a curve in the road, on or near a railway crossing or hilltop, or near a bridge or tunnel that blocks your view. Never make a U-turn unless you can see at least 150 metres in both directions. To make a U-turn, signal for a right turn, check your mirror and over your shoulder and pull over to the right side of the road. Stop. Signal a left turn and when traffic is clear in both directions, move forward and turn quickly and sharply into the opposite lane. Check for traffic, including cyclists, as you turn.

Three-point turn On narrow roads you need to make a three-point turn to change directions. As shown in Diagram 2-36, a three-point turn starts from the far right side of the road. Make sure you do not make a three-point turn on a curve in the road, on or near a railway crossing or hilltop, or near a bridge or tunnel that blocks your view. Signal for a left turn. When the way is clear in both directions, move forward, turning the steering wheel sharply left towards the curb on the far side of the road. When you have reached the left side of the road, stop. Shift the vehicle into reverse. Signal a right turn. After checking that the way is still clear, turn the steering wheel sharply to the right, while backing up slowly to the other side of the road. Stop. Shift to forward gear and check traffic. When the way is clear, drive forward.

*57* Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

How to properly turn left or right at intersections

The rules surrounding turns onto and from one way streets

How to navigate a roundabout

Where to look and how to manoeuvre your vehicle when backing up

Methods of turning your vehicle around to travel back in the opposite direction (U-turns, 3-point turns)

Changing positions Changing your position on the road involves changing lanes or overtaking and passing another vehicle. Before beginning, be sure you have enough space and time to complete the move safely.

Changing lanes is a movement from one lane to another on roads with two or more lanes in the same direction. You may have to change lanes to overtake another vehicle, to avoid a parked vehicle or when the vehicle ahead slows to turn at an intersection. Never change lanes without giving the proper signal and looking to make sure the move can be made safely. Here are the steps for making a lane change: 1. Check your mirrors for a space in traffic where you can enter safely. 2. Check your blind spot by looking over your shoulder in the direction of the lane change. Signal that you want to move left or right

Diagram 2-37 *DIAGRAM 2-36* add cyclist position change imagery from O N Cyclists handbook – p.20

*58* 3. Check again to make sure the way is clear and that no one is coming too fast from behind or from two lanes over on a multi-lane road. 4. Steer gradually into the new lane. Do not slow down — maintain the same speed or gently increase it. Never make sudden lane changes by cutting in front of another vehicle, including bicycles. Other drivers expect you to stay in the lane you are already in. Even if you signal, they expect you to yield the right-of-way. Avoid unnecessary lane changes or weaving from lane to lane. You are more likely to cause a collision, especially in heavy traffic or bad weather. Don’t change lanes in or near an intersection. Remember that spending a few seconds behind another vehicle is often safer than going around it.

Passing Passing is changing lanes to move past a slower vehicle. While all public roads have speed limits, not all vehicles travel at the same speed. For example, cyclists, road service vehicles and drivers ahead that are preparing to turn are usually slower than the through traffic. You may want to pass some slow-moving vehicles when you are following them. Never overtake and pass another vehicle unless you are sure you can do so without danger to yourself or others. Don’t pass moving snow plows under any conditions. If in doubt, do not pass.

Here are the steps for passing a vehicle: 1. Use your left-turn signal to show that you want to pass and check that the way is clear ahead and behind before moving into the passing lane. 2. Watch for bicycles and small vehicles that may be hidden from view in front of the vehicle you are about to pass. Also watch for vehicles that may be turning left in front of you and vehicles or pedestrians entering the road from another road or drriveway.

*DIAGRAM 2-37* add cyclist in place of white car. *59* Change lanes only after signalling. After overtaking, signal that you want to move back into the lane you started from, and when you can see the entire front of the vehicle you are passing in your inside mirror, make the lane change. Be careful not to cut off a vehicle by suddenly moving in front of it. 3. If the vehicle you are passing speeds up, do not race. Go back to your original lane. And do not speed up when another driver is trying to pass you. It is unlawful , discourteous and dangerous. Do not pass any vehicle (cyclist, motorcycle, limited-speed motorcycle or moped) within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossing. *ADD IMAGE* refer to pg. 47 ; clarify what is meant by ‘pedestrian crossing’ – a crosswalk? all intersections? When passing parked vehicles, watch carefully for people suddenly opening doors or for doors opened to load and unload. Motorcycles, bicycles, limited-speed motorcycles and mopeds often need to pull to the left or right side of their lane to avoid dangerous road conditions or to be seen by other drivers. Do not take this as an invitation to pass in the same lane. If you do want to pass these vehicles, do so by changing lanes. When another vehicle wants to pass you, you must move to the right and let it pass. When being passed on an undivided road where the passing driver has pulled into the opposite lane, pay attention to oncoming traffic and move closer to the right side of the lane. Be prepared to slow down to let the passing driver get in front of you more quickly to prevent a collision.

On many high-speed roads with three or more lanes in each direction, trucks are not allowed to drive in the far left-hand lane. This means that the lane next to it is the truck passing lane. If you are in this lane and a truck wants to pass, move into the right-hand lane as soon as you can. Passing at night Be very careful when you pass other vehicles at night. If you have to pass and the way is clear, follow these steps: 1. Switch your headlights to low beams as you approach a vehicle from behind. 2. Signal, check your mirrors and blind spot, and pull out to pass. As you move alongside the vehicle you are passing, switch on your highbeams. This will let you see more of the road ahead. 3. When you can see all of the front of the vehicle you are passing in your rear view mirror, you are far enough ahead to pull back into the right lane. Remember to signal. Passing and climbing lanes

Diagram 2-40 Some roads have special passing or climbing lanes. These lanes let slower vehicles move i nto the right-hand lane so that faster ones can pass safely in the left lane. An advance sign tells drivers they will soon have a chance to pass. Another sign warns when the lane is ending so drivers in the right-hand lane can begin to merge safely with traffic in the lefthand lane.

*61* Passing on the shoulder You may drive on the right shoulder only to pass a vehicle turning left and only if the shoulder is paved. You may not pass on the left shoulder, paved or not. Passing on the right Most passing is done on the left. You may pass on the right on multi-lane or one-way roads and when overtaking a streetcar or a left-turning vehicle. Passing on the right can be more dangerous than passing on the left. If you are driving in the passing lane with a slower vehicle in front of you, wait for the vehicle to move to the right. Do not suddenly change lanes and pass on the right; the driver in front may realize you want to pass and move to the right at the same time you do.

Diagram 2-41*DIAGRAM 2-40* Zoom in on streetcar/pedestrians. Add cyclist next to blue car. Add pedestrian and cyclist on opposite side of street. You must pass streetcars on the right unless you are driving on a one-way road. At streetcar stops, stay at least two metres behind the rear doors where passengers are getting off or on. Vehicles must come to a complete stop at this two metre mark while the streetcar doors are open, regardless of whether there are people visibly leaving or entering the streetcar. This rule does not apply at stops where an area has been set aside for streetcar passengers (insert image of this scenario). Always pass these areas at a reasonable speed and be prepared for pedestrians to make sudden or unexpected moves.

*62* Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

The safety considerations and the sequence of steps to follow when changing lanes or passing

How to deal with specific situations when passing (e.g. at night, streetcars)

Add point re: watch carefully for cyclists. They often travel faster than you think.

Add point re: why? – cyclists may be hit/involved in collision

Parking Since parking rules change from road to road and place to place, always watch for and obey signs that say you may not stop or limit stopping, standing or parking. Be aware that not all parking by-laws are posted on signs. Here are some basic parking rules: •

Never park on the travelled part of a road. Drive off the r oad onto the shoulder if you must stop for some reason. Never park on a curve, hill or anywhere you do not have a clear view f or at least 125 metres in both directions. Do not park where you will block a vehicle already parked or where you will block a sidewalk, crosswalk, pedestrian crossing or road entrance.

Do not park within three metres of a fire hydrant, on or within 100 metres of a ridge or within six metres of a public entrance to a hotel, theatre or public hall when it is open to the public. Do not park within nine metres of an intersection or within 15 metres if it is controlled by traffic lights.

Do not park within 15 metres of the nearest rail of a level railway crossing.

Do not park where you will get in the way of traffic or snow clearing.

Never open the door of your parked vehicle without first making sure that you will not endanger any other person or (vehicle) cyclist or interfere with traffic. When you must open a door next to traffic, keep it open only long enough to load or unload passengers. Always do shoulder checks for cyclists before opening doors.

Never park or stop in a bike lane, even if only for a few minutes. Blocking the lane causes potentially dangerous situations by forcing cyclists into f aster moving traffic unexpectedly. Never park with any of the vehicle wheels on the sidewalk.

Diagram 2-42 After parking your vehicle, always turn off the ignition and the lights, remove the key a nd lock the door to deter theft. Do not leave children or animals in the vehicle. Before moving from a parked position, always signal and shoulder check for traffic and cyclists, pulling out only when it is safe to do so. Parking Parking for people with disabilities The Accessible Parking Permit, formerly known as the Disabled Person Parking Permit, is a laminated card that may be displayed on the dashboard or turned-down sun visor of any vehicle in which a person with a disability is travelling. The permit entitles the vehicle in which the person named on the permit is travelling to park in designated disabled parking, standing and stopping areas. The permit is issued to the permit holder, not a specific vehicle. People who have the old version of the permit, the Disabled Person Parking Permit, may continue to use this permit until it expires. Upon its expiry, any new permit issued will be the Accessible Parking Permit.

The Accessible Parking Permit is issued free of charge to qualified individuals. To qualify for an Accessible Parking Permit, a licensed physician, chiropractor, nurse practitioner (extended class), physiotherapist or occupational therapist must certify that the applicant has one or more of the conditions detailed on the Accessible Parking Permit application form. There are four types of Accessible Parking Permits. •

A regular permit (blue) is issued to people with permanent disabilities and is valid for five years. Medical re-certification is not r equired to renew the regular

*64* permit unless the permit holder has been certified as having a condition that may improve. •

A temporary permit (red) is issued when the disability is expected to last more than two months, but is not a permanent disability. The temporary permit is not renewable. A traveller permit (purple) is valid for up to one year and is issued upon request to individuals who hold a valid Accessible Parking Permit and plan to fly from any Ontario airport. The permit holder places the traveller permit on the dashboard or sun visor of their vehicle when leaving it parked at the airport. The person’s regular permit travels with them. A company permit (green) is valid for up to five years and is issued to companies and non-profit organizations that own or lease vehicles used to transport people with physical disabilities.

Diagram 2-43 Misuse or abuse of an Accessible Parking Permit should be reported to the police. Misuse of an Accessible Parking Permit will result in fines and r evoked privileges. Accessible Parking Permit applications are available on the MTO website at www.mto.gov.on.ca, at any Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office or by sending a request to the ministry at the following address: Ministry of Transportation Building A 2680 Keele Street Downsview, ON M3M 3E6 Never park in a space designated for people with disabilities unless you display an Accessible Parking Permit in the windshield of your vehicle. The permit must belong to you or one of your passengers. This also applies to standing or stopping at curb areas reserved for picking up and dropping off passengers with disabilities.

*65* Parallel parking Parallel parking means parking a vehicle with its wheels parallel and next to the curb or side of the road. Park parallel to the curb on roads where parking is allowed unless there are signs saying that vehicles should be parked at an angle. Park on the right side of the road in the direction of traffic. Unless there are signs saying otherwise, you can parallel park on both sides of a one-way road.

Diagram 2-44 *DIAGRAM 2-43* add pedestrian To parallel park on the right-hand side of the road, find a space that is about one and one half times longer than your vehicle. Check (the traffic) for motor vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians beside and behind, and signal your wish to pull over and stop. Drive alongside — or parallel to the vehicle ahead of the empty space, leaving about a metre between the vehicles. Stop when your rear bumper is in line with the other vehicle. Follow these steps: 1. Slowly and carefully reverse into the space, turning the steering wheel fully towards the curb. 2. When you can see the outside rear corner of the vehicle in front of your space, straighten your wheels as you continue to reverse. 3. Turn the steering wheel fully toward the road to bring your vehicle in line with the curb. 4. If your vehicle is not parallel to the curb, drive forward to straighten. 5. When you are properly parked, set the parking brake and move the gear selector into park, or shift into first or reverse gear if your vehicle has a manual transmission.

*66* Turn off the engine. Remember to remove the key from the ignition. Check traffic and shoulder check for bicycles before opening your door. Lock your vehicle.

Minimize the time that your door is open. Where accessible, load and unload your vehicle from the passenger side. Parking on a hill When parking facing downhill, turn your front wheels towards the c urb or right shoulder. This will keep the vehicle from rolling into traffic if the brakes become disengaged. (Diagram 2-45 A). Turn the steering wheel to the left so the wheels are turned towards the road if you are facing uphill with a curb. The tires will catch the curb if it rolls backward (Diagram 2-45 B). When facing uphill without a curb, turn the wheels sharply to the right. If the vehicle rolls, it will go off the road rather than into traffic (Diagram 2-45 C). When parking on a hill, always set the parking brake and move the gear selector into park, or shift

into first or reverse gear if your vehicle has a manual transmission. Turn off the engine and remove the key. Check for traffic before opening the door and remember to lock your vehicle.

Roadside stop When you need to stop by the side of the road for a short time — to check something outside your vehicle, allow a passenger to disembark or to look for directions on a map, for example — follow these directions: 1. Before slowing down, check your mirrors and blind spot to see when the way is clear. 2. Turn on your signal before slowing down unless there ar e vehicles waiting to enter the road from sideroads or driveways between you and the point where you

*67* intend to stop. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you are turning before the stopping point. 3. Check back for cyclists and steer to the side of the road, steadily reducing speed, and stop parallel to the curb or edge of the road. You should not be more than about 30 centimetres away from it. Do not stop in a bike lane or where you will block an entrance or other traffic.

4. Turn off your signal and turn on your hazard lights. * see point 2. below “flashers” . Terms should agree. 5. You and your passenger must check for cyclists and pedestrians before opening the door of your vehicle. If your vehicle has an automatic transmission, put the gear selector in park and set the parking brake. If your vehicle has a manual transmission, set the parking brake and shift into neutral if not turning off the engine, or shift into low or reverse if turning off the engine. When parking on a hill, turn your wheels in the appropriate direction to keep your vehicle from rolling. Pulling out from a roadside stop When pulling out from a roadside stop, do the following:

1. Release the parking brake and move the gear selector to drive or shift into first gear. 2. Turn off your flashers and turn on your left turn signal. 3. Just before pulling away from the stop, check your mirrors and blind spot to make sure the way is clear of vehicles and cyclists. 4. Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. In light traffic, accelerate moderately. In heavier traffic, you may have to accelerate more quickly. In a vehicle with manual transmission, shift gears as you increase speed. 5. Turn off your left turn signal as soon as you are back on the road. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

Basic parking rules that may not appear on posted street signs What an Accessible Parking Permit is, and who is eligible to park in spaces designated for people with disabilities

What parallel parking is and what steps to follow to complete it successfully

How to safely pull over your vehicle for a roadside stop and re-enter traffic

Possible tips re: Private parking lot *S*

*68* Freeway driving

*Note needed re: crossing path of pedestrians and cyclists who are not merging. (Yielding) Ex: Don Viaduct A freeway — also called an expressway — is a high-speed, multi-lane road. On a freeway, traffic going in each direction is separated and ramps let vehicles enter and exit. Vehicle speed is higher on a freeway than on other roads, so driving can be more demanding and difficult. However, because there are no intersections, bicycles or pedestrians, freeway driving can be safer for experienced drivers. New lanes called High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes are to be used for vehicles carrying a set minimum number of people. You will need to learn how to recognize markings and signs for these lanes, and the rules for using them. New drivers need to learn how to drive with other vehicles around them at low speeds before trying freeway driving. Class G1 drivers may only drive on freeways with a licensed driving instructor. Entering a freeway There are usually two parts to a freeway entrance: an entrance ramp and an acceleration lane. As you move along the freeway entrance ramp, look ahead and check your mirrors and blind spots to assess the traffic to see where you will move into the nearest freeway lane. As you leave the ramp you enter the acceleration lane. In the acceleration lane, drivers increase their speed to the speed of traffic on the freeway before they merge with it. Signal and increase your speed to merge smoothly with traffic. Freeway drivers should move over, if it is safe to do so, leaving room for merging vehicles. A few entrance ramps join the freeway on the left. This means you enter the fastest lane of traffic first. Use the acceleration lane to match your speed to the traffic, increasing your speed more quickly.

*69* Driving along a freeway Once on the freeway, a safe driver travels at a steady speed, looking forward and anticipating what’s going to happen on the road ahead. Traffic should keep to the right, using the left lanes for passing. As in city driving, your eyes should be constantly moving, scanning the road ahead, to each side and behind. Look ahead to where you are going to be in the next 15 to 20 seconds, or as far a head as you can see, when you travel at faster speeds. Remember to keep scanning and check your mirrors frequently. Stay clear of large vehicles. Because of their size, they block your view more than other vehicles. Leave space around your vehicle. This will let you see clearly in every direction and will give you time and space to react. Be careful not to cut off any vehicle, large or small, when making a lane change or joining the flow of traffic. It is dangerous and illegal for a slower moving vehicle to cut in front of a faster moving vehicle. Use the far left lane of a multi-lane freeway to pass traffic moving slower than the speed limit, but don’t stay there. Drive in the right-hand lane when possible. On many freeways with three or more lanes in each direction, large trucks cannot travel in the far left lane and must use the lane to the right for passing. Get into the habit of driving in the right lane, leaving the other lanes clear for passing. Leaving a freeway There are usually three parts to a freeway exit: a deceleration lane for slowing down that leads drivers out of the main flow of traffic, an exit ramp and an intersection with a stop sign, yield sign or traffic light. Be aware that you are re-entering a pedestrian and cycling zone. Slow down and use extra caution.

*DIAGRAM 2-45* Zoom out to also include pedestrian crossing on exit ramp.

*70* When leaving the freeway, signal that you want to move into the deceleration lane, but do not slow down. When you are in the lane, reduce your speed gradually to the speed shown for the exit ramp. Check your speedometer to make sure you are going slowly enough. You may not realize how fast you are going because you are used to the high speed of the freeway. Losing your ability to judge your speed accurately is sometimes called speed adaptation or velocitization. It is a special danger when leaving a freeway. Be prepared to stop at the end of the exit ramp. Slow down to local speeds and use extra caution. Be aware that you are re-entering a pedestrian and cycling zone. Signs telling you that there are freeway exits ahead are far enough in advance for you to make any lane changes safely. If you miss an exit, do not stop or reverse on the freeway. Take the next exit.

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane A High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane is a specially designed lane that is designated for use by certain types of vehicles with a specified number of occupants. It can offer travel time savings to those who choose to carpool or take transit. HOV lanes can move a greater number of people than a general traffic lane, and encourage carpooling and transit use by providing travel time savings and a more reliable trip time. HOV lanes are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. HOV lanes benefit all drivers, not only those who carpool, in the following ways: •

Improves highway infrastructure by moving more people in fewer cars

Reduces the number of vehicles on the road

Reduces vehicle emissions and improves air quality

Helps you conserve fuel, save money (by sharing the cost of driving) and reduce stress.

HOV lanes on provincial highways are reserved for vehicles carrying at least two people (i.e. a driver plus at least one passenger in any of the following passenger vehicles: cars, minivans, motorcycles, pickup trucks, taxis, buses and limousines). •

The HOV lane is separated from the other general traffic lanes by a striped buffer zone. It is illegal and unsafe to cross the striped buffer pavement markings.

Certain vehicles are exempt from the HOV lane rules. Buses can use an HOV lane at any time, regardless of the number of occupants. Emergency vehicles such as police, fire and ambulance are also exempt from the restrictions. If you use the HOV lanes improperly, you can be stopped and ticketed by a police officer. You will be required to re-enter the general lanes at the next entry/exit zone.

*71* Short paragraph re: bike lanes. Bicycle Lanes Bicycle priority lanes are lanes designated for use by cyclists. These lanes are usually found on the right side of the curb lane, and feature a solid white line with intermittent bicycle and/or diamond symbols. Motor vehicles are prohibited from driving, parking or stopping in these lanes. Drivers should take particular care when turning right, or crossing bike lanes. At intersections where the bicycle lane is dashed, drivers must shoulder check, signal and shoulder check again before merging safely into the bike lane. Make the right turn from the right most part of the lane, signaling your turn. If there is a bicycle ahead of you, wait behind before making your turn. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

What a freeway is and which road users can and cannot use them

Safe practices to follow when entering, driving along or exiting a freeway

What HOV lanes are and who can use them

What a Bicycle lane is and who can use them

Dealing with particular situations

Aggressive driving and road rage Aggressive driving behaviours, such as tailgating, speeding, failing to yield the right of way and cutting in front of someone too closely, may cause other drivers, cyclists and even pedestrians to become frustrated and angry and lead to a road rage conflict between (drivers)road users. An angry driver may attempt dangerous retaliatory action. Avoid becoming angry on the road by following these tips: •

Know the warning signs of stress and combat them by getting fresh air, breathing deeply and slowly, and listening to relaxing music.

Make a conscious decision not to take your problems with you when driving.

If you are on a long trip, take a break from driving every few hours.

Don’t compete with another driver , cyclist or pedestrian, or retaliate for what you believe to be inconsiderate behaviour. If someone else’s (driving) behaviour annoys you, don’t try to «educate» the person. Leave traffic enforcement to the police. Don’t take other (drivers’) road users’ mistakes or behaviours personally.

Avoid honking your horn at other (drivers) road users, unless absolutely necessary for safety. A light tap on the horn is usually sufficient.

If you become angry or upset, pull over out of traffic and stop until you calm down.

Remember that if you drive responsibly and courteously, you are less likely to spark a road rage situation. •

Plan your route in advance. Some of the most erratic and inconsiderate driving occurs when a driver is lost.

Drive in a courteous and considerate manner.

Yield the right-of-way when it is courteous to do so.

Be polite and let other drivers and cyclists in front of you when they are signaling that they would like to do so.

If you make a mistake while driving, indicate that you are sorry. An apology can greatly reduce the risk of conflict. Don’t return aggression. Avoid eye contact and do not gesture back. Keep away from erratic drivers.

If you are in a situation in which you feel threatened by another (driver) road user, do the following: •

Stay in your vehicle and lock the doors.

If you have a cell phone, call police.

Use your horn and signals to attract attention.

If you believe you are being followed, do not drive home. Drive to a police station or a busy public place.

Cyclists and pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users. Avoid aggression and yield right-of-way.

Street racing This section is not in the current print version of the handbook. From website. Street racing is one of the most serious and reckless forms of aggressive driving. It shows a callous disregard for other drivers and road users, and it puts everyone on the road at serious risk of injury or death. Street racers run the risk of being charged under the Criminal Code of Canada.

Drowsy driving Drowsiness has been identified as a causal factor in a growing number of collisions resulting in injury and fatality. Tired drivers can be as impaired as drunk drivers. They have a slower reaction time and are less alert. Studies have shown that collisions involving drowsiness tend to occur during late night/early morning hours (between 2:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m.) or late afternoon (between 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m.). Studies also indicate that shift workers, people with undiagnosed or untreated sleep disorders, and commercial vehicle operators, are a t greater risk for such collisions. Always avoid driving when you are feeling drowsy. Scientific research confirms that you can fall asleep without actually being aware of it. Here are eight important warning signs that your drowsiness is serious enough to place you at risk:

You have difficulty keeping your eyes open.

Your head keeps tilting forward despite your efforts to keep your eyes on the road.

Your mind keeps wandering and you can’t seem to concentrate.

You yawn frequently.

You can’t remember details about the last few kilometres you have travelled.

You are missing traffic lights and signals.

Your vehicle drifts into the next lane and you have to jerk it back into your lane.

You have drifted off the road and narrowly avoided a crash.

*73* If you have one of these symptoms, you may be in danger of falling asleep. Pull off the road and park your vehicle in a safe, secure place. Use well-lit rest stops or truck stops on busy roads. Lock your doors, roll up your windows and take a nap. Stimulants are never a substitute for sleep. Drinks containing caffeine can help you feel more alert, but if you are sleep deprived, the effects wear off quickly. The same is true of turning up the volume of your radio or CD player and opening the window. You cannot trick your body into staying awake; you need to sleep. Remember, the only safe driver is a well-rested, alert driver.

Workers on the road Be extra careful when driving through construction zones and areas where people are working on or near the road. When approaching a construction zone, slow down and obey all warning signs and people and/or devices that are directing traffic through the area. Municipalities can lower the speed limits in construction zones to increase safety for workers. Reduced speed limits come into effect once signs are posted in the area. In the construction zone, drive carefully and adjust your speed and driving to suit the conditions. Obey posted speed limits, do not change lanes, be ready for sudden stops and watch for workers and construction vehicles on the road and give them more room to ensure everyone’s safety. Traffic control workers control vehicle traffic in work zones and prevent conflicts between construction activity and traffic. Whether you are driving during the day or at night, watch for traffic control people and follow their instructions. Treat people working on roads with respect and be patient if traffic is delayed. Sometimes traffic in one direction must wait while vehicles from the other direction pass through a detour. If your lane is blocked and no one is directing traffic, yield to the driver coming from the opposite direction. When the way is clear, move slowly and carefully around the obstacle. Recent changes to the Highway Traffic Act have resulted in doubled fines for speeding in a construction zone when workers are present. It is also an offence to disobey STOP or SLOW signs displayed by a traffic control person or firefighter.

Animals on the road *Add section comparable to this re: bicyclists. We suggest a ‘Sharing the Road With Cyclists’ section. Copy can be used/adapted from the ‘Official Cycling Skills Guide’. Crashes involving animals (mainly moose and deer) are a growing problem. Motor vehicle/wild animal collisions increased from 7,839 in 1997 to 14,489 collisions in 2006. This r epresents an increase of 85 per cent over a 10-year period. Many of these c ollisions go unreported.

*74* You may encounter domestic, farm or wild animals on the road anywhere in Ontario. Scan the road ahead from shoulder to shoulder. If you see an animal on or near the road, slow down and pass carefully as they may suddenly bolt onto the road. Many areas of the province have animal crossing signs which warn drivers of the danger of large animals (such as moose, deer or cattle) crossing the road. Be cautious when you see these signs, especially during dusk to dawn hours when wild animals are most active. To reduce your chances of hitting an animal: •

Reduce speed in darkness, rain and fog. These conditions can reduce your ability to se e an animal on or near the road. Travel at a safe speed and stay alert. Driver inattention and speed are common factors in animal-vehicle crashes. Watch for shining eyes at the roadside. If you do see shining eyes, slow down and be ready to stop. Keep your windshield clean and headlights properly adjusted. Use high beams whenever possible and safe to do so and scan both sides of the road ahead.

If you see an animal: •

Slow down and sound your horn.

Be alert for other animals which may be with the one you’ve seen.

Don’t try to drive around the animal. Animal movements are unpredictable.

If you wish to watch an animal, find a safe place to pull completely off the road and par k first. Do not park on the shoulder of the road, as other drivers may be distracted by the animal and hit your vehicle. Stay in your vehicle; getting out increases your chance of being hit by another vehicle. If you hit a deer or moose, report it to the local police service or the Ministry of Natural Resources. Do not try to move an injured animal.

Cellular phones Cellular phones can be an important safety aid for drivers. Many people use their phones to report crimes and collisions and for personal safety when they are lost or their vehicle breaks down. But using a cellular phone while driving takes a driver’s attention from the business of driving. Distracted drivers are more likely to make a driving error or to react too slowly. As more and more people use cellular phones, it is important that they be used safely. Make it a habit to use your cellular phone only when you are parked, or have a passenger use the phone. If you are driving and your phone rings, let your cellular voice mail

*75* service take the call and listen to the message later when you are parked. If you must use a cellular phone when driving, use a hands-free microphone. Make sure your phone is easy to see and reach and that you know how to use it. Use voice-activated or speed dialing and never take notes while driving.

The rules for using hand-held electronic devices (e.g. cell phones, smart phones, GPS units) have changed. Drivers who talk, text, type, dial or email using hand-held cell phones and other handheld communications and entertainment devices face fines of up to $500. Police can also charge drivers with careless driving or even dangerous driving (a c riminal offence) if they do not pay full attention to the driving task. (This paragraph is not in book. New to website.) Driver distractions Driving is a job that requires your full attention every time you get behind the wheel. Any secondary activity will detract from your ability to drive properly and safely. You must reduce distractions and focus on your driving. There are a number of possible driver distractions including: •

Using devices such as GPS systems, stereos, CD and DVD players, radios, cell phones, laptops, PDA’s and MP3 players

Reading maps, directions or other material

Grooming (combing hair, putting on make-up or shaving)

Eating or drinking

Talking with passengers

Tending to children or pets

Adjusting the controls in your vehicle (radio, CD player or climate control)

Visual distractions outside your vehicle, such as collisions or police activity

(Include stats on collisions and fatalities caused by careless driving.) Careless driving is a serious offence. Police can charge drivers with careless driving if drivers do not pay full attention to their driving. If you are convicted of careless driving, you will get six demerit points and can be fined up to $2,000 and sentenced to up to six months in jail. In some cases, your licence may be suspended for up to two years. Cyclists can also be charged with careless driving offences. Tips to reduce driver distractions •

Attend to personal grooming and plan your route before you leave.

Identify and preset your vehicle’s climate control, radio a nd CD player.

Make it a habit to pull over and park to use your cell phone or have a passenger take the call or let it go to voice mail. Put reading material in the trunk if you are tempted to read. Do not engage in emotional or complex conversations. Stress can affect your driving performance. When you are hungry or thirsty, take a break from driving.

Remember to focus on your driving at all times. A split-second distraction behind the wheel can result in injury or even death.

*76* Emergency vehicles

Emergency vehicles include fire and police department vehicles, ambulances a nd public utility emergency vehicles. Reacting to an approaching emergency vehicle When you see red or red AND blue flashing lights or hear the bells or sirens of an emergency vehicle approaching from either direction, you must immediately slow down, move as far to the right side of the roadway as you safely can, and stop.

Diagram 2-46 *DIAGRAM 2-46* add cyclists and pedestrians. Stay alert. When you see an approaching emergency vehicle with its lights or siren on, prepare to clear the way. •

React quickly but calmly. Don’t slam on the brakes or pull over suddenly. Use your signals to alert other drivers you intend to pull over. Check your rear-view mirrors. Look in front and on both sides of your vehicle. Remember to check for cyclists and pedestrians. Allow other vehicles to also pull over. Pull to the right and gradually come to a stop. Wait for the emergency vehicle to pass and watch for other emergency vehicles that may be responding to the same call. Check to make sure the way is clear and signal before merging back into traffic. Don’t drive on or block the shoulder on freeways. Emergency vehicles will use the shoulder of the road if all lanes are blocked.

*77* Never follow or try to outrun an emergency vehicle. It is illegal to follow within 150 meters of a fire vehicle or ambulance responding to a call in any lane going in the same direction. Failing to pull over and stop for an approaching emergency vehicle can result in a conviction and a fine. Note: Some fire fighters and volunteer medical responders may display a flashing green light when using their own vehicles to respond to a fire or medical emergency. Please yield the rightof-way to help them reach the emergency quickly and safely. Take lights and sirens seriously. Clear the way! Pull to the right and stop. It’s the law. Approaching a stopped emergency vehicle with red or r ed AND blue flashing lights

When you see an emergency vehicle stopped with its red or red AND blue flashing lights in a lane or on the shoulder in your direction of travel, you must slow down and pass with caution. If the road has two or more lanes, you must move over into another lane to allow one lane clearance between your vehicle and the emergency vehicle, if it can be done safely. Failing to follow these rules can result in a conviction, demerit points on your driving record, a driver’s licence suspension of up to two years and a fine of $400 to $2,000 for a first offence and $1,000 to $4,000 for a subsequent offence (a subsequent offence is when you are convicted again within five years). The court can order you to spend up to six months in jail, or you may have to pay a fine or both. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

How to manoeuvre your vehicle through construction zones

What to do if you encounter animals on the road

Things that may distract you when driving and how to minimize those distractions

What to do when you encounter an emergency vehicle\

*78* Driving at night and in bad weather At night and in weather conditions such as rain, snow or fog, you cannot see as far ahead, even with headlights. Slow down when driving at night, especially on unlit roads, and whenever weather conditions reduce your visibility. Watch closely for cyclists and pedestrians under these conditions as your field of vision is reduced. Overdriving your headlights You are overdriving your headlights when you go so fast that your stopping distance is farther than you can see with your headlights. This is a dangerous thing to do, because you may not give yourself enough room to make a safe stop. Reflective road signs can mislead you as well, making you believe you can see farther than you really can. This may cause you to overdrive your headlights if you are not careful (see Diagram 2-49).

Diagram 2-49 Glare Glare is dazzling light that makes it hard for you to see and be aware what others around you are doing. It can be a problem on both sunny and overcast days, depending on the angle of the sun’s rays and your surroundings. Glare can also be a problem at night when you face bright headlights or see them reflected in your rear view mirror.

*79* When meeting oncoming vehicles with bright headlights at night, look up and beyond and slightly to the right of the oncoming lights. In daytime glare, use your sun visor or keep a pair of good quality sunglasses in your vehicle. When you enter a tunnel on a bright day, slow down to let your eyes adjust to the reduced light. Remove your sunglasses and turn on your hea dlights. Assume that cyclists are on the road and position your vehicle accordingly. Cut down glare at night by following the rules of the road for vehicle lights. Use your lowbeam headlights within 150 metres of an oncoming vehicle or when following a vehicle within 60 metres. On country roads, switch to lowbeams when you come to a curve or hilltop so you can see oncoming headlights and won’t blind oncoming drivers. If you can’t see any headlights, switch back to highbeams.

Diagram 2-50 Fog Fog is a thin layer of cloud resting on the ground. Fog can reduce visibility for drivers, resulting in difficult driving conditions. The best thing to do is to avoid driving in fog. Check weather forecasts and if there is a fog warning, delay your trip until it clears. If that is not possible or you get caught driving in fog, there are a number of safe driving tips you should follow. If visibility is decreasing rapidly, move off the road and into a safe parking area to wait for the fog to lift. *80*

Tips for driving safely in fog Before you drive — and during your trip — check weather forecasts. If there is a fog warning, delay your trip until it clears, if possible. If you are caught driving in fog, follow these safe driving tips:

Slow down gradually and drive at a speed that suits the conditions.

Make sure the full lighting system of your vehicle is turned on.

Use your lowbeam headlights. Highbeams reflect off the moisture droplets in the fog, making it harder to see. If you have fog lights on your vehicle, use them, in addition to your lowbeams. They could save your life. Be patient. Avoid passing, changing lanes and crossing traffic. Use pavement markings to help guide you. Use the right edge of the road as a guide, rather than the centre line.

Increase your following distance. You will need extra distance to brake safely.

Look and listen for any hazards that may be ahead.

Reduce the distractions in your vehicle. For example, turn off the cell phone. Your full attention is required.

Watch for any electronically-operated warning signs.

Keep looking as far ahead as possible.

Keep your windows and mirrors clean. Use your defroster and wipers to maximize your vision. If the fog is too dense to continue, pull completely off the road and try to position your vehicle in a safe parking area. Turn on your emergency flashers.

Don’t stop on the travelled portion of the road. You could become the first link in a chainreaction collision. Don’t speed up suddenly, even if the fog seems to be clearing. You could find yourself suddenly back in fog. Don’t speed up to pass a vehicle moving slowly or to get away from a vehicle that is following too closely.

Watch your speed. You may be going faster than you think. If so, reduce speed gradually.

Leave a safe braking distance between you and the vehicle ahead.

Remain calm and patient. Don’t pass other vehicles or speed up suddenly.

Don’t stop on the road. If visibility is decreasing rapidly, pull off the road into a safe parking area and wait for the fog to lift. When visibility is reduced, use your lowbeam lights.

*81* Rain Rain makes road surfaces slippery, especially as the first drops fall. With more rain, tires make less contact with the road. If there is too much water or if you are going too fast, your tires may ride on top of the water, like water skis. This is called hydroplaning. When this happens, control becomes very difficult. Make sure you have good tires with deep tread, and slow down when the road is wet. Rain also reduces visibility. Drive slowly enough to be able to stop within the distance you can see. Make sure your windshield wipers are in good condition. If your wiper blades do not clean the windshield without streaking, replace them. In rain, try to drive on clear sections of road. Look ahead and plan your movements. Smooth steering, braking and accelerating will reduce the chance of skids. Leave more space between you and the vehicle ahead in case you have to stop. Cyclists also need more stopping distance in the rain. This will also help you to avoid spray from the vehicle ahead that can make it even harder to see.

All vehicles, including cyclists, should stay out of puddles. A puddle can hide a large pothole that could damage your vehicle or its suspension, or flatten a tire. Cyclists and pedestrians have no protection from the rain. Use extreme caution, slow down and provide ample space when passing. The spray of water could splash nearby pedestrians or drown your engine, causing it to stall. Water can also make your brakes less effective. Flooded roads Try not to drive on flooded roads — water may prevent your brakes from working. If you must drive through a flooded stretch of road, test your brakes afterwards to dry them out. Test your brakes when it is safe to do so by stopping quickly and firmly at 50 km/h. Make sure the vehicle stops in a straight line, without pulling to one side. The brake pedal should feel firm and secure, not spongy — that’s a sign of trouble. If you still feel a pulling to one side or a spongy brake pedal even after the brakes are dry, you should take the vehicle in for repair immediately. Skids A skid happens when your wheels slide out of control on a slippery surface. Skids can involve the front, rear or all four wheels. Most skids result from driving too fast for road or traffic conditions. Sudden, hard braking, going too fast around a corner or accelerating too quickly can cause your vehicle to skid or roll over. Once in a skid, look where you want the vehicle to go and steer in that direction. Be careful not to oversteer. If you are on ice, skidding in a straight line, step on the clutch or shift to neutral. *82*

Threshold braking — Threshold braking should bring you to a r easonably quick controlled stop in your own lane, even in slippery conditions. Brake as hard as you can without locking up or skidding the wheels. Press down on the brake pedal, trying to get as much braking power as possible. Then, if you feel any of the wheels locking up, release the brake pressure slightly and re-apply. Don’t pump the brakes. Continue braking this way until you have brought the vehicle to a complete stop. Some vehicles have anti-lock brake systems that give you a maximum threshold stop automatically. Anti-lock brakes — If your vehicle has an anti-lock braking system, practice emergency braking to understand how your vehicle will react. It is a good idea to practice doing this under controlled conditions with a qualified driving instructor. Anti-lock braking systems, which are also called ABS, ar e designed to sense the speed of the wheels on a vehicle. An abnormal drop in wheel speed, which indicates potential wheel lock, causes the brake force to be reduced to that wheel. This is how the anti-lock braking system prevents tire skid and the accompanying loss of steering control. T his improves vehicle safety during heavy brake use or when braking with poor traction. Although anti-lock braking systems help to prevent wheel lock, you should not expect the stopping distance for your vehicle to be shortened. Under normal driving conditions, on clean dry roads, you will notice no difference between vehicles with anti-lock braking and vehicles without anti-lock braking. Drivers unfamiliar with anti-lock braking are surprised by the vibration that happens when they brake hard in an emergency. Make sure you know what to expect so you can react quickly and effectively in an emergency. Snow Snow may be hard-packed and slippery as ice; rutted, full of hard tracks and gullies; or, smooth and soft. Look ahead and anticipate what you must do based on the conditions. Slow down on

rutted, snowy roads. Avoid sudden steering, braking or accelerating that could cause a skid. Remember that cyclists ride year round. Be prepared to facilitate their travel. Given the presence of large snowbanks pedestrians and cyslists’ patterns change and they will likely need more space. Whiteouts Blowing snow may create whiteouts where snow completely blocks your view of the road. When blowing snow is forecast, drive only if necessary and with extreme caution.

*83* Tips for driving in blowing snow and whiteout conditions Before you drive — and during your trip — check weather forecasts and road reports. If there is a weather warning, or reports of poor visibility and driving conditions, delay your trip until conditions improve, if possible. If you get caught driving in blowing snow or a whiteout, follow these safe driving tips:

Slow down gradually and drive at a speed that suits the conditions.

Make sure the full lighting system of your vehicle is turned on.

Be patient. Avoid passing, changing lanes and crossing traffic.

Increase your following distance. You will need extra space to brake safely.

Stay alert. Keep looking as far ahead as possible.

Reduce the distractions in your vehicle. Your full attention is required.

Keep your windows and mirrors clean. Use defroster and wipers to maximize your vision. Try to get off the road when visibility is near zero. Pull into a safe parking area if possible.

Don’t stop on the travelled portion of the road. You could become the first link in a chainreaction collision. Don’t attempt to pass a vehicle moving slowly or speed up to get away from a vehicle that is following too closely.

Watch your speed. You may be going faster than you think. If so, reduce speed gradually.

Leave a safe braking distance between you and the vehicle ahead.

Stay alert, remain calm and be patient.

If visibility is decreasing rapidly, do not stop on the road. Look for an opportunity to pull off the road into a safe parking area and wait for conditions to improve. If you become stuck or stranded in severe weather, stay with your vehicle f or warmth and safety until help arrives. Open a window slightly for ventilation. Run your motor sparingly. Use your emergency flashers.

Be prepared and carry a winter driving survival kit that includes items such as warm clothing, non-perishable energy foods, flashlight, shovel and blanket. It is important to look ahead and watch for clues that indicate you need to slow down and anticipate slippery road conditions.

*84* Ice As temperatures drop below freezing, wet roads become icy. Sections of road in shaded areas or on bridges and overpasses freeze first. It is important to look ahead, slow down and anticipate ice. If the road ahead looks like black and shiny asphalt, be suspicious. It may be covered by a thin layer of ice known as black ice. Generally, asphalt in the winter should look gray-white in colour. If you think there may be black ice ahead, slow down and be careful. Be sure to break well in advance of intersections and crosswalks and to be wary of obstructions even when advancing on green lights. Pedestrians may take longer to clear the intersection in icy conditions. Snow plows Snow removal vehicles are equipped with flashing blue lights that can be seen from 150 metres. Flashing blue lights warn you of wide and slow-moving vehicles: some snow plows have a wing that extends as far as three metres to the right of the vehicle. On freeways, several snow plows may be staggered across the road, clearing all lanes at the same time by passing a ridge of snow from plow to plow. Do not try to pass between them. This is extremely dangerous because there is not enough room to pass safely, and the ridge of wet snow can throw your vehicle out of control. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

How to identify and manage situations where your visibility may be reduced How weather conditions such as rain, flooded roads, snow and ice may affect your vehicle and your ability to control it

What to do if your vehicle skids or if you encounter heavy snow, whiteouts or black ice

How to recognize and share the road with snow removal vehicles

*85* Dealing with emergencies If you drive often or travel alone, you need to be ready to deal with emergencies. Here are some suggestions for coping with some common road emergencies.

If your brakes fail Try pumping the brake pedal to temporarily restore hydraulic brake pressure. If this does not work, apply the parking brake gently but f irmly while holding the release button. It is a good idea for new drivers to practice a parking brake emergency stop under controlled conditions with a qualified driving instructor. Total brake failure is very rare on modern vehicles. If your brakes do fail and you manage to stop, do not drive away. Call for help. If your gas pedal sticks

First try to lift the pedal by slipping your foot under it. Do not reach down with your hands while the vehicle is moving. If this does not work, turn on your hazard lights, shift to neutral and stop as soon as you safely can, preferably off the road. Turn off the ignition and do not drive away. Call for help.

If your headlights go out Check the switch immediately. If the lights stay out, turn on your hazard lights and bring your vehicle to a safe stop, off the road. Call for help. It is dangerous and illegal to drive at night without lights.

If you have trouble on a freeway At the first sign of trouble, begin to pull over. Do not wait for your vehicle to stall on the freeway. Check your mirrors, put on your hazard lights, take your foot off the gas pedal and pull over to the nearest shoulder as quickly as possible. Never stop in the driving lanes. Be careful getting out of your vehicle. If possible, leave through the door away from traffic. If you need help, get back in the vehicle and put a «Call Police» sign in the side or back window. If you do not have a «Call Police» sign, tie a white cloth around the antenna. Do not raise the hood. While you wait for help, stay in your vehicle with the doors locked. If someone stops to help, ask them to call the police or automobile club for you. If you have a cellular phone, call for help yourself. The Queen Elizabeth Way, the 400-series freeways and many other high-speed roads are patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police. Stay with your vehicle and help will arrive shortly.

If your wheels go off the pavement Don’t panic. Grip the steering wheel firmly. T ake your foot off the gas pedal to slow down. Avoid heavy braking. When the vehicle is under control, steer toward the pavement. Be prepared to correct your steering and increase speed when your wheels are fully back on the pavement.

*86* If a tire blows out Blowouts can cause tremendous steering and wheel vibration, but don’t be alarmed. Take your foot off the gas pedal to slow down and steer the vehicle firmly in the direction you want to go. Bring the vehicle to a stop off the road.

In a collision where someone is injured St. John Ambulance recommends that all drivers carry a well-stocked first aid kit and know how to use it. Consider reading a book about first aid or sign up for a first aid course. It could mean the difference between life and death in a collision. Every driver involved in a collision must stay at the scene or return to it immediately and give all possible assistance. If you are not personally involved in a collision, you should stop to offer help if police or other help has not arrived. In a collision with injuries, possible fuel leaks or serious vehicle damage, stay calm and follow these steps: •

Call for help or have someone else call. By law, you must report any collision to the police when there are injuries or damage to vehicles or other property exceeding $1,000. Turn off all engines and turn on emergency flashers. Set up warning signals or flares or have someone warn approaching drivers.

Do not let anyone smoke, light a match or put flares near any vehicle in case of a fuel leak. If a vehicle is on fire, get the people out and make sure everyone is well out of the way. If there is no danger of fire or explosion, leave injured people where they are until trained medical help arrives. If you are trained in first aid, treat injuries in the order of urgency, within the level of your training. For example, clear the person’s airway to restore breathing, give rescue breathing or stop bleeding by applying pressure with a clean cloth. If you are not trained in first aid, use common sense. For example, people in collisions often go into shock. Cover the person with a jacket or blanket to reduce the effects of shock. Stay with injured people until help arrives. Disabled vehicles on the road may be a danger to you and other drivers. Do what you can to make sure everyone involved in a collision is kept safe.

Очень важная для вас статья:  продление визы в Канаде

In a collision where no one is injured Follow these steps in a collision where there are no injuries: 1. If the vehicles are driveable, move them as far off the road as possible — this should not affect the police officer’s investigation. This is especially important on busy or highspeed roads where it may be dangerous to leave vehicles in the driving lanes. If you cannot move the vehicles off the road, set up warning signals or flares far enough away to give other traffic time to slow down or stop. 2. Call police (provincial or local, depending on where the collision takes place and if a pedestrian or cyclist is involved). By law, you must report any collision to the police when there are injuries or damage to vehicles or property exceeding $1,000. 3. Give all possible help to police or anyone whose vehicle has been damaged. This includes giving police your name and address, the name and address of the registered owner of the vehicle, the vehicle plate and permit number and the liability insurance card. 4. Get the names, addresses and phone numbers of all witnesses. 5. If damage is less than $1,000, you are still required by law to exchange information with anyone whose vehicle has been damaged. However, the collision does not have to be reported to the police. 6. Contact your insurance company as soon as possible if you intend to make a claim. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

What to do in emergency situations such as vehicle component failure, driving off the pavement or vehicle trouble on a freeway The steps to take if you are involved in a collision with or without injuries

Driving efficiently Vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel give off air pollutants and gases such as oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons and soot. These pollutants affect the quality of the air we breathe, our health, crop yields and even the global climate. Hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen react in sunlight to form ground level ozone, better known as smog. Smog is a major health hazard responsible for respiratory ailments and other illnesses. Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen combine with water vapour to form acid rain, which damages our lakes, forests and crops. Global warming is the result of too much carbon dioxide and other gases trapping heat in our atmosphere. Global warming could cause average temperatures to rise, causing droughts, crop failures, lower water levels and more frequent and severe storms. A car gives off less carbon dioxide than a larger vehicle, such as an airplane, truck, bus or train, does. However, because so many people own cars and drive them so often, cars are responsible for nearly half the carbon dioxide produced by all forms of transportation. Vehicles that carry large numbers of passengers, such as buses, produce less carbon dioxide per passenger than cars. As a driver, you can help to protect the environment from the harmful effects of driving by following these suggestions. Many of them can also save you money. Before you drive: •

Plan ahead. Combine several errands into one trip. Avoid driving during rush hours. Driving in off-peak times takes less time, uses less fuel and releases fewer emissions. Pay attention to Smog Alerts. It is especially important to follow these suggestions on days when smog is bad.

For short trips, consider walking or cycling.

For longer trips, public transit is an environmentally friendly alternative to driving alone.

Carpool whenever possible. If you want to meet at a central location, there are free carpool lots in many parts of the province. To find one near you, call MTO INFO (416) 235-4686 (1-800-268-4686) or check the MTO website at www.mto.gov.on.ca.

Smart Commute info? Drive Clean info?

Avoid starting your vehicle unnecessarily. A large burst of pollutants is emitted when a cold engine is started. Turn off your vehicle if parked more than 10 seconds. Even in cold weather, vehicle engines warm up within 30 seconds. Obey the speed limits. Driving at high speed uses more fuel and increases your chances of a serious collision.

On the freeway, use your vehicle’s overdrive gear and cruise control for better fuel efficiency.

Remove unnecessary weight from your vehicle, such as heavy baggage, wet snow and winter sand or salt. Maintain your vehicle’s aerodynamics. Remove roof racks and compartments when not in use. At high speeds, use your vents instead of opening the windows. Use your vehicle’s air conditioning wisely. Use your windows and vents in city and stopand-go traffic. At high speeds, using your air conditioning is usually more fuel efficient than opening your windows and reducing the vehicle’s aerodynamics. Don’t ‘top-off’ the tank when refueling. Spilled fuel releases harmful vapours.

Regular maintenance will keep your vehicle running at maximum efficiency, reducing the fuel you need to buy and the pollutants your vehicle emits. Keep your vehicle’s engine well tuned. Worn spark plugs, dragging brakes, low transmission fluid or a transmission not going into high gear can increase fuel consumption substantially. Follow the recommended maintenance schedule in your vehicle owner’s manual to maximize fuel efficiency. Have any fluid leaks checked by a specialist to avoid engine damage and harming the environment. Keep your tires properly inflated to reduce your fuel bill, emissions and tire wear. Have your vehicle’s alignment checked regularly to reduce uneven tire wear and fuel consumption.

Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

How passenger vehicles impact the environment

Ways to reduce the amount you drive

Ways to conserve fuel and reduce emissions when you drive

11 ways you can help make Ontario’s roads the safest in North America 1. Don’t drink and drive. Don’t drive when you’re taking medication that will affect your driving. 2. Always wear your seatbelt and make sure passengers are using the appropriate child car seat, booster seat or seatbelt. 3. Obey the speed limits. Slow down when road and weather conditions are poor. 4. Don’t take risks: don’t cut people off in traffic, make sudden lane changes or run yellow lights. 5. Don’t drive when you’re tired, upset or sick. 6. If you’re in doubt, let the other driver go first — yield the right-of-way.

7. Keep at least a two-second space between your vehicle and the one ahead. To check your distance: start counting when the vehicle ahead passes a fixed object, stop counting when your vehicle reaches the same spot. 8. Cut the distractions: don’t overcrowd the vehicle or play loud music. 9. Always check your blind spot: look in your mirror and over your shoulder before you change lanes. 10. Check traffic in all directions before entering an intersection.

11. Understand that cyclists and pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users and must be treated as such. Be sure to watch for them, slow down and give plenty of space. Drive with extra courtesy when they are present. *91*

Choosing a driving school As a new driver, choosing professional driving instruction may be the best way to put yourself safely in the driver’s seat. A driver training course or high school driver education program approved by the provincial government can teach you the skills and attitudes you need to be a safe and responsible driver. You may also be eligible to take your road test sooner and to save money on insurance premiums. As well as teaching the basics, driver training emphasizes strategic driving techniques, risk perception and management, freeway driving, night driving and driving in adverse conditions. Most programs are designed for new drivers, but many driving schools also provide courses and services to upgrade your skills. If you graduate from an approved program, the Beginner Driver Education Student Record you get will reduce the time you must spend at Level One by four months. It may also bring you savings on your car insurance. Approved high school driver education programs offer in-class and in-car training after school for a fee. Courses are administered by the local school board, a principal or other high school authority. They are taught in high school classrooms by qualified instructors. Approved driver training courses in Ontario must offer at least 25 hours of classroom training and 10 hours of behind-the-wheel training. Look for a program that offers high quality instruction and a comfortable learning environment. The school should also be equipped with up-to-date videotapes, overheads and other visual aids. To help you choose the best driving school and course for you, use this checklist of features. •

Course information package

Low student/teacher ratio

Audio visual equipment

In-vehicle topics covered

Risk perception and management

Driving in adverse conditions

Instructor qualifications and experience

Regular instructor upgrading

Student progress and evaluation reports

Certificate of completion

Minimum 25 classroom and 10 behind-the-wheel instruction hours

Use of vehicle for road test

Registered educational institution

Number of years in business

Consumer protection insurance

Traffic Signs and Lights Traffic laws include the traffic signs and lights, pedestrian signals and pavement markings that tell drivers and other road users what they must do in certain situations. This chapter shows you what many of those signs, lights and markings look like and explains what they mean to drivers.

In this chapter •

Signs Traffic signs give you important information about the law, warn you about dangerous conditions and help you find your way. Signs use different symbols, colours and shapes for easy identification. Here are some of the many signs you will see on Ontario roads: A stop sign is eight-sided and has a red background with white letters. It means you must come to a complete stop. Stop at the stop line if it is marked on the pavement. If there is no stop line, stop at the crosswalk. If there is no crosswalk, stop at the edge of the sidewalk. If there is no sidewalk, stop at the edge of the intersection. Wait until the way is clear before entering the intersection. If pedestrians are present they have priority for crossing.

A school zone sign is five-sided and has a blue background with white symbols. It warns that you are coming to a school zone. Slow down, drive with extra caution and watch for children.

A yield sign is a triangle with a white background and a red border. It means you must let *94* traffic in the intersection or close to it go first. Stop if necessary and go only when the way is clear.

A railway crossing sign is X-shaped with a white background and red outline. It warns that railway tracks cross the road. Watch for this sign. Slow down and look both ways for trains. Be

prepared to stop. There are four other kinds of signs: regulatory, warning, temporary conditions and information and direction.

Regulatory signs These signs give a direction that must be obeyed. They are usually rectangular or square with a white or black background and black, white or coloured letters. A sign with a green circle means you may or must do the activity shown inside the ring. A re d circle with a line through it means the activity shown is not allowed. Be aware that different municipalities may use different signage but all must be obeyed. Here are some common regulatory signs: This road is an official bicycle route. (Watch for cyclists and be prepared to share the road with them.) You should always be prepared to share the road with cyclists but on these roads expect a higher volume of riders.

You may park in the area between the signs during the times posted. (Used in pairs or groups.)

*Scramble Intersection signage to be included?*

Snowmobiles may use this road.

Do not enter this road.

Do not park in the area between the signs. This means you may not stop your vehicle except to load or unload passengers or merchandise. (Used in pairs or groups.) Do not stop in the area between the signs. This means you may not stop your vehicle in this area, even for a moment. (Used in pairs or groups.) Do not turn left at the intersection.

Do not stand in the area between the signs. This means you may not stop your vehicle in this area except while loading or unloading passengers. (Used in pairs or groups.)

Do not turn to go in the opposite direction. (U-turn)

Do not turn right when facing a red light at the intersection.

Do not turn left during the times shown.

Do not drive through the intersection.

This parking space is only for vehicles displaying a valid Accessible Parking Permit.


No bicycles allowed on this road.

*96* No pedestrians allowed on this road.

Keep to the right of the traffic island.

Speed limit changes ahead.

Do not pass on this road.

Slow traffic on multi-lane roads must keep right.

The speed limit in this zone is lower during school hours. Observe the speed limit shown when the yellow lights are flashing. *Pay extra attention to presence of pedestrians*

This sign is installed on multi-lane highways with no centre median divider. It informs drivers approaching from both directions that they must stop for a school bus when its signal lights are flashing.

These signs, above the road or on the pavement before an intersection, tell drivers the direction they must travel. For example: the driver in lane one must turn left; the driver in lane two must turn left or go straight ahead; and the driver in lane three must turn right.

Traffic may travel in one direction only.

This is a pedestrian crossover. Be prepared to stop and yield right-of-way to pedestrians.

*97* This sign, above the road or on the ground, means the lane is only for two-way left turns.

This sign reserves curb area for vehicles displaying a valid Accessible Person Parking Permit picking up and dropping off passengers with disabilities.

These signs mean lanes are only for specific types of vehicles, either all the time or during certain hours. Different symbols are used for the different types of vehicles. They include: buses, taxis, vehicles with three or more people and bicycles.

Keep to the right lane except when passing on two-lane sections where climbing or passing lanes are provided.

*Insert examples of dedicated bike lane indicator signage that can be found in O ntario.*

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) signs Only public vehicles such as buses, or passenger vehicles carrying a specified minimum number of passengers, may use this lane.

Vehicles cannot change lanes into or out of a high occupancy vehicle lane in this area.

*98* Warning signs These signs warn of dangerous or unusual conditions ahead such as a curve, turn, dip or sideroad. They are usually diamond-shaped and have a yellow background with black letters or symbols. Here are some common warning signs: Narrow bridge ahead.

Road branching off ahead.

Intersection ahead. The arrow shows which direction of traffic has the right-of-way.

Drivers on the sideroad at the intersection ahead don’t have a clear view of traffic.

Pavement narrows ahead.

Slight bend or curve in the road ahead.

Posted under a curve warning, this sign shows the maximum safe speed for the curve.

Sharp bend or turn in the road ahead.

Chevron (arrowhead) signs are posted in groups to guide drivers around sharp curves in the road.

*99* Winding road ahead.

The bridge ahead lifts or swings to let boats pass.

Paved surface ends ahead.

Bicycle crossing ahead.

Stop sign ahead. Slow down.

Share the road with oncoming traffic.

Pavement is slippery when wet. Slow down and drive with caution.

Hazard close to the edge of the road. The downward lines show the side on which you may safely pass.

The road ahead is split into two separate roads by a median. Keep to the right-hand road. Each road carries one-way traffic.

Right lane ends ahead. If you are in the right-hand lane you must merge safely with traffic in the lane to the left.

*100* Traffic lights ahead. Slow down.

Steep hill ahead. You may need to use a lower gear.

Two roads going in the same direction are about to join into one. Drivers on both roads are equally responsible for seeing that traffic merges smoothly and safely.

Snowmobiles cross this road.

Divided highway ends: traffic travels in both directions on the same road ahead. Keep to the right.

Underpass ahead. Take care if you are driving a tall vehicle. Sign shows how much room you have.

Bump or uneven pavement on the road ahead. Slow down and keep control of your vehicle.

Railway crossing ahead. Be alert for trains. This sign also shows the angle at which the railway tracks cross the road.

Sharp turn or bend in the road in the direction of the arrow. The checkerboard border warns of danger. Slow down; be careful.

*101* Deer regularly cross this road; be alert for animals.

Truck entrance on the right side of the road ahead. If the sign shows the truck on the left, the entrance is on the left side of the road.

Shows maximum safe speed on ramp.

Watch for pedestrians and be prepared to share the road with them.

Watch for fallen rock and be prepared to avoid a collision.

There may be water flowing over the road.

This sign warns you that you are coming to a hidden school bus stop. Slow down, drive with extra caution, watch for children and for a school bus with flashing red lights.

These signs warn of a school crossing. Watch for children and follow the directions of the crossing guard or school safety patroller.

*102* Temporary condition signs These signs warn of unusual temporary conditions such as road work zones, diversions, detours, lane closures or traffic control people on the road. They are usually diamond-shaped with an orange background and black letters or symbols. Here are some common temporary condition signs: Construction work one kilometre ahead.

Road work ahead.

Survey crew working on the road ahead.

Traffic control person ahead. Drive slowly and watch for instructions.

You are entering a construction zone. Drive with extra caution and be prepared for a lower speed limit.

Temporary detour from normal traffic route.

Flashing lights on the arrows show the direction to f ollow.

Pavement has been milled or grooved. Your vehicle’s stopping ability may be affected so obey the speed limit and drive with extra caution. Motorcyclists may experience reduced traction on these surfaces.

Lane ahead is closed for roadwork. Obey the speed limit and merge with traffic in the open lane.

Closed lane. Adjust speed to merge with traffic in lane indicated by arrow.

Do not pass the pilot or pace vehicle bearing this sign.

Reduce speed and be prepared to stop.

Follow detour marker until you return to regular route

*104* Information and direction signs These signs tell you about distances and destinations. They are usually rectangular with a green background and white letters. Other signs with different colours guide you to fac ilities, services and attractions. Here are some common information and direction signs: Shows directions to nearby towns and cities.

Shows the distances in kilometres to towns and cities on the road.

Various exit signs are used on freeways. In urban areas, many exit ramps have more than one lane. Overhead and ground-mounted signs help drivers choose the correct lane to exit or stay on the freeway.

Advance signs use arrows to show which lanes lead off the freeway. Signs are also posted at the exit.

Sometimes one or more lanes may lead off the freeway. The arr ows matching the exit lanes are shown on the advance sign in a yellow box with the word ‘exit’ under them.

Freeway interchanges or exits have numbers that correspond to the distance from the beginning of the freeway. For example, interchange number 204 on Highway 401 is 204 kilometres from Windsor, where the freeway begins. Distances can be calculated by subtracting one interchange number from another.

The term ‘VIA’ is used to describe the roads that must be followed to reach a destination.

*105* These signs change according to traffic conditions to give drivers c urrent information on delays and lane closures ahead.

Shows off-road facilities such as hospitals, airports, universities or carpool lots.

Shows route to passenger railway station.

Shows route to airport.

Shows route to ferry service.

Shows facilities that are accessible by wheelchair.

Other signs Here are some other common signs: The slow-moving vehicle sign is orange with a r ed border. Motor vehicles moving slower than 40 km/h must show this sign at the rear when driving on a road, unless they are only crossing it.

*106* Emergency response signs

Some information signs include a numbering system along the bottom of the sign to assist emergency vehicles in determining an appropriate route.

Bilingual signs Watch for these signs when driving in designated bilingual areas. Read the messages in the language you understand best. Bilingual messages may be together on the same sign or separate, with an English sign immediately followed by a French sign.

Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

The difference between regulatory, warning, temporary condition and information/direction signs How to read the symbols and messages of some common signs in each category

Traffic lights Traffic lights tell drivers and pedestrians what they must do at intersections and along roads. They tell road users when to stop and go, when and how to turn and when to drive with extra caution.

Green light A green light means you may turn left, go straight or turn right after yielding to motor vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians already in the intersection. When turning left or right you must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the intersection.

Yellow light A yellow — or amber — light means the red light is about to appear. You must stop if you can do so safely; otherwise, go with caution.

Red light A red light means you must stop. Bring your vehicle to a complete stop at the stop line if it is marked on the pavement. If there is no stop line, stop at the crosswalk, marked or not. If there is no crosswalk, stop at the edge of the sidewalk. If there is no sidewalk, stop at the edge of the intersection. Wait until the light changes to green and the intersection is clear before moving through it. Unless a sign tells you not to, you may turn right on a red light only after coming to a complete stop and waiting until the way is clear. When the way is clear proceed safely, checking for pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles as you complete your turn. You may also turn left on a red light if you are moving from a one-way road onto a one-way road, but you must come to a complete stop first and wait until the way is clear.

Lights and arrows to help turning vehicles Flashing green lights and green arrows direct (drivers) motorists and cyclists who are turning.

Advance green light or arrow When you face a flashing green light or a left-pointing green arrow and a green light, you may turn left, go straight ahead or turn right from the proper lane. This is called an advanced green light because oncoming traffic still faces a red light. Pedestrians must not cross on a flashing green light unless a pedestrian signal tells them to. *108*

Simultaneous left turn When a left-turn green arrow is shown with a red light, you may turn left from the left-turn lane. Motor vehicles and cyclists turning left from the opposite direction may also be making left turns because they too face a left-turn green arrow.

After the left-turn green arrow, a yellow arrow may appear. This means the green light is about to appear for traffic in one or both directions. Do not start your left turn. Stop if you can do so safely; otherwise, complete your turn with caution.

You can still turn left when the light is green, but only when the way is clear of traffic and pedestrians. If the light turns red when you are in the intersection, complete your turn when it is safe.

Pedestrians must not cross on a left-turn green arrow unless a pedestrian signal tells them to.

Transit priority signals Traffic and pedestrians must yield to public transit vehicles at a transit priority signal. The round signal is on top of a regular traffic signal and shows a white vertical bar on a dark background. This allows transit vehicles to go through, turn right or le ft, while all conflicting traffic faces a red light.

Fully protected left turn Some intersections have separate traffic lights for left-turning traffic and for traffic going through the intersection or turning right. When a left-turn green arrow appears for traffic in the left-turn lane, traffic going straight ahead or turning right will usually see a red light. You may turn left from the left-turn lane when you face a green arrow. Motor vehicles and cyclists from the opposite direction may also be turning left.

*109* After the left-turn green arrow, a yellow light appears for left-turning vehicles only.

After the yellow light, a red light appears for left-turning vehicles only. Traffic going straight ahead or turning right will face a green light or green arrows pointing straight ahead and to the right.

In these intersections, you may not begin turning left after the green light appears for traffic going straight ahead or turning right. If the light turns yellow while you are in the intersection, complete your turn with caution.

Flashing red light

You must come to a complete stop at a flashing red light. Move through the intersection only when it is safe. Pedestrians have the right-of-way.

Flashing yellow light A flashing yellow light means you should drive with caution when approaching and moving through the intersection. Pedestrians have the right-of-way.

Blank traffic lights During an electrical power loss, traffic lights at intersections will not work. Yield the right-ofway to motor vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians in the intersection and to vehicles entering the intersection from your right. Go cautiously and use the intersection the same way you would use an intersection with all-way stop signs. *110*

Traffic beacons A traffic beacon is a single flashing light hung over an intersection or placed over signs or on obstacles in the road.

Flashing red beacon A flashing red beacon above an intersection or stop sign means you must come to a complete stop. Move through the intersection only when it is safe to do so. Pedestrians have right-of-way.

Flashing yellow beacon A flashing yellow beacon above an intersection, above a warning sign or on an obstruction in the road, warns you to drive with caution.

Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

The different colours and symbols that appear on traffic lights and what those mean

How to navigate turns using advanced green lights and ar rows

How to proceed when approaching flashing amber or red lights

What to do in situations where the traffic lights are not operating

Pedestrian signals Pedestrian signals help pedestrians cross at intersections with traffic lights. The signal for pedestrians to walk is a white walking symbol. A flashing or steady orange hand symbol means pedestrians must not begin to cross.

*Update re: countdown signals* Diagram 3-3-1 A pedestrian facing a walk signal may cross the road in the direction of the signal. While crossing, pedestrians have the right-of-way over all vehicles. Be aware that pedestrian signals are not always indicative of a traffic light change.

*111* A pedestrian facing a flashing or steady hand symbol should not begin to cross the r oad. Pedestrians who have already begun to cross when the hand signal appears, should go as quickly as possible to a safe area. While they are crossing, pedestrians still have the right-of-way over vehicles.

Diagram 3-3-2 *Clarify image.* Add cyclists and pedestrians At intersections with traffic lights where there are no pedestrian signals, pedestrians facing a green light may cross. Pedestrians may not cross on a flashing green light or a left-turn green arrow.

Intersection pedestrian signals *Add image and description of pedestrian scramble intersection?* Where there are pedestrian pushbuttons, a pedestrian must use the button to bring on the walk signal. Pedestrian signals give people more time to cross than regular traffic lights. On a busy main road, an intersection pedestrian signal helps people to cross the road safely by signalling traffic to stop. The intersection pedestrian signal has one or more crosswalks; pedestrian walk and don’t walk signals; push buttons for pedestrians; and, traffic signal lights on the main road only. Stop signs control traffic on the smaller, less busy crossroad. You must observe, obey the traffic rules and use safe driving skills to drive through these intersections. See also the section on driving through intersections. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

What the symbols on pedestrian signals indicate

What an intersection pedestrian signal is and what to do if you encounter one

*112* Pavement markings Pavement markings combine with road signs and traffic lights to give you important information about the direction of traffic and where you may and may not travel. Pavement markings divide traffic lanes, show turning lanes, mark pedestrian cr ossings, indicate obstacles and tell you when it is not safe to pass. *Add section re: new/emerging markings* Ex: bike lanes, bike boxes, pedestrian scramble, gridlock intersection, parking indicators. Include diagrams for each. Yellow lines separate traffic travelling in opposite directions. White lines separate traffic travelling in the same direction.

Diagram 3-1 A solid line at the left of your lane means it is unsafe to pass. (‘A’ should not pass.)

*113* A broken line at the left of your lane means you may pass if the way is clear. (‘A’ may pass if there are enough broken lines ahead to complete the pass safely.)

Diagram 3-3 Broken lines that are wider and closer together than regular broken lines are called continuity lines. When you see continuity lines on your left side, it generally means the lane you are in is ending or exiting and that you must change lanes if you want to c ontinue in your current direction. Continuity lines on your right mean your lane will continue unaffected.

Diagram 3-4 A stop line is a single white line painted across the road at an intersection. It shows where you must stop. If there is no stop line marked on the road, stop at the crosswalk, marked or not. If there is no crosswalk, stop at the edge of the sidewalk. If there is no sidewalk, stop at the edge of the intersection.

Diagram 3-5 *DIAGRAM 3-5* Add cyclist and pedestrian A crosswalk is marked by two parallel white lines painted across the road. However, crosswalks at intersections are not always marked. If there is no stop line, stop at the crosswalk. If there is no crosswalk, stop at the edge of the sidewalk. If there is no sidewalk, stop at the edge of the intersection.

Diagram 3-6 *DIAGRAM 3-6* Add cyclist and pedestrian A white arrow painted on a lane means you may move only in the direction of the arrow.

Diagram 3-7 *DIAGRAM 3-7* Add cyclist and pedestrian

*115* A pedestrian crossover is marked by two white double parallel lines across the road with an X in each lane approaching it, and overhead yellow lights. Stop before the line and yield to pedestrians.

Diagram 3-8 *DIAGRAM 3-8* Add cyclist in place of blue car; also the image doesn’t have the overhead yellow lights which are referred to in the t ext. Two solid lines painted on the pavement guide traffic away from fixed objects such as bridge piers or concrete islands. Yellow and black markings are also painted on the objects themselves as warnings.

Diagram 3-9 *DIAGRAM 3-9* Add cyclist in right lane. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

How pavement markings are used to control traffic

What the different colours and types of markings are used to indicate

Keeping Your Driver’s Licence Ontario has a one-piece driver’s licence. The licence card has a photograph and signature of the driver. All drivers in Ontario should have a one-piece licence card. You must carry your licence with you whenever you drive.

In this chapter •

Renewing your licence

Senior drivers age 80 or older

Graduated licensing requalification

Changing your name or address

Driver’s licence laws

The demerit point system

Table of offences

Other ways to lose your licence

Renewing your licence You will get a renewal application form in the mail. Take the form into any Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office in the province. They a re all equipped to take photographs. You will be asked to sign the form, show identification, pay a fee and have your photograph taken. You will get a temporary licence on the spot if your application and documents are in order, and your permanent one will be mailed to you. You must carry it with you whenever you drive and produce it when a police officer requests it. If you do not get a renewal application form in the mail when your licence is due for renewal, call the Ministry of Transportation. You are responsible for making sure you have a valid driver’s

licence. You can renew an expired car or motorcycle driver’s licence within one year without taking any tests. If your licence has been suspended, cancelled or expired for more than three years, you will be required to reapply for a licence in Ontario and meet all the requirements of graduated licensing, including passing all the required tests.

*118* Senior drivers age 80 or older

Licensing If you are 80 years of age or older, you are required to renew your driver’s licence every two years. This renewal process helps keep seniors mobile and independent longer, while helping to ensure that unsafe drivers are identified and appropriate actions are taken. The renewal consists of a vision and knowledge test and a Group Education Session. You will be notified by mail about your licence renewal. To set up an appointment for your vision and knowledge test and the Group Education Session, call the number for your MTO regional office that appears on your renewal notice. You may also be asked to take a road test if there is a chance you may pose a safety risk. There is no charge for any of the licence renewal requirements. You only have to pay the licence renewal fee. More information that specifically addresses the concerns of senior drivers can be found at the Driver Licensing section of MTO’s website at www.mto.gov.on.ca. You can also call the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Contact Centre at (416) 235-2999 or 1-800-387-3445.

How aging affects driving safety •

Reduced vision — especially at night

Difficulty judging distance and speed

Limited movement and range of motion

Slower reaction time

Difficulty focusing attention for long periods of time

More time needed to understand what you see and hear

More use of prescription and/or over-the-counter drugs that may impair your driving ability

What you can do to make your driving safer Your health is a key factor in your ability to drive. To help you handle the demands of safe driving: •

Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure current and new medications will not negatively affect your ability to drive. Over-the-counter drugs and combinations of drugs can also impair your driving. Report to your doctor: o

vision changes, unexplained dizziness or fainting spells;

frequent, chronic or severe pain.

Avoid driving if you’re experiencing pain. It can decrease your ability to concentrate and limit your movement behind the wheel. Have your hearing and eyes checked regularly. Peripheral vision and depth perception tend to decline over the years.

Your doctor can recommend an exercise program to improve flexibility and maintain strength, which can help your ability to drive safely.

Consider taking a driver’s course to refresh your knowledge of the rules of the road and safe driving practices.

Ask yourself: How’s my driving? Take this test and ask yourself these questions: •

Am I experiencing an increasing number of near collisions?

Have I been directly involved in minor collisions?

Do I have difficulty driving through intersections, judging distance or seeing pedestrians, road signs or other vehicles?

Do I have difficulty concentrating while driving?

Do I get lost or disoriented on familiar roads?

Do I have difficulty coordinating hand and foot movements?

Am I experiencing vision problems, especially at night?

Do I get nervous behind the wheel?

Do other motorists frequently honk at me?

Do family members express concern about my driving ability?

How important is driving to me?

Your answers to these questions can help you decide whether to continue to drive, cut back to certain times such as daylight hours, or stop driving altogether. If you have checked one or more of the warning signs and are concerned about your driving ability, talk to your doctor or family and get their opinions. At the group education session, you will learn more about these topics on senior driver safety. Graduated licensing requalification Under graduated licensing, novice drivers (Class G1, G2, M 1and M2) progress through a twostep licensing process by completing the mandatory time periods for each level and passing the required road tests. Except for Class M1, novice drivers have five years to complete the graduated licensing process. However, if your Class G1, G2 or M2 licence is about to expire and you have not completed the process, you can regain or retain the same class of licence by passing a test and paying the five-year licensing fee. This is c alled ‘requalification.’ A notice is sent to Class G1, G2 and M2 drivers before their licence expiry date to inform them of their options. If you do not complete the graduated licensing process or requalify before your G1, G2 or M2 licence expires, you will not have a licence to drive and you must reapply for a Level One licence.

*120* Changing your name or address You must tell the Ministry of Transportation within six days of changing your name or address. You will need a new licence when you change your address. You can change your address on the ServiceOntario website at www.serviceontario.ca or you can take the change of information to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office, or mail it to the Ministry of Transportation, P.O. Box

9200, Kingston, ON, K7L 5K4. The ministry will send you a new licence. When you get it, destroy your old licence and carry the new one with you whenever you drive. When your name changes, you need a new licence. Take the documents you must show (see the chart on this page) and your current licence to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. A new photograph will be taken. You will get a temporary licence to use until your permanent licence is mailed to you. Carry it with you whenever you drive. There is no charge for getting a new licence because you change your name or address. The chart on this page shows the documents you will need to change the name on your driver’s licence.

Driver’s licence laws It is illegal to: •

Lend your licence

Let someone else use it

Use an altered licence

Use another licence as your own

Have more than one Ontario driver’s licence

Use a fictitious or imitation licence

*121* The demerit point system The demerit point system encourages drivers to improve their behaviour and protects people from drivers who abuse the privilege of driving. Drivers convicted of driving-related offences have demerit points recorded on their records. Demerit points stay on your record for two years from the date of the offence. If you accumulate too many demerit points, your driver’s licence can be suspended. Demerit points do not apply to cyclists, but fines do.

New drivers — Demerit Point System for Level One or Level Two Drivers 2 or more points You will receive a warning letter.

6 points You may have to attend an interview to discuss your record and give reasons why your licence should not be suspended. If you do not go to the interview, your licence may be suspended.

9 or more points Your licence will be suspended for 60 days from the date you surrender it to the Ministry of Transportation. You can lose your licence for up to two years if you fail to surrender your licence. After the suspension, the number of points on your record will be reduced to four. Any extra points could again bring you to the interview level. If you reach nine points again, your licence may be suspended for six months. As a Level One or Level Two driver, you will have your licence suspended if you accumulate nine or more demerit points during a two-year period.

Fully licensed drivers — Demerit Point System for Fully Licensed Drivers 6 points You will be told about your record rec ord and urged to improve your driving skills.

9 points You may have to go to an interview to discuss your record and give reasons why your licence should not be suspended. You may also have to complete a driver re-examination. If you fail this test, your licence can be cancelled. If you fail to attend an interview, or fail to give good reasons for keeping your licence, your licence may be suspended.

15 points Your licence will be suspended for 30 days from the date you hand over your licence to the Ministry of Transportation. You can lose your licence for up to two years if you fail to surrender it. After the suspension, the number of points on your driver’s record will be reduced to seven. Any extra points could again bring you to the interview level. If you reach 15 points again, your licence will be suspended for six months.

*122* Table of offences

Here are the demerit points for driving offences.

Failing to remain at the scene of a collision

Failing to stop for police

Exceeding the speed limit by 50 km/h or more

Failing to stop for a school bus

Driver of bus failing to stop at unprotected railway crossing

Exceeding the speed limit by 30 to 49 km/h

Following too closely

Exceeding the speed limit by 16 to 29 km/h

Driving through, around or under a railway crossing cr ossing barrier

Failing to yield the right-of-way

Failing to obey a stop sign, traffic light or railway crossing signal

Failing to obey traffic control stop sign

Failing to obey traffic control slow sign

Failing to obey school crossing stop sign

Failing to obey the directions of a police officer

Driving the wrong way on a divided road

Failing to report a collision to a police officer

Improper driving where road is divided into lanes

Crowding the driver’s seat

Going the wrong way on a one-way road

Driving or operating a vehicle on a closed road

Crossing a divided road where no proper crossing is provided

Failing to slow and carefully pass a stopped emergency vehicle

Failing to stop at a pedestrian crossing

Failing to move, where possible, into another lane when passing a stopped emergency vehicle Driving a vehicle that is equipped with or carrying a speed measuring warning device (such as a radar detector) Improper use of a high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane

Failing to lower headlight beam

Improper opening of a vehicle door

Towing people — on toboggans, bicycles, skis, for e xample

Failing to obey signs

Failing to share the road

Improper right turn

Improper left turn

Failing to signal

Unnecessary slow driving

Reversing on a highway

Driver failing to wear a seatbelt

Driver failing to ensure infant passenger is secured

Driver failing to ensure toddler passenger is secured

Driver failing to ensure child is secured

Driver failing to ensure passenger under 16 years is wearing seatbelt

Driver failing to ensure passenger under 16 years is occupying a position with a seatbelt

*123* Other ways to lose your licence

Your licence may also be suspended for the following reasons: •

Discretionary HTA suspensions

Mandatory HTA suspensions

Administrative driver’s licence suspension (ADLS)

«Warn Range» suspension

Novice driver violations

Medical suspension By law, all doctors must report the names and addresses of everyone 16 years or older who has a condition that may affect their ability to drive safely. For example, addiction to alcohol or drugs are conditions that affect your ability to drive. Doctors report this information to the Ministry of Transportation and it is not given to anyone else. Your driver’s licence may be suspended until new medical evidence shows that the condition does not pose a safety risk. Discretionary HTA suspensions Your licence may be suspended by court order following conviction for the following: •

If you don’t tell the truth o

in an application, declaration, affidavit or paper r equired by the Highway Traffic Act , its Regulations or the Ministry of Transportation. about vehicle liability insurance.

If you fail to insure your vehicle. If you are convicted of some driving offences, included careless driving and driving 50 km/h or more over the speed limit. If you repeatedly travel at 50km/h or more over the speed limit.

Drivers can be suspended for up to 30 days for a first offence, up to 60 days for a second offence, and up to one year for a third or subsequent offence within a five-year period. Mandatory HTA suspensions

Your licence will be suspended: •

If you are convicted of failing to stop for a police officer and the court believes you wilfully avoided police during pursuit — that you tried to e scape the police. (This is a Criminal Code offence. Your licence will be suspended for a minimum of five years.)

If you don’t pay a traffic fine when ordered by the court.

Administrative driver’s licence suspension (ADLS) Your licence will be suspended immediately for 90 days: •

If you fail or refuse to give a breath or blood sample when asked by police. If your blood alcohol concentration is more than 80 milligrams in 100 millilitres of blood (.08).

This suspension takes effect while you are still at the roadside or at the police station. It is an administrative suspension by the Registrar of Motor Vehicles and is separate from any criminal charges or prosecution which may also take place. A $150 administrative monetary penalty is also imposed on driver’s who receive an ADLS. «Warn Range» suspension Drivers who blow in the warn range of .05 to .08 pose an immediate danger to themselves and other road users. If caught driving in the warn range, you will receive an immediate driver’s licence suspension at the roadside. •

for 3 days for a first occurrence. for 7 days for a second occurrence and you must undergo a remedial alcohol education program. for 30 days for a third or subsequent occurrence in a five-year period and you must undergo a remedial alcohol treatment program and have an ignition interlock condition placed on your licence for 6 months. If you choose not to install an ignition interlock device, you must not drive until the condition is removed from your licence.

A $150 administrative monetary penalty is also imposed on drivers suspended for registering in the warn range. Novice driver violations Drivers holding G1, G2, M1 or M2 licences must follow the specific rules for their class of licence. If you violate any of the graduated licensing conditions for your class of licence, your licence will be suspended for 30 days. This suspension takes effect from the time you surrender your licence on or after the date of the suspension. You can lose your licence for up to two years if you fail to hand over your licence. Your licence will be cancelled: •

If you fail a driver’s re-examination. If you don’t pay your reinstatement fee or administrative monetary penalty following a suspension. If your cheque for licence fees is not honoured by your bank. If you voluntarily surrender your driver’s licence to the Ministry of Transportation or it is surrendered or returned by another jurisdiction.

Criminal Code suspensions You will receive a one-year licence suspension the first time you are convicted of a Criminal Code offence. If you are convicted of a second Criminal Code offence, your licence will be suspended for three years. A third Criminal Code offence will get you a lifetime suspension from driving with the possibility of reinstatement after 10 years. Fourth time offenders convicted of a Criminal Code offence are suspended from driving for life with no possibility of reinstatement. Convictions will remain on your driver’s record for a minimum of 10 years. The court can order a longer suspension if it believes that keeping you off the road will improve safety.

*125* Your licence will be suspended if you are convicted of any of the following Criminal Code offences: •

Driving or having care and control of a vehicle while your ability is impaired by alcohol or drugs

Refusing to submit to a breath test for alcohol

Failing or refusing to provide a breath sample for roadside testing

Driving or having care and control of a vehicle when your blood alcohol concentration is more than 80 milligrams per 100 millilitres of blood (.08) Driving or having care and control of a boat, motorized or not, when your blood alcohol concentration is more than 80 milligrams per 100 millilitres of blood (.08)

Failing to remain at the scene of a collision to escape criminal or civil liability

Causing bodily harm by criminal negligence

Causing death by criminal negligence

Failing to stop for police.

Remedial measures There are several types of remedial measures. The mandatory Back on Track program is for all drivers convicted of impaired driving-related Criminal Code offences. For drivers who repeatedly blow in the warn range of .05 to .08, there is a mandatory alcohol education for a second suspension which must be completed within 120 days of the suspension or an alcohol treatment program for a third or subsequent suspension which must be completed within 180 days of the suspension. A Driver Improvement interview is required for drivers convicted of non-impaired driving-related Criminal Code offences. If your driver’s licence has been suspended because of a Criminal Code conviction, your licence will remain suspended until you have completed the remedial requirements. Driving under suspension You may not drive, under any circumstances, when your licence is suspended. If you are convicted of driving while your licence is suspended for an HTA offence, you will have to pay a fine of $1,000 to $5,000 for a first offence and $2,000 to $5,000 for a ‘subsequent’ offence. (A ‘subsequent’ offence is when you are convicted again within five years.) The court can order you to spend up to six months in jail, or you may have to pay a fine or do both. Six months will be added to your current suspension as well.

If you are found guilty of driving while your licence is suspended for a Criminal Code offence, you face a fine of $5,000 to $25,000 for a first offence and $10,000 to $50,000 for a subsequent offence within five years. You also face an additional suspension (one year for a first offence; two years for a subsequent offence) under the HTA and up to two years in prison and three years licence suspension under the Criminal Code.

*126* Driving while prohibited This is a prohibition order under the Criminal Code conviction. When convicted of violation of the order, you will get a suspension of one year for a first offence or two years for a subsequent offence. Courts can order longer prohibition, which will be matched in length by a suspension under the Highway Traffic Act . Note: Suspended drivers must pay $150 to have their licence reinstated. This fee does not apply to reinstatement following a medical or administrative suspension of your driver’s licence. Vehicle Impoundment Program If you are caught driving while your licence is suspended for a Criminal Code offence, the vehicle you are driving will be impounded for a minimum of 45 days. This applies whether the vehicle is borrowed from a friend or family member, used for business or employment purposes, rented or leased. The owner of the vehicle must pay the towing and storage costs before the vehicle will be released. This program applies to all motor vehicles, which include passenger vehicles, motorcycles, trucks and buses. The Vehicle Impoundment Program makes vehicle owners responsible for ensuring that anyone driving their vehicles is not suspended for a Criminal Code conviction. People loaning or renting their vehicles can verify that a driver’s licence is valid by phone at 1-900-565-6555 or online at www.mto.gov.on.ca. You can also get a driver’s abstract at Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Offices or ServiceOntario Kiosks. There is a nominal fee for each licence checked. Impaired driving Impaired driving, which means driving when your ability is affected by alcohol or drugs, is a crime in Canada. If you are impaired, you can be convicted of several offences under the Criminal Code of Canada . Your vehicle does not even have to be moving; you can be charged if you are impaired behind the wheel, even if you have not started to drive. Alcohol Drinking and driving is a deadly combination. All drivers, especially inexperienced drivers, must be able to concentrate on driving. That’s why the graduated licensing system does not allow new drivers to drink any alcohol when they are going to drive.

*127* Even one drink can reduce your ability to concentrate and react to things that happen suddenly when you are driving. With more alcohol in your blood, you could have tr ouble judging distances and your vision may become blurred. Factors like tiredness, your mood, and how long ago you ate and how much, can make a difference in how alcohol affects your driving ability. The police have the right to stop any driver they suspect is impaired. They may also do roadside spot checks. When you are stopped by the police, you may be told to blow into a machine that tests your breath for alcohol — a roadside screening device. If you refuse, you will be charged under the Criminal Code. The police will also notify the Registrar of Motor Vehicles and your licence will be suspended immediately for 90 days. If the reading on the machine shows you have been drinking, you may be taken to a police station for a breathalyser test. The breathalyser uses your breath to measure the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream. If you cannot give a breath sample for some reason, the police officer can ask you to let a doctor take a blood sample instead. If you are injured and cannot give your consent, a justice of the peace may authorize a doctor to take a blood sample. The maximum legal blood alcohol concentration for fully licensed drivers is 80 milligrams in 100 millilitres of blood (.08). Any more than .08 is against the law. If you register in the warn range of .05 to .08 on a roadside screening device, you will receive an immediate driver’s licence suspension at the roadside. For a first occurrence, you will be suspended for 3 days. For a second occurrence in a five-year period, you will be immediately suspended for 7 days and you must undergo a remedial alcohol education program. For a third or subsequent time in a five-year period, you will be immediately suspended for 30 days and you must undergo a remedial alcohol treatment program a nd have an ignition interlock condition placed on your licence for 6 months. If you choose not to install an ignition interlock device, you must not drive until the condition is removed from your licence. Meanwhile, if there is no one else available to drive and no safe place to park your vehicle, it will be towed at your expense. If your blood alcohol concentration is more than 80 milligrams in 100 millilitres of blood (.08), you will be charged under the Criminal Code. The police will also notify the Registrar of Motor Vehicles and your licence will be suspended immediately for 90 days. Even if your blood alcohol concentration is less than .08, you can still be charged with impaired driving under the Criminal Code. Level One and Level Two drivers must have a blood alcohol level of zero when driving. New drivers caught drinking and driving will get a 30-day suspension for violating a condition of their Level One or Level Two licence. They can also be charged under the Criminal Code.

*128* Drugs Any drug that changes your mood or the way you see and feel about the world around you will affect the way you drive. Criminal Code and HTA suspensions apply to drivers impaired by alcohol or drugs.

Illegal drugs such as marijuana and cocaine are not the only problem. Some drugs that your doctor may prescribe for you and some over-the-counter drugs can also impair your driving. Here are some points you should remember: •

If you use prescription medicines or get allergy shots, ask your doctor about side effects such as dizziness, blurred vision, nausea or drowsiness that could affect your driving. Read the information on the package of any over-the-counter medicine you take. Any stimulant, diet pill, tranquillizer or sedative may affect your driving. Even allergy and cold remedies may have ingredients that could affect your driving. Drugs and alcohol together can have dangerous effects, even several days after you have taken the drug. Do not take a chance — ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Consider the consequences of impaired driving Ontario leads the way in combating drinking and driving through some of the toughest laws and programs in North America, including licence suspensions, heavy fines, vehicle impoundment, mandatory alcohol education and treatment programs and the ignition interlock program. Depending on your number of prior convictions, you may be fined up to $50,000, serve time in jail or lose your licence permanently. For impaired driving that causes injury or death, the penalties are even more severe. If you are convicted of impaired driving causing bodily harm, you may be sentenced to up to 14 years in prison. Impaired driving causing death can carry a sentence of imprisonment for life. If you drink and drive and are involved in a collision, you may suffer serious injury or cause serious injury to someone else. Your insurance company might not pay for your medical or rehabilitation costs, or for the damage to your or the other person’s vehicle and your insurance costs may rise significantly. You may have to pay substantial legal costs as well. If you are required to drive on the job, a licence suspension could mean losing your job.

*129* Mandatory alcohol education and treatment If you are convicted of an impaired driving-related Criminal Code offence, you must complete an alcohol education and treatment program during your licence suspension, also referred to as a remedial measures program. If you are convicted of a drinking and driving related Criminal Code offence, you must take the impaired driving program called Back on Track , delivered by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. The three-part program, which is available across the province, involves assessment, education or treatment, and follow-up. You must pay f or the program. If you have not completed the Back on Track program by the time your Criminal Code suspension expires, your licence will be further suspended until you have completed the remedial requirements. This program also applies to Ontario residents convicted of driving-related Criminal Code offences in any other province of Canada, or equivalent offences in the states of Michigan and New York, as well as to out-of-province drivers who are convicted in Ontario. If your driver’s licence has been suspended for driving in the warn range of .05 to .08 for a second time in a five-year period you must complete a remedial alcohol education program in 120 days from the date of the suspension. For a third or subsequent occurrence of driving in the warn range, you must complete a remedial alcohol treatment program within 180 days from the date of the suspension. You must pay for these remedial programs which are also delivered by the Centre

for Addiction and Mental Health. Failure to c omplete the required remedial program within the specified time period will result in a licence suspension until the remedial program is completed.

Driver improvement interview The other remedial measures program is for drivers convicted of non-drinking and driving related Criminal Code offences who have no previous alcohol-related convictions. You must undergo a Ministry of Transportation driver improvement interview. If you have not completed the driver improvement interview by the time your Cr iminal Code suspension expires, your licence will be further suspended until you have completed the remedial requirements. This program also applies to Ontario residents convicted of driving-related Criminal Code offences in any other province of Canada, or equivalent offences in the states of Michigan and New York, as well as to out-of-province drivers who are convicted in Ontario.

Ignition interlock An ignition interlock device is an in-car breath screening device. It prevents a vehicle from starting if it detects a blood alcohol concentration over a pre-set limit of 20 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood (.02). If you are convicted of impaired driving under the Criminal Code of Canada, you are subject to Ontario’s Ignition Interlock Program. After serving a licence suspension, completing a mandatory remedial measures program and meeting all licensing conditions, you will be eligible to have your driver’s licence back. At that time, an ignition interlock condition is placed on your Ontario driver’s licence, which means that you must install an ignition interlock device in your vehicle.

*130* If you choose not to install a device, you must not drive until the condition is removed from your licence. If you are required to complete a road test while the ignition interlock condition is on your licence, you must complete a road test in a vehicle equipped with the device. You must apply to the Ministry of Transportation to have the condition removed from your licence. If you have completed the minimum period (one year or three years) without any program violations (tampering/driving without/missed appointment with service provider), the ignition interlock condition will be removed. If you do not a pply for removal of the licence condition, it will remain on your licence indefinitely. As a vehicle owner, you must not allow a person with an ignition interlock condition to drive your vehicle or you could be convicted of an offence under the Highway Traffic Act. You can find out if a driver has an ignition interlock condition on his or her licence by accessing MTO’s website at www.mto.gov.on.ca or by calling 1-900-565-6555. There is a fee for each licence check. If your driver’s licence has been suspended for driving in the warn range of .05 to .08 for a third or subsequent time in a five-year period, you will also have an ignition interlock condition placed on your licence for 6 months. However, you do not need to apply to the Ministry of Transportation to have the condition removed from your licence. If you have completed the minimum 6-month period without any program violations (tampering/driving without/missed appointment with service provider), the ignition interlock condition will be removed. Summary By the end of this section you should know:

Your responsibility to maintain a valid driver’s licence with the most correct and up to date information

How the Demerit Point System works for new and fully licensed drivers

The driving offences that result in a loss of points upon conviction.

Common circumstances where your licence can be cancelled or suspended

How alcohol and drugs impact your ability to drive


The consequences that can result from a suspended licence including reinstatement fees, remedial measures, ignition interlock, vehicle impoundment and jail time

*131* Your Vehicle All motor vehicles on Ontario roads must be registered, insured and maintained to meet certain basic safety standards. If you own a vehicle, you are responsible for making sure it meets the requirements. People who buy and sell vehicles also have certain responsibilities.

In this chapter •

Maintaining your vehicle

Vehicle insurance and registration

Buying or selling a used vehicle

Test yourself — Sample knowledge test questions

Maintaining your vehicle It is illegal to drive a vehicle in dangerous condition. But maintaining your vehicle also makes sense from an economic point of view: it can mean better mileage and a better price when you sell your vehicle. Maintaining your vehicle also helps to protect the environment. A police officer or Ministry of Transportation inspector can examine your vehicle, its equipment and any trailer attached to it, at any time. If the vehicle is found to be unsafe, it may be taken off the road until the problem is fixed. If you refuse to allow the examination, you can be fined up to $1,000. If the vehicle is then found to be unsafe, your licence plates can be taken away. The following types of regular maintenance will help keep your vehicle fit and safe. Daily or weekly checks •

Keep your vehicle clean, inside and out. Keep seatbelts clean to prevent dirt and moisture from damaging the mechanism.

Check tire pressure. Properly inflated tires mean better mileage and safer driving.

Check tires for damage or wear.

Check that all lights are working.

Check that windshield wipers are properly attached to wiper blades.

If your wiper blades leave streaks on the window, replace them.

Check under the hood when the engine is cold. Check that there is enough oil, water in the radiator, windshield washer fluid, brake fluid and battery f luid, if appropriate. Check all hoses for cracks or leaks and check fan belts for wear or slackness.

Change oil and filter

Change transmission fluid

Change axle differential oil

Check drive and axle shafts

Check steering, brake and clutch reservoirs

Check cooling system levels

Check brake system

Check front suspension, including alignment and condition of ball joints, steering rods, shock absorbers and springs

Check engine adjustments — valve clearances, ignition timing, distributor and spark plugs

Check fuel injection system and air filter element

Check headlight aim

*133* Winter maintenance A well-maintained vehicle will generally start in all weather conditions. However, whenever possible, shelter your vehicle from direct contact with rain or snow when it is parked because even the best maintained vehicle can’t run if the engine is soaked. Carry emergency supplies. These should include a shovel, a bag of sand or kitty litter, booster cables, emergency flares or warning lights, a blanket and a chain for towing. Always carry extra windshield washer fluid in the winter and refill the container when necessary. Cold weather puts extra strain on your vehicle’s systems. With lights, heater, defroster and radio all working at once, batteries do not get a good charge at idle speed. If idling in traffic for long periods, shift to neutral and rev the engine gently. Have your battery checked and terminals cleaned at least twice during the winter. Faulty exhaust systems are especially dangerous in the winter when drivers are more likely to drive with windows and vents closed. Have your e xhaust checked if it sounds noisy or rattles. Tires The type of tires you have and the way they are made are critical for good traction, mileage and safety. Keep these points in mind when you buy or replace tires, and check your vehicle owner’s manual or the tire manufacturer’s guide for recommendations. Tires must meet standards described in the Motor Vehicle Tire Safety Act .

Replace tires when the tread is less than 1.5 millimetres deep or when tread wear indicators touch the road. Vehicles that weigh more than 4,500 kilograms must replace their front tires when tread is less than three millimetres deep.

Replace tires that have bumps, bulges, knots, exposed cords or tread and sidewall cuts deep enough to expose cords. Any tire on a vehicle must not be smaller than the vehicle manufacturer’s specified minimum size. And it must not be so large that it touches the vehicle or affects its safe operation. Use similar tires on all four wheels. Some combinations are illegal, including: radial-ply tires on the front and bias-ply or belted bias-ply on the rear; a mix of 50 or 60 series tires on the front with any other mixture on the rear; and a combination of types or sizes on the same axle, unless the types and sizes are equivalent by industry standards. This does not apply to a single spare tire used in an emergency. The pressure of the spare tire should be the same as the pressure of the tire with the highest pressure. Any tire with the wording «not for highway use», «farm use only», «competition circuit only», «NHS», «TG», «SL» or any other words that mean the tire is not for use on the road must not be used on a vehicle that travels on roads. Although snow tires or all-weather tires are not required by law, they give the best traction for vehicles in winter. Install snow tires at least on the drive wheels. Four snow or all-weather tires are best for vehicles in snowbelt areas. If you live in Northern Ontario, you can legally use studded tires on your vehicle. Research shows that studded tires are more effective than other tires under icy conditions, particularly on wet ice. Overall, winter tires perform better than conventional all season tires under all wintertime conditions. Scrap tires are a serious environmental concern. Proper tire maintenance will e xtend the life of a tire and delay its disposal. Some tips for longer wear: maintain the right air pressure; inspect tires for wear; rotate tires regularly; and practice good driving habits.

*135* Vehicle insurance and registration •

Insurance Ontario has compulsory automobile insurance. This means every vehicle registered in the province must be insured. You must show proof that you have insurance coverage before you can register a vehicle or renew your registration. If you do not tell the truth about your insurance or if you show false documents, you can be fined $500 to $2,500. You may also lose your driver’s licence for up to one year and have your vehicle taken away for up to three months. You must insure all your vehicles for third party liability of at least $200,000. This covers you in the event that you injure or kill someone or damage someone’s property. Collision insurance to cover damage to your own vehicle is a good idea but not required by law.

When driving your own vehicle or someone else’s, you must carry the pink insurance card from the insurance company for that particular vehicle. You must show this card when a police officer asks for it. If you do not, you can be fined up to $200. Registration Vehicle registration includes licence plates and a vehicle permit. Licence plates in Ontario are based on a plate-to-owner system. This means that vehicle licence plates move with the vehicle owner, not the vehicle. When you sell or change vehicles, you must remove your plates. If you do not intend to use them on another vehicle, you may return your plates to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. Your vehicle permit must have an accurate description of your vehicle. This means that if you change your vehicle, such as the colour, you must report it at a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office within six days. If you own a vehicle and you change your name or address, you must notify the Ministry of Transportation within six days. You can do this in person at a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office, on the ServiceOntario website at www.serviceontario.ca, or by mail, using the change of information stub attached to your vehicle permit. New residents New Ontario residents have 30 days to register their vehicles. To get a vehicle permit and Ontario licence plates, go to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. You must bring along: •

A Safety Standards Certificate

Proof of insurance

A Vehicle Import Form 1 if you have brought the vehicle in from another country

The vehicle permit, or ownership, from where you used to live. A Drive Clean Vehicle Emissions Pass Report may be required if the vehicle is being registered as «fit» in the Drive Clean program area. Current and future model year vehicles are exempt, and light duty vehicles older than 1988 are exempt starting in 2007.

Buying or selling a used vehicle If you are selling a used vehicle privately in Ontario, you must buy a Used Vehicle Information Package. This applies to the private sale of any car, van, light truck, motor home, moped, limitedspeed motorcycle or motorcycle. The package is available from any Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office, ServiceOntario kiosks or the ServiceOntario website at www.serviceontario.ca. The package, which the seller must show to potential buyers, a description of the vehicle, its registration and lien history in Ontario and the average wholesale a nd retail values for its model and year. It also includes information about retail sales tax. As well as giving the buyer the Used Vehicle Information Package, sellers must remove their licence plates, sign the vehicle transfer portion of their vehicle permit and give it to the buyer. Sellers must keep the plate portion of the permit. The buyer must take the package and the vehicle portion of the permit to a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office to register as the new owner within six days of the sale. Before buyers can put their own plates on their new vehicle, they must have: •

Their licence plates validated

The vehicle portion of the permit issued for the vehicle

Their own licence plate number recorded on the plate portion of the vehicle permit

A valid Safety Standards Certificate

The minimum insurance required under the Compulsory Automobile Insurance Act

A Drive Clean Vehicle Emissions Pass Report may be required if the vehicle is being registered as «fit» in the Drive Clean program area. Current and future model year vehicles are exempt, and light duty vehicles older than 1988 are exempt starting in 2007. Vehicle owners may visit the Drive Clean website at www.driveclean.com to view the Drive Clean emissions test history of a vehicle.

*137* Safety Standards Certificate A Safety Standards Certificate is a document that certifies a vehicle’s fitness. You can buy and register a vehicle without a safety certificate, but you cannot put your own plates on the vehicle or drive it without one. Any inspection station in Ontario licensed by the Ministry of T ransportation can issue a Safety Standards Certificate, provided your vehicle passes an inspection. Many garages are licensed — look for a sign saying it is a Motor Vehicle Inspection Station. A Safety Standards Certificate is valid for 36 days after the inspection. However, the certificate is not a guarantee or warranty that the vehicle will stay fit for any period. Mandatory Vehicle Branding Program Under the Mandatory Vehicle Branding Program, insurers, self-insurers (fleet owners), auctioneers, importers, salvagers and anyone who deals in used vehicles, are required to determine whether severely damaged and written off (‘total loss’) vehicles they insure or obtain should be branded either ‘Irreparable’ or ‘Salvage’. They must notify the ministry of the brand through a Notification of Vehicle Brand form. The ministry applies the brand to the vehicle’s registration information so that it will appear on the vehicle permit, vehicle abstracts and the Used Vehicle Information Package (UVIP) for that vehicle. The brand identifies the condition of the vehicle to potential buyers. This is how the program helps to protect consumers buying used vehicles.

*138* If your vehicle sustains severe damage and is written off by your insurance company, your insurance company must notify you and the ministry of the brand requirement. If you do not receive a claim settlement through an insurance company, you must have the brand determined by an authorized mechanic at a Type 6 Motor Vehicle Inspection Station. The ministry website has a list of these facilities — visit www.mto.gov.on.ca for details. There are four brands: •

A vehicle which has never had a brand applied in Ontario automatically has the brand ‘None’ applied to its registration documents. However, this does not mean that the vehicle has never been damaged in a collision, was never branded in another jurisdiction or was not rebuilt prior to the mandatory branding program. The brand ‘Irreparable’ means that damage to the vehicle was so severe that the vehicle can be used for parts or scrap only. It cannot be rebuilt, and it can never be driven in Ontario. The brand ‘Salvage’ means that the damaged vehicle can be repaired or rebuilt. It cannot be registered as fit to drive in Ontario. Once the vehicle has been repaired or rebuilt, and if it can pass a structural inspection to ministry standards, the owner can obtain a Structural Inspection Certificate and have the vehicle branded as ‘Rebuilt’. The brand ‘Rebuilt’ means that the vehicle has been previously branded as ‘Salvage’, but has been rebuilt and has passed a structural inspection to ministry standards. If the vehicle can pass a safety inspection (Safety Standards Certificate), the owner can have it registered as fit to drive in Ontario.

Motorcycles that have been written off must be branded ‘Irreparable’; they cannot be branded ‘Salvage’. Trailers, traction engines, farm tractors, motor assisted bicycles, motorized snow vehicles, street cars or motor vehicles with a model year of 1980 or earlier are exempt fr om the mandatory branding program.

*139* Ontario’s Drive Clean program Vehicles are the single largest domestic source of smog-causing emissions in Ontario. Drive Clean, administered by the Ministry of the Environment, reduces smog-causing pollutants by identifying grossly polluting vehicles and requiring them to be repaired. If you own a light-duty vehicle in the Drive Clean Program area (Southern Ontario from Windsor to Ottawa) that is five years old or older and is a 1988 or newer model, you must take your vehicle for a Drive Clean test every two years in order to renew its registration. Light Duty Vehicles manufactured before the 1988 model year are exempt from Drive Clean emissions test requirements. If you are buying a used vehicle that is older than the current model year and is a 1988 or newer model, the vehicle must pass a Drive Clean test to transfer the ownership and plate it for the road. Please note that the act of creating, distributing or using false Drive Clean passes is an offence under the Environmental Protection Act. Emissions inspectors who do so can be decertified; vehicle owners will be charged.

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You don’t have to wait for a Drive Clean test to do something positive for the environment. Keeping your vehicle well maintained according to the manufacturer’s recommended service schedules is an important part of driving clean. For example, if the ‘check engine’ or ‘service engine’ lights come on, have your engine looked at by a qualified repair technician as soon as possible. Otherwise, you could face costly repairs to the vehicle’s engine or emissions control system. For more information on Ontario’s Drive Clean program, visit www.driveclean.com or call the Drive Clean Call Centre toll-free at 1-888-758-2999.

*140* Towing This chapter tells you what you need to know to tow a trailer behind a car, van or small truck in Ontario. This includes licence and registration requirements, trailer size and characteristics, as well as safety tips to follow when towing a trailer. Before you attempt to tow a trailer, consider the size, power and condition of your vehicle. Make sure it is capable of towing both the trailer and the load you i ntend to carry, and that your trailer and hitch meet all the requirements described in this chapter. Towing a trailer brings unique challenges to drivers. Almost half of the reported collisions while towing a recreational vehicle are single vehicle collisions. Another 20% involve rear-end collisions. In collisions where the driver was determined to be at fault, about 30% of the drivers had «lost control» of their vehicle. Licence and permit You must have a valid driver’s licence (Class G1, G2 or G) or higher class of licence to tow a trailer with a gross vehicle weight of up to 4,600 kilograms. If your trailer and load exceeds the size and weight specified in the Highway Traffic Act , you may need a higher class of licence or an oversize vehicle permit to tow it. Oversize permits are available at some MTO Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Offices. It is against the law to tow more than one trailer behind non-commercial vehicles. Registering your trailer A trailer is considered a separate vehicle. Before you can tow one on any public road, you must register it and pay a one-time registration fee at a Driver and Vehicle Licence Issuing Office. When you register your trailer you will receive a licence plate and vehicle permit. Attach the licence plate to the back of your trailer where it is clearly visible. Always carry your permit, or a copy of it, to show to a police officer when asked. Make sure your trailer is in good condition Your trailer must be in safe operating condition. If it is not, a police officer may remove your trailer from the road until it is made safe to operate. Brakes If your trailer has a gross trailer weight, vehicle and load of 1,360 kg or more, it must have brakes strong enough to stop and hold the trailer. Lights Your trailer must have: •

a white licence plate light;

a red tail light; and,

two red reflectors at the rear of the trailer, as far apart as possible.

If your trailer is wider than 2.05 metres, it must also have: •

two yellow clearance lights, one on each side at the front of the trailer, as far apart as possible, to let drivers coming toward you know the width of your trailer; and, two red clearance lights, or reflectors, one on each side at the rear of the trailer, as far apart as possible, to let drivers behind you know the width of your trailer.

*141* Your trailer must have mudguards, fenders and flaps or be designed in such a way that it does not spray or splash traffic travelling behind you. If the load in your trailer blocks your vision to the rear, you must have additional mirrors that provide a clear view of the road to the rear. Load your trailer carefully so that nothing comes loose or falls off while you are moving. Attaching your trailer Your trailer must have two separate ways of attaching to your vehicle so that if one fails or comes loose, the trailer will stay attached. If safety chains are used, they must be crossed under the tongue to prevent the tongue from dropping to the road if the primary hitch accidentally disconnects. The chain hooks must have latches or devices that will not accidentally become detached. No passengers You may not carry any person in any trailer, including a house or boat trailer, when it is being towed. Trailer hitch Use a good quality trailer hitch. The class of trailer hitch you use depends upon the gross weight of your trailer — the gross weight being the total weight of the trailer and its load. Make sure you use the right trailer hitch for the weight of your trailer. It should be securely attached to your vehicle following manufacturer’s recommendations. The hitch-ball should be installed so that when the trailer is attached and tightened, it is level with no tilting. If the hitch pulls down the rear of your vehicle, you may need to use a load-equalizing trailer hitch. You may also be able to shift some of the load in the trailer to the rear to reduce the load on the rear of your vehicle. In addition to a ball and hitch, be sure to use safety chains or cables strong enough to hold the trailer and load, in case the ball and hitch accidentally come apart. Loading your trailer

Diagram 5-4-1 When loading your trailer, strap everything down, inside, as well as outside, the trailer. It is an offence to have a load that may become dislodged or may fall off. Do not overload your trailer. Too much weight in the trailer can put a strain on your vehicle and damage your tires, wheel bearings and axle. When carrying a boat on a trailer, do not carry cargo in the boat unless your trailer is designed and equipped for the extra weight.

*142* The distribution of the weight in your trailer is also very important. Generally, more of the trailer load should be in front of the trailer axle than behind it for proper hitch weight. About 5 to 10 per cent of the trailer’s total weight should be supported on the hitch, within the weight limit marked on the hitch. Poor load balance can cause your trailer to sway or fishtail. The ball and hitch may also become separated, especially if there is too much weight in the rear of the trailer. Heavy and improperly placed loads can pull down the rear of your vehicle, lifting the front end and affecting your steering, especially in wet and slippery conditions. It may also affect the aim of your headlights so that your low beams blind approaching drivers. The alignment of your mirrors may also be affected. Starting out Before each trip, check the trailer hitch, wheels, tires, lights, load distribution and load security to make sure they are safe. Check your tire pressure with the trailer loaded while the tires are still cold. When you start to drive, accelerate carefully. Drive slowly and carefully.

*143* Curves and turns Stay close to the middle of your lane when taking a curve. When making a right turn, check traffic. Look in your right mirror. Signal and slow down. If the turn is sharp, move ahead until your vehicle’s front wheels are well ahead of the curb before turning to the right. When making a left turn, check traffic. Signal. Proceed slowly. When you make your turn, swing wide by driving well into the intersection before turning. Slowing down and stopping A sudden stop can cause your trailer to jackknife or slide sideways or the load to shift. To avoid sudden stops, increase the following distance between you and the vehicle ahead. Keep out of the

fast lanes and maintain a speed that will allow you to slow down and stop smoothly in any situation. Passing You cannot accelerate as quickly when you are towing a trailer. You also need more space because the length of your vehicle is much longer with a trailer attached. Before Bef ore you pass, make sure you have enough time and room to complete the pass. Once you have passed, allow more room before you move back to your lane. Do not cut back into the lane too soon. This can cause your trailer to sway and make it difficult to control. Being passed If you are holding up a line of traffic, signal, pull over and let the other vehicles pass. Fastmoving trucks and buses create a strong air disturbance behind them. If a large bus or truck passes you, the wall of wind behind it may whip your trailer to the side, pushing it out of control. When you experience this, do not brake. Carefully steer your vehicle and trailer back into position. A slight increase in speed may help. Backing up Back up very slowly and have someone outside the vehicle direct you. Use a series of small turns to steer. It is a good idea to practice this skill off the road in an empty parking lot until you are comfortable with your ability. To back up to the right, steer to the left. The front end of the trailer will go left, but the rear end will go right. To back up to the left, steer to the right. The front end of the trailer will go right, but the rear end will go left. Towing disabled vehicles If your vehicle breaks down, you should get help from a tow truck designed to tow vehicles. If you must use another vehicle to tow, use warning signals or emergency flashers and make sure you attach the vehicles securely. Someone must sit in the disabled vehicle and use the brakes to keep the tow cable tight. If the engine cannot run, don’t tow vehicles that have power braking and steering. Without the engine, braking and steering is difficult and towing may le ad to a collision. Trying to start a disabled vehicle by towing is dangerous and could damage both vehicles. Summary By the end of this section you should know: •

The checks that need to be performed on your vehicle: daily/weekly, daily/weekly, at its regular servicing and for its use in the winter How to buy the right tires for your vehicle and how to know when they need replacing Your responsibility to ensure that the vehicle you are driving is properly registered and insured Information about buying and selling used vehicles including the Safety Standards Certificate

Licensing requirements to properly tow a trailer or disabled vehicle

Vehicle requirements such as brakes, lights, mirrors and trailer hitches

The proper way to load a trailer and attach it to your vehicle

Driving techniques for driving with a trailer attached

*145* Add Question #9 re: sharing the road with cyclists and pedestrians. Test yourself — Sample knowledge test questions The following questions will give you an idea of what to expect on the knowledge test. All knowledge tests questions follow this multiple-choice multiple-choice format. The answers to these sample questions are provided at the bottom of the page.

1. To get your vehicle out of a skid, you should first: a. Steer straight ahead. b. Steer in the opposite direction of the skid. c. Steer in the direction you want to go. d. Apply brakes hard.

2. When may you lend your driver’s licence? a. In emergencies. b. To a person learning to drive. c. It is not permitted. d. For identification purposes.

3. What must a driver do before entering a highway from a private road or driveway? a. Enter or cross the highway as quickly as possible. b. Yield right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on the highway. c. Sound horn and proceed with caution. d. Give hand signal then take right-of-way. r ight-of-way.

4. Never change lanes in traffic without: a. Looking in the rear view mirror only. b. Giving proper signal and looking to make sure the move can be made safely. c. Blowing your horn and looking to the rear. d. Decreasing speed and giving correct signal.

5. When the driver of another vehicle is about to overtake and pass your vehicle, you must: a. Speed up so that passing is not necessary. b. Move to the left to prevent passing. c. Signal to the other driver not to pass. d. Move to the right and allow such vehicle to pass.

6. When you are deciding whether or not to make a U-turn, your first consideration should be to check: a. Traffic regulations. b. Presence of trees, fire hydrants or poles near the curb. c. Turning radius of your car.

d. Height of curb.

7. It is more dangerous to drive at the maximum speed limit at night than during daytime as: a. Your reaction time is slower at night. b. You cannot see as far ahead at night. c. Some drivers unlawfully drive with parking lights only. d. The roadways are more apt to be slippery at night.

8. You should under all conditions drive at a speed which will allow you to: a. Stop within 150 metres (500 feet). b. Stop within 90 metres (300 feet). c. Stop within 60 metres (200 feet). d. Stop within a safe distance.

Include a cycling-related question such as: 9. When approaching a cyclist where there is no passing lane, you should: a. Speed up to pass quickly b. Honk your horn for the cyclist to move over and allow you to pass c. Slow down and wait to pass when a break in oncoming traffic allows Answer Key: 1-c, 2-c, 3-b, 4-b, 5-d, 6-a, 7-b, 8-d, 9-c

*147* The Level Two Road Test Statistics show that new drivers of all ages are far more likely than experienced drivers to be involved in serious or fatal collisions. To help new drivers develop better, safer driving habits, Ontario introduced graduated licensing in 1994 for all drivers applying for their first car or motorcycle licence. Graduated licensing lets you gain driving skills and experience gradually, in lower-risk environments. The two-step licensing system takes at least 20 months to complete and includes two road tests. Passing the Level Two (G2) road test gives you full Class G driving privileges. While the Level One road test deals with basic driving skills, the Level Two road test deals with advanced knowledge and skills that are generally gained with driving experience. When you take the test, the examiner will give you directions. As you complete the driving tasks, the examiner will watch to make sure you successfully perform the actions associated with them. The G2 road test includes a component of expressway driving. To proceed with the G2 road test, you must complete and sign a «Declaration of Highway Driving Experience» to ensure that you have sufficient expressway driving experience to complete this component. On the f orm you will indicates how many times in the three months before the road test you have driven on a freeway and/or on a highway with a speed limit of at least 80 km/h. You are required to indicate what was the average length of these trips (i.e. under 5 km, between 5 and 15 km, over 15 km). F reeways include: 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 409, 410, 416, 417, 420, 427, Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), Don Valley Parkway (DVP), Gardiner Expressway, E. C. Row Expressway and the Conestoga Parkway.

*148* If you do not have sufficient highway driving experience, the examiner must declare the road test «out-of-order» and cancel the test. You will lose 50% of your prepaid road test fee. In order to reschedule, you will have to pay the 50% of the road test fee lost through the out-of-order. Make sure you obtain the required highway driving experience before rescheduling your test. To help you prepare, this chapter tells you the various tasks and actions that you will be expected to perform in your Level Two road test. This is only a guide. For more information on the driving tasks, you should review chapters 2 and 3. The book Road Worthy** can also help. ** Is this still in use? Edit if not.* 1. Left and right turns The approach This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to make a left or right turn and ends at the point just before you enter the intersection. Make sure you take the following actions:

Traffic check Before slowing down, look all around you. Use your rear view and side mirrors to check traffic behind you. If you change lanes, remember to check your blind spot by looking over your shoulder.

Lane Move into the far left or far right lane as soon as the way is c lear.

Signal Turn on your signal before slowing down for the turn unless there are vehicles waiting to enter the road from sideroads or driveways between you and the intersection. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you are turning before the intersection.

Speed Steadily reduce speed as you approach the turn. In a vehicle with manual transmission, you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal.

*149* Space While slowing down, keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. If stopped You will need to do this driving task if you cannot complete your turn without stopping, either because the way is not clear or you face a stop sign or red traffic light. Remember to follow these actions:

Stop Come to a complete stop. Do not let your vehicle roll forward or backward. When traffic conditions allow, move forward to check that the way is clear or to start the turn. If you have to stop after you have passed the stop line, do not back up.

Space When stopped behind another vehicle at an intersection, leave enough space to pull out and pass without having to back up. Leaving this space protects you in three ways: it lets you pull around the vehicle in front if it stalls; it helps prevent you from being pushed into the vehicle ahead if you are hit from behind; and it reduces the risk of collision if the vehicle ahead rolls backward or backs up.

Stop line If you are the first vehicle approaching an intersection with a red light or stop sign, stop behind the stop line if it is marked on the pavement. If there is no stop line, stop at the crosswalk, marked or not. If there is no crosswalk, stop at the edge of the sidewalk. If there is no sidewalk, stop at the edge of the intersection.

Wheels When waiting to make a left turn, keep your front wheels straight. With your wheels turned left, your vehicle could be pushed into oncoming traffic. When waiting to turn right, keep the wheels straight if there is a risk of being pushed into pedestrians crossing the intersection. At a large intersection with curved sidewalks where you are turning right, angle your vehicle to follow the curb so that no other vehicle can fit between you and the curb. Making the turn The driving task involves your actions as you make the turn. Remember to do the following:

Traffic check If you are stopped, waiting for a green light or for the way to be clear, keep checking traffic all around you. Just before entering the intersection, look left, ahead and right to check that the way is clear. If there is any doubt about the right-of-way, try to make eye contact with nearby drivers or pedestrians. If it is possible for another vehicle to overtake you while you are turning, check your blind spot before starting to turn. You have not properly checked traffic if another vehicle or pedestrian has the right-of-way and must take action to avoid your vehicle.

*150* Both hands Use both hands to turn the steering wheel throughout the turn. You are most at risk from other traffic when turning. Using both hands on the wheel gives you maximum steering control when you need it most. An exception to this is if you have a disability that prevents you from using both hands.

Gears In a vehicle with manual transmission, do not shift gears during the turn. If you need to, you may shift gears immediately after the vehicle is moving but before it is well into the turn. You may also shift gears in an intersection wider than four lanes if not doing so would slow down other traffic. Generally, not changing gears gives you more control over your vehicle when turning.

Speed Move ahead within four to five seconds after it is safe to start. Make the turn at a steady speed, increasing speed as you complete the turn. Drive slowly enough to keep full control of your vehicle without slowing down other traffic.

Wide/short Turn into the corresponding lane on the intersecting road without going over any lane markings or curbs. Completing the turn This driving task completes the turn. It begins when you enter the intersecting road and ends when you return to normal traffic speed. Take the following actions:

Lane End your turn in the lane that corresponds to the lane you turned from. If you are turning left onto a multi-lane road, return to normal traffic speed and move into the curb lane when it is safe to do so. If you are turning right onto a road where the right lane is blocked with parked vehicles or cannot be used for other reasons, move directly to the next available lane.

Traffic check As you return to normal traffic speed, check your mirrors to become aware of the traffic situation on the new road.

Speed Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. In light traffic, accelerate moderately. In heavier traffic, you may have to accelerate more quickly. In a vehicle with manual transmission, shift gears as you increase speed. Stop intersection *151* Add pedestrians to image (in book) Stop Intersection The approach This driving task is done at intersections where you must come to a stop. It begins at the point where you can see the intersection and ends just before you enter the intersection. Be sure to follow these actions:

Traffic check Before slowing down, look all around you. Use your mirrors to check traffic behind you.

Speed Steadily reduce speed as you approach the intersection. In a vehicle with manual transmission, you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal.

Space While slowing down, keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. The stop This driving task includes the actions you take while stopped and waiting to move through the intersection. Remember these points:

Stop Come to a complete stop. Do not let your vehicle roll forward or backward. When traffic conditions allow, move forward to check that the way is clear or start across the intersection. If you have to stop after you have passed the stop line, do not back up.

Space When stopped behind another vehicle at the intersection, leave enough space to pull out and pass without having to back up. Leaving this space protects you in three ways: it lets you pull around the vehicle in front if it stalls; it helps prevent you from being pushed into the vehicle ahead if you are hit from behind; and it reduces the risk of collision if the vehicle ahead rolls backward or backs up.

Stop line If you are the first vehicle approaching an intersection with a red light or stop sign, stop behind the stop line if it is marked on the pavement. If there is no stop line, stop at the crosswalk, marked or not. If there is no crosswalk, stop at the edge of the sidewalk. If there is no sidewalk, stop at the edge of the intersection.

*152* Driving through This task includes the actions you take as you drive through the intersection and return to normal traffic speed. Make sure to follow these actions:

Traffic check If you are stopped, waiting for a green light or for the way to be clear, keep checking traffic all around you. Just before entering the intersection, look left, ahead and right to check that the way is clear. If there is any doubt about the right-of-way, try to make eye contact with nearby drivers or pedestrians. You have not properly checked traffic if another vehicle or pedestrian has the right-of-way and must take action to avoid your vehicle.

Both hands Keep both hands on the steering wheel as you drive through the intersection. You are most at risk from other traffic when you are crossing the intersection. Using both hands on the wheel gives you maximum steering control when you need it most. An exception to this is if you have a disability that prevents you from using both hands.

Gears In a vehicle with manual transmission, do not shift gears crossing the intersection. If you need to, you may shift gears immediately after the vehicle is moving but before it is well into the intersection. You may also shift gears in an intersection wider than four lanes if not doing so would slow down other traffic. Generally, not changing gears gives you more control over your vehicle.

Traffic check As you return to normal traffic speed, check your mirrors to become aware of the traffic situation after you have gone through the intersection.

Speed Move ahead within four to five seconds after it is safe to start. Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. In light traffic, accelerate moderately.

In heavier traffic, you may have to accelerate more quickly. In a vehicle with manual transmission, shift gears as you increase speed. *153* Add pedestrians to image (in book) Through intersection

The approach This driving task is done at intersections where you may not need to stop. It begins at the point where you can see the intersection and ends just before the entrance to the intersection. Remember to do the following:

Traffic check As you approach the intersection, look left and right for traffic on the intersecting road. If you have to slow down for the intersection, check your mirrors for traffic behind you.

Speed Keep at the same speed as you go through the intersection unless there is a chance traffic may cross the intersection in front of you. If so, slow down or hold your foot over the brake, ready to slow down or stop. Watch for pedestrians about to cross the intersection and vehicles edging into the intersection or approaching at higher speeds.

Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in f ront of you.

Driving through This driving task includes your actions from the time you enter the intersection until you have crossed it and are returning to normal traffic speed. Remember these points:

Lane Do not go over lane markings or change lanes in the intersection. If your lane is blocked by a vehicle turning left or a vehicle edging into the intersection from the right, slow down or stop instead of pulling out to go around the vehicle.

Both hands Keep both hands on the steering wheel as you drive through the intersection. You are most at risk from other traffic when you are crossing the intersection. Using both hands on the wheel gives you maximum steering control when you need it most. An exception to this is if you have a disability that prevents you from using both hands.

*154* Gears In a vehicle with manual transmission, do not shift gears while crossing the intersection. If you need to, you may shift gears immediately after the vehicle is moving but before it is well into the intersection. You may also shift gears in an intersection wider than four lanes if not doing so would slow down other traffic. Generally, not changing gears gives you more control over your vehicle.

Traffic check If you slowed down for the intersection, check your mirrors again before returning to normal traffic speed. Freeway

Entering This driving task begins on the entrance ramp to a freeway and ends when you have reached the speed of the traffic on the freeway. Remember to do the following:

Traffic check While on the ramp, as soon as you can see freeway traffic approaching from behind, check your mirrors and blind spot for a space to merge safely. At the same time, watch any vehicles in front of you on the ramp and keep back a safe distance. Continue to divide your attention between watching in front, checking your mirrors and looking over your s houlder to check your blind spot until you can merge safely with traffic.

Signal If you have not done so already, turn on your signal as soon as traffic on the freeway is able to see your vehicle on the ramp.

Space While on the ramp and merging with freeway traffic, keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. Time your merge so you do not move in beside another vehicle or into the blind spot of another vehicle. If traffic is heavy or moving at such a high speed that it is difficult to keep an ideal following distance, adjust your speed to get the best spacing possible. While on the ramp and in the acceleration lane, keep inside the lane markings.

*155* Speed On the curve of the entrance ramp, keep your speed slow enough so that objects and people inside your vehicle are not pushed from the force created by turning the curve. While in the acceleration lane, increase your speed to match that of freeway traffic. While merging, control your speed to blend smoothly with freeway traffic.

Merge Merge with freeway traffic in a smooth, gradual movement to the centre of the nearest freeway lane.

Cancel signal Turn off your signal as soon as you have merged with freeway traffic.

Driving along This driving task checks your actions driving along the freeway (but not merging, changing lanes or exiting). Be sure to remember the following points:

Traffic check While driving along, keep checking traffic all ar ound you and look in your mirrors every 5 to 10 seconds.

Speed Avoid exceeding the speed limit or driving unreasonably slowly. Whenever possible, drive at a steady speed. Look ahead to where you are going to be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing your speed.

Space Always keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. If another vehicle follows too closely behind you, give yourself even more room in front or change lanes. Try to keep a space on both sides of your vehicle and try not to drive in the blind spots of other vehicles. Avoid driving behind large vehicles. Because of their size, they block your view of traffic more than other vehicles.

Exiting This driving task begins when you are driving in the far right lane of the freeway and can see the exit you want to take. It ends when you reach the end of the exit ramp. Remember to do the following:

Traffic check Before moving into the exit lane, look left and right and check your mirrors. If there is a lane of traffic on your right, such as an acceleration lane from an entrance ramp or a paved shoulder, remember also to check your right blind spot. *156* Add pedestrians to image (in book)

Signal Turn on your signal before you reach the exit lane.

Exit lane Enter the exit lane at the beginning of the lane with a smooth, gradual movement. Stay inside the lane markings. If there are two or more exit lanes, do not cross solid lines on the pavement to change lanes.

Speed Do not slow down before you are completely in the exit lane. Once you are in the lane, slow gradually without causing traffic to pile up behind you. On the curve of the exit ramp, keep your speed slow enough so that objects and people inside your vehicle are not pushed from the force created by turning the curve. In a vehicle with manual transmission, tra nsmission, downshift as you reduce speed.

Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in f ront of you.

Cancel signal Turn off your signal once you are on the exit ramp.

This driving task begins as you look for a space to change lanes la nes and ends when you have completed the lane change. Remember to follow these actions:

Traffic check While waiting to change lanes safely, look all around you. Divide your attention between watching in front, watching the mirrors and checking your blind spot. If there is another lane beside the one you are moving into, check traffic in that lane to avoid colliding with a vehicle moving into the lane at the same time as you do. *157*

Signal Turn on your signal when there is enough space for you to change lanes. After signalling, check your blind spot one more time before bef ore starting to move into the other lane. Your signal should be on soon enough to give traffic behind you time to react to the signal. If traffic in the lane you are moving into is heavy, you may turn on your signal before there is enough space to change lanes. This will let traffic behind you know that you are looking for a space to change lanes.

Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. If there is another lane beside the one you are moving into, be careful not to move in beside another vehicle or into the blind spot of another vehicle.

Speed Adjust your speed to match the speed of traffic in the new lane.

Change Change lanes with a smooth, gradual movement into the centre of the new lane.

Both hands Keep both hands on the steering wheel as you change lanes. Using both hands on the wheel gives you maximum steering control. An exception to this is if you have a disability that prevents you from using both hands.

Cancel signal Turn off your signal as soon as you have changed lanes.

VI. Roadside stop Add pedestrians to image (in book) – img. from pg. 63 The approach This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to stop and ends once you have come to a stop. Make sure you take these actions:

Traffic check Before slowing down, check your mirrors and scan to see if it is legal (look for signs) to make the roadside stop. Ensure you will not be stopping in a bike lane or other prohibited area. Then scan the road for traffic approaching from the front and rear of your vehicle. A 150 metre gap in both directions provides enough enough space to perform the move safely. If there is a chance of traffic

or pedestrians overtaking you on the right, check your right blind spot just before pulling over. *Use language from before re: cyclists and bike lanes. *

*158* Signal Turn on your signal before slowing down unless there ar e vehicles waiting to enter the road r oad from sideroads or driveways between you and the point where you intend to stop. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you are turning before the stopping point.

Speed Steadily reduce speed as you approach the stop. In a vehicle with manual transmission, you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal.

Position Stop parallel to the curb and not more than about 30 centimetres away from it. If there is no curb, stop as far as possible off the travelled part of the road. Do not stop where you will block an entrance or other traffic.

The stop This driving task includes the actions you take after stopping. Remember to do the following:

Signal Turn off your signal and turn on your hazard lights.

Park If your vehicle has an automatic transmission, put the gear selector in park and set the parking brake. If your vehicle has a manual transmission, set the parking brake and shift into neutral if not turning off the engine, or shift into low or reverse if turning off the engine. When parking on a hill, turn your wheels in the appropriate direction to keep your vehicle from rolling.

Resume This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to move back onto the road and ends when you have returned to normal traffic speed. Take the following actions:

Start Turn on the engine. Release the parking brake and select the correct gear to move back onto the road.

Signal Turn off your hazard lights and turn on your left turn signal.

Traffic check Just before pulling away from the stop, check your mirrors and your left blind spot.

*159* Speed Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. In light traffic, accelerate moderately. In heavier traffic, you may have to accelerate more quickly. In a vehicle with manual transmission, shift gears as you increase speed.

Cancel signal Turn off your signal as soon as you are back on the road.

This driving task begins when the curve comes into sight and ends when you have gone completely around it. Follow these actions:

Speed As you approach the curve, try to determine the safe speed for the curve. To do this, look for clues such as a sign that shows the safe speed, the shape of the curve and the type of r oad you are driving on. Slow down to the safe speed for the curve by the time you are 30 metres into it. In a blind curve where you cannot see all the way around it, drive more slowly in case oncoming traffic wanders into your lane or the curve is tighter than you expected. Slow down before the start of the curve to avoid braking in the curve. While in the curve, keep your speed steady and slow enough so that objects and people inside your vehicle are not pushed from the force created by turning on the curve. Near the end of the curve, begin accelerating to return to normal speed. Be sure to remain in your lane. In a vehicle with manual transmission, do not shift gears in the curve. Not changing gears gives you more control over your vehicle and reduces the risk of your wheels locking while downshifting.

Lane As you enter the curve, look across or as far around it as possible. This helps you stay in a smooth line and centred in the lane throughout the curve. If you look only at the road directly in front of you, you are likely to wander back and forth across the lane, forcing you to constantly correct your steering.

*160* VIII. Business section

Diagram 6-8-1 *Add cyclist in front of blue car* This driving task is done on straight sections of r oad where a number of businesses are located. Be sure to do the following actions:

Traffic check In a business area, there are many places other than intersections where vehicles or pedestrians are likely to enter the road. These include entrances to businesses, institutions and construction sites, as well as pedestrian and railway crossings. At all these locations, look left and right to check for vehicles or pedestrians about to enter the road.

Mirror check While driving along, check your mirrors every 5 to 10 seconds. Check your mirrors more often in heavy traffic or where vehicles are moving at different speeds.

Lane Drive in the safest lane for through traffic. This is usually the curb lane. However, if the curb lane is blocked by traffic or there are many curbside hazards, the centre lane may be a safer choice. Keep to the centre of the lane and within the lane markings. Look ahead to where you will be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing lanes. *161*

Speed Avoid exceeding the speed limit or driving unreasonably slowly. Whenever possible, drive at a steady speed. Look ahead to where you will be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing your speed.

Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. Increase the distance if another vehicle follows too closely behind you. On a multi-lane road, try to keep a space on both sides of your vehicle and try not to drive in the blind spots of other vehicles. In slow traffic, avoid driving behind large vehicles that block your view of traffic ahead of you. When you stop behind another vehicle, leave enough space to see its rear wheels or to pull around it without having to back up.

IV. Residential section

Diagram 6-9-1 Add car next to cyclist. Illustrate one metre rule between car and cyclist and cyclist and curb. This driving task is done on straight sections of r esidential or rural road. Remember these points:

Traffic check On a residential road, watch out for entrances to schools, pedestrian crossings, driveways, sidewalks and any other locations where there might be traffic hazards. On a rural road, watch for entrances to residences, farms, businesses and industrial sites. At all these locations, look left and right to check for vehicles or pedestrians about to enter the road.

Mirror check While driving along, check your mirrors every 5 to 10 seconds. Check your mirrors more often in heavy traffic or where vehicles are moving at different speeds.

Lane Keep to the centre of the lane. If there are no lane markings, keep to the centre of the travelled part of the road, away from parked vehicles or pedestrians. Where you cannot see far ahead on the road because of a curve or a hill, move right to avoid colliding with an oncoming vehicle that is over the centre line. Look ahead to where you will be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing lanes. When cyclists are present, it is recommended that they ride one metre from the curb. Motorist should allow at least one metre between your car and the cyclist.

*162* Speed Avoid exceeding the speed limit or driving unreasonably slowly. Whenever possible, drive at a steady speed. Look ahead to where you will be in the next 12 to 15 seconds for dangerous situations or obstacles that you can avoid by changing your speed.

Space Keep at least a two to three-second distance behind the vehicle in front of you. Increase the distance if another vehicle follows too closely behind you. In slow traffic, avoid driving behind large vehicles that block your view of traffic ahead. When you stop behind another vehicle, leave enough space to see its rear wheels or to pull around it without having to back up.

Diagram 6-10-1 *Add cyclist in right lane. Pedestrian on sidewalk. The approach This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to park and ends when you have come to a stop, ready to back into the parking space. Remember these points:

Traffic check Before slowing down, check your mirror for traffic behind you. Before pulling into position to back up, check your blind spot.

Signal Turn on your signal before slowing down unless there ar e vehicles waiting to enter the road from sideroads or driveways between you and your stopping point. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you ar e turning before your parallel parking position.

Speed Steadily reduce speed. In a vehicle with manual transmission, you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal.

Stop Stop beside — or parallel to — the parked vehicle (real or imaginary) in front of the empty parking space. Leave at least 60 centimetres between your vehicle and the parked vehicle. Stop when your vehicle is completely in front of the empty parking space.

*163* Park This driving task includes the actions you take to park in a parallel parking space. Remember to do the following:

Traffic check Before backing up, look all around the vehicle and check your mirrors and both blind spots. Do not start reversing until the way is clear or traffic has stopped to let you park.

Back up Begin reversing into the space, turning the steering wheel towards the curb. When your vehicle is about halfway into the space, steer to bring your vehicle in line with the curb. Once you are in the parking space, move forward or backward to fit within the pavement markings or to allow room for the vehicle in front or behind you to pull out. Do not hit the curb or touch another vehicle while entering your parking space. Where there is no curb, park off the travelled part of the road.

Park If your vehicle has an automatic transmission, put the gear selector in park and set the parking brake. If your vehicle has a manual transmission, set the parking brake and shift into neutral if not turning off the engine, or shift into low or reverse if turning off the engine. When parking on a hill, turn your wheels in the appropriate direction to keep your vehicle from rolling.

Resume This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to move from the parking space and ends when you have returned to normal traffic speed. Remember these points:

Start Turn on the engine. Release the parking brake and select the correct gear to move back onto the road.

Signal Turn on your signal.

Traffic check Just before pulling out of the parking spot, check your mirrors and your blind spot.

Speed Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. In light traffic, accelerate moderately. In heavier traffic, you may have to accelerate more quickly. In a vehicle with manual transmission, shift gears as you increase speed.

Cancel signal Turn off your signal after you leave the parking space.

*164* — * ‘Roadworthy’ information at the end should be removed if not still in u se* XI. Three-point turn

The approach This driving task begins when the examiner tells you to stop and turn your vehicle around. It ends when you have almost stopped, ready to start the turn. Be sure to do the following:

Traffic check Before slowing down, check traffic in front and behind you. If necessary, check your blind spot before pulling over to the right side of the road to stop.

Signal Turn on your signal before slowing down unless there ar e vehicles waiting to enter the road from sideroads or driveways between you and your stopping point. Wait until you have passed these entrances so that drivers will not think you ar e turning.

Speed Steadily reduce speed. In a vehicle with manual transmission, you may downshift into a lower gear as you slow down. Do not coast with your foot on the clutch pedal.

Position Stop so you are parallel to the curb and not more than 30 centimetres away. Where there is no curb, stop as far as possible off the travelled part of the road. Do not stop where you will block an entrance or other traffic.

Turn around This driving task includes the actions you take to turn around and ends when you are ready to drive away in the opposite direction. Remember these points:

Traffic check Check your mirrors and your blind spot just before starting the turn. Wait until the way is clear or traffic has stopped to let you turn. Each time you stop while turning, check tr affic in both directions.

Signal Turn on your left signal before starting to turn.

Turn around With the steering wheel turned sharply left, move slowly and smoothly across the road. When you have reached the far left side of the road, stop and put your vehicle in reverse. With the steering wheel turned sharply right, reverse so the vehicle is facing in the new direction. Stop and shift into forward gear to move ahead. Use the whole road to make your turn, reversing only once. Do not reverse over the edge or shoulder of the road or into the curb.

Resume This driving task begins when you are turned around, ready to move ahead and ends when you have returned to normal traffic speed. Make sure you take these actions:

Traffic check Check your mirrors before increasing speed.

Speed Return to normal traffic speed by accelerating smoothly to blend with the traffic around you. In light traffic, accelerate moderately. In heavier traffic, you may have to accelerate more quickly. In a vehicle with manual transmission, shift gears as you increase speed.

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— While you are taking the test, the examiner will be watching to see how well you control your vehicle and perform such driving tasks as starting, stopping, turning, parallel parking and three-point turning. The examiner will check your observation skills, including when and how often you use the mirrors, where you look, and how you respond to traffic, signs, pavement markings and possible hazards.
— You will be tested on how well you manage the space around your vehicle, Notes:

— While you are taking the test, the examiner will be watching to see how well you control your vehicle and perform such driving tasks as starting, stopping, turning, parallel parking and three-point turning. The examiner will check your observation skills, including when and how often you use the mirrors, where you look, and how you respond to traffic, signs, pavement markings and possible hazards.
— You will be tested on how well you manage the space around your vehicle, your ability to make safe lane changes and how closely you follow and stop behind other vehicles. How you communicate with other road users, using turn signals and brake lights and making eye contact with other drivers and pedestrians, will also be noted, as well as the correctness of your driving decisions, such as knowing when to yield the right-of-way. Learn more about Level Two road test.

The written test may ask you about:
— Seatbelts
— Traffic signs and lights
— Emergency vehicles
— How to use headlights
— Speed limits
— Getting on or off a freeway
— What drivers must do when they meet streetcars and school buses
— Driver licence suspensions
— The demerit point system
— Passing other vehicles
— Collision reporting
— Sharing the road with other road users
— Rules of the road

The road tests will test how well you use your knowledge while driving. You will be tested on:
— Starting, stopping and turning
— Traffic signs and lights
— Passing vehicles, including bicycles, and driving in passing lanes
— Travelling through controlled and uncontrolled intersections
— Parallel parking and reversing
— Foreseeing hazardous conditions and being ready for them
— Other safe driving practices

— Everyone is responsible for avoiding collisions. Even if someone else does something wrong, you may be found responsible for a collision if you could have done something to avoid it.
— Before you drive, make sure you are comfortable with your physical, mental and emotional state, your vehicle and the conditions in which you will be driving.
— You should be able to see the ground 4 metres in front of the vehicle.
— On some vehicles the blind spot is so large that a vehicle could be there and you would not see it.
— All passengers must be buckled up in their own seatbelt, child car seat or booster seat.
— The safest place for a child under age 13 is in the back seat.
— When you use high-beam headlights, remember to switch to low beams within 150 metres of an oncoming vehicle. Use your low beams when you are less than 60 metres behind another vehicle unless you are passing it. These rules apply to all roads, including divided ones.
— Headlights are required to be turned on between 0:30 hour before sunset and 0:30 hour after sunrise, and any other time of poor light conditions, such as fog, snow or rain, which keeps you from clearly seeing people or vehicles less than 150 metres away.
— All steering should be smooth and precise. You should do most steering and lane changes without taking either hand off the wheel. You must be able to steer in a straight line while shifting gears, adjusting controls or checking your blind spot.
— Where there are no posted speed limits, the maximum speed is 50 km/h in cities, towns and villages, and 80 km/h elsewhere.
— Some circumstances in which cruise control should not be used, such as adverse driving conditions (wet, icy or slippery roads), in heavy traffic or when you are feeling fatigued.
— As a general rule, drive at the same speed as traffic around you without going over the speed limit.
— A safe following distance is at least 2 seconds behind the vehicle in front of you.
— Watch out for Community Safety Zone signs as they indicate areas where the community has identified that there is a special risk to pedestrians.
— When passing a cyclist, drivers of motor vehicles are required to maintain a minimum distance of 1 metre, where practical between their vehicle and the cyclist.
— When turning right, signal and check your mirrors and the blind spot to your right to make sure you do not cut off a cyclist.
— When turning left, you must stop and wait for oncoming bicycles to pass before turning.
— If two vehicles come to an uncontrolled intersection from different roads at the same time, the driver on the left must let the driver on the right go first.
— Don’t pass moving snow plows under any conditions.
— Passing within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossover is not permitted. Passing left of a centreline is not permitted 30 metres from a bridge, viaduct or tunnel.
— Never park on a curve, hill or anywhere you do not have a clear view for at least 125 metres in both directions.
— Do not park within 3 metres of a fire hydrant, on or within 100 metres of a bridge or within 6 metres of a public entrance to a hotel, theatre or public hall when it is open to the public.
— Do not park within 9 metres of an intersection or within 15 metres if it is controlled by traffic lights.
— Do not park within 15 metres of the nearest rail of a level railway crossing.
— it is illegal to follow within 150 metres of a fire vehicle responding to an alarm.
— Licence plates in Ontario are based on a plate-to-owner system.

— G1 lasts 12 months. alcohol zero. accompanied by 4 years driver. No highway. You must not drive between midnight and 5AM.
— G2 lasts 12 months. alcohol zero. You must not drive between midnight and 5AM.
— In the first 6 months after receiving your G2 licence, you are allowed to carry only 1 passenger aged 19 or under.
— After 6 months with your G2 licence and until you obtain your full G licence or turn 20, you are allowed to carry up to 3 passengers aged 19 or under.

— Failing to respond to an emergency vehicle
— First Offence: $400 to $2,000, plus 3 demerit points upon conviction.
— Second Offence (within 5 years): $1,000 to $4,000, possible jail time up to 6 months and possible suspension of driver’s licence for up to 2 years.

— If you are 80 years of age or older, you are required to renew your driver’s licence every 2 years

— Demerit points stay on your record for 2 years from the date of the offence. If you accumulate too many demerit points, your driver’s licence can be suspended.

G1 and G2 points:

— 2 points Warning letter
— 6 points You may have to attend an interview to discuss your record and give reasons why your licence should not be suspended. If you do not go to the interview, your licence may be suspended.
— 9 points Your licence will be suspended for 60 days from the date you surrender it to the Ministry of Transportation. You can lose your licence for up to 2 years if you fail to surrender your licence. After the suspension, the number of points on your record will be reduced to 4. Any extra points could again bring you to the interview level. If you reach 9 points again, your licence may be suspended for 6 months.

— As a Level One or Level Two driver, you will have your licence suspended if you accumulate 9 or more demerit points during a 2-year period.

— Note: If you are a novice driver and are convicted of violating any novice condition, an offence that is associated with 4 or more demerit points or receive a court-ordered suspension for an offence that would have resulted in 4 or more demerit points, you will receive the appropriate penalty and Novice Driver Escalating Sanction licence suspension. However, the demerit points will be recorded as zero on your record, and will not be counted towards the accumulated demerit point system.

Fully licensed drivers — demerit-point system for fully licensed drivers
— 6 points
— You will receive a warning letter recommending that you improve your driving skills.
— 9 points
— You may have to go to an interview to discuss your record and give reasons why your licence should not be suspended. You may also have to complete a driver re-examination. If you fail this test, your licence can be cancelled. If you fail to attend an interview, or fail to give good reasons for keeping your licence, your licence may be suspended.
— 15 points
— Your licence will be suspended for 30 days from the date you hand over your licence to the Ministry of Transportation. You can lose your lice4nce for up to 2 years if you fail to surrender it. After the suspension, the number of points on your driver’s record will be reduced to seven. Any extra points could again bring you to the interview level. If you reach 15 points again, your licence will be suspended for 6 months.

7 points
* Failing to remain at the scene of a collision
* Failing to stop for police
6 points
* Careless driving
* Racing
* Exceeding the speed limit by 50 km/h or more
* Failing to stop for a school bus
5 points
* Driver of bus failing to stop at unprotected railway crossing
4 points
* Exceeding the speed limit by 30 to 49 km/h
* Following too closely
3 points
* Exceeding the speed limit by 16 to 29 km/h
* Driving through, around or under a railway crossing barrier
* Driving while holding or using a hand-held wireless communications/entertainment device or viewing a display screen unrelated to the driving task
* Failing to yield the right-of-way
* Failing to obey a stop sign, traffic light or railway crossing signal
* Failing to obey traffic control stop sign
* Failing to obey traffic control slow sign
* Failing to obey school crossing stop sign
* Failing to obey the directions of a police officer
* Driving the wrong way on a divided road
* Failing to report a collision to a police officer
* Improper driving where road is divided into lanes
* Crowding the driver’s seat
* Going the wrong way on a one-way road
* Driving or operating a vehicle on a closed road
* Crossing a divided road where no proper crossing is provided
* Failing to slow and carefully pass a stopped emergency vehicle
* Failing to stop at a pedestrian crossover
* Failing to move, where possible, into another lane when passing a stopped emergency vehicle
* Driving a vehicle equipped with a radar detector
* Improper use of a high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane
2 points
* Failing to lower headlight beam
* Improper opening of a vehicle door
* Prohibited turns
* Towing people — on toboggans, bicycles, skis, for example
* Failing to obey signs
* Failing to share the road
* Improper right turn
* Improper left turn
* Failing to signal
* Unnecessary slow driving
* Reversing on a highway
* Driver failing to wear a seatbelt
* Driver failing to ensure infant passenger is secured
* Driver failing to ensure toddler passenger is secured
* Driver failing to ensure child is secured
* Driver failing to ensure passenger under 16 years is wearing seatbelt
* Driver failing to ensure passenger under 16 years is occupying a position with a seatbelt

Драйвер для USB-устройства MTP

При подсоединении смартфона к компьютеру через USB может происходить отказ в установке программного обеспечения MTP устройства. Предлагаем несколько способов решения проблемы в зависимости от причины ее возникновения.

Вариант 1. Проверьте в диспетчере задач не отключено ли у вас «Приложение для передачи медиафайлов» (МТР) в автозагрузке.

Вариант 2. Зайдите в Диспетчер устройств и посмотрите, нет ли проблем с драйвером MTP. Если устройство помечено желтым треугольником, а в свойствах устройства вы видите ошибку с кодом 1 или 10 (Запуск этого устройства невозможен):

  1. Кликните по строке MTP правой кнопкой мыши.
  2. В выпадающем меню последовательно выбирайте:
    • Обновить драйвер;
    • Выполнить поиск;
    • Выбрать из списка имеющихся;
    • USB-устройство МТР.

Вариант 3. Если отсутствует запись USB-устройство МТР, уберите маркер с Только совместимые устройства и выберите установку стандартного MTP-устройства.

Вариант 4. Код ошибки 19, сведения о конфигурации оборудования в реестре повреждены:

  1. Кликните по строке MTP правой кнопкой мыши;
  2. В выпадающем меню выберите Удалить;
  3. Обновите конфигурацию оборудования для переустановки драйвера.

Вариант 5. Если требуется указать путь к драйверу, то скорее всего сначала вам понадобится его где-то найти. Загрузите последнюю версию драйвера с сайта производителя устройства. Или попробуйте найти подходящее ПО через Центр Обновления Windows.

Вариант 6. Иногда может помочь установка дополнительных компонентов Windows Media Feature Pack. Ссылки на скачивание из Центра загрузки Miсrosoft:

Driver Scape

Windows Driver Download Center

Use the links on this page to download the latest version of MTP drivers. All drivers available for download have been scanned by antivirus program. Please choose the relevant version according to your computer’s operating system and click the download button.

Your machine is currently running: Windows (Detect)

MTP Drivers Download

  • Description: Scan your system for out-of-date and missing drivers
  • File Version: 8.5
  • File Size: 2.33M
  • Supported OS: Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP
  • Driver Version: 2.11.10.0
  • Release Date: 2014-06-10
  • File Size: 15.27M
  • Supported OS: Windows 10 32 & 64bit, Windows 8.1 32 & 64bit, Windows 7 32 & 64bit, Windows Vista 32 & 64bit, Windows XP

Please enter verification code, then click the download button.

  • Driver Version: 2.11.9.0
  • Release Date: 2014-04-03
  • File Size: 8.83M
  • Supported OS: Windows XP

Please enter verification code, then click the download button.

  • Driver Version: 2.11.7.0
  • Release Date: 2014-01-02
  • File Size: 5.03M
  • Supported OS: Windows XP

Please enter verification code, then click the download button.

  • Driver Version: 2.9.508.0
  • Release Date: 2013-03-25
  • File Size: 8.23M
  • Supported OS: Windows XP

Please enter verification code, then click the download button.

  • Driver Version: 7.0.0000.0000
  • Release Date: 2013-03-22
  • File Size: 18.4M
  • Supported OS: Windows 10 32 & 64bit, Windows 8.1 32 & 64bit, Windows 7 32 & 64bit, Windows Vista 32 & 64bit, Windows XP

Please enter verification code, then click the download button.

The Official MTO Driver’s Handbook

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— While you are taking the test, the examiner will be watching to see how well you control your vehicle and perform such driving tasks as starting, stopping, turning, parallel parking and three-point turning. The examiner will check your observation skills, including when and how often you use the mirrors, where you look, and how you respond to traffic, signs, pavement markings and possible hazards.
— You will be tested on how well you manage the space around your vehicle, Notes:

— While you are taking the test, the examiner will be watching to see how well you control your vehicle and perform such driving tasks as starting, stopping, turning, parallel parking and three-point turning. The examiner will check your observation skills, including when and how often you use the mirrors, where you look, and how you respond to traffic, signs, pavement markings and possible hazards.
— You will be tested on how well you manage the space around your vehicle, your ability to make safe lane changes and how closely you follow and stop behind other vehicles. How you communicate with other road users, using turn signals and brake lights and making eye contact with other drivers and pedestrians, will also be noted, as well as the correctness of your driving decisions, such as knowing when to yield the right-of-way. Learn more about Level Two road test.

The written test may ask you about:
— Seatbelts
— Traffic signs and lights
— Emergency vehicles
— How to use headlights
— Speed limits
— Getting on or off a freeway
— What drivers must do when they meet streetcars and school buses
— Driver licence suspensions
— The demerit point system
— Passing other vehicles
— Collision reporting
— Sharing the road with other road users
— Rules of the road

The road tests will test how well you use your knowledge while driving. You will be tested on:
— Starting, stopping and turning
— Traffic signs and lights
— Passing vehicles, including bicycles, and driving in passing lanes
— Travelling through controlled and uncontrolled intersections
— Parallel parking and reversing
— Foreseeing hazardous conditions and being ready for them
— Other safe driving practices

— Everyone is responsible for avoiding collisions. Even if someone else does something wrong, you may be found responsible for a collision if you could have done something to avoid it.
— Before you drive, make sure you are comfortable with your physical, mental and emotional state, your vehicle and the conditions in which you will be driving.
— You should be able to see the ground 4 metres in front of the vehicle.
— On some vehicles the blind spot is so large that a vehicle could be there and you would not see it.
— All passengers must be buckled up in their own seatbelt, child car seat or booster seat.
— The safest place for a child under age 13 is in the back seat.
— When you use high-beam headlights, remember to switch to low beams within 150 metres of an oncoming vehicle. Use your low beams when you are less than 60 metres behind another vehicle unless you are passing it. These rules apply to all roads, including divided ones.
— Headlights are required to be turned on between 0:30 hour before sunset and 0:30 hour after sunrise, and any other time of poor light conditions, such as fog, snow or rain, which keeps you from clearly seeing people or vehicles less than 150 metres away.
— All steering should be smooth and precise. You should do most steering and lane changes without taking either hand off the wheel. You must be able to steer in a straight line while shifting gears, adjusting controls or checking your blind spot.
— Where there are no posted speed limits, the maximum speed is 50 km/h in cities, towns and villages, and 80 km/h elsewhere.
— Some circumstances in which cruise control should not be used, such as adverse driving conditions (wet, icy or slippery roads), in heavy traffic or when you are feeling fatigued.
— As a general rule, drive at the same speed as traffic around you without going over the speed limit.
— A safe following distance is at least 2 seconds behind the vehicle in front of you.
— Watch out for Community Safety Zone signs as they indicate areas where the community has identified that there is a special risk to pedestrians.
— When passing a cyclist, drivers of motor vehicles are required to maintain a minimum distance of 1 metre, where practical between their vehicle and the cyclist.
— When turning right, signal and check your mirrors and the blind spot to your right to make sure you do not cut off a cyclist.
— When turning left, you must stop and wait for oncoming bicycles to pass before turning.
— If two vehicles come to an uncontrolled intersection from different roads at the same time, the driver on the left must let the driver on the right go first.
— Don’t pass moving snow plows under any conditions.
— Passing within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossover is not permitted. Passing left of a centreline is not permitted 30 metres from a bridge, viaduct or tunnel.
— Never park on a curve, hill or anywhere you do not have a clear view for at least 125 metres in both directions.
— Do not park within 3 metres of a fire hydrant, on or within 100 metres of a bridge or within 6 metres of a public entrance to a hotel, theatre or public hall when it is open to the public.
— Do not park within 9 metres of an intersection or within 15 metres if it is controlled by traffic lights.
— Do not park within 15 metres of the nearest rail of a level railway crossing.
— it is illegal to follow within 150 metres of a fire vehicle responding to an alarm.
— Licence plates in Ontario are based on a plate-to-owner system.

— G1 lasts 12 months. alcohol zero. accompanied by 4 years driver. No highway. You must not drive between midnight and 5AM.
— G2 lasts 12 months. alcohol zero. You must not drive between midnight and 5AM.
— In the first 6 months after receiving your G2 licence, you are allowed to carry only 1 passenger aged 19 or under.
— After 6 months with your G2 licence and until you obtain your full G licence or turn 20, you are allowed to carry up to 3 passengers aged 19 or under.

— Failing to respond to an emergency vehicle
— First Offence: $400 to $2,000, plus 3 demerit points upon conviction.
— Second Offence (within 5 years): $1,000 to $4,000, possible jail time up to 6 months and possible suspension of driver’s licence for up to 2 years.

— If you are 80 years of age or older, you are required to renew your driver’s licence every 2 years

— Demerit points stay on your record for 2 years from the date of the offence. If you accumulate too many demerit points, your driver’s licence can be suspended.

G1 and G2 points:

— 2 points Warning letter
— 6 points You may have to attend an interview to discuss your record and give reasons why your licence should not be suspended. If you do not go to the interview, your licence may be suspended.
— 9 points Your licence will be suspended for 60 days from the date you surrender it to the Ministry of Transportation. You can lose your licence for up to 2 years if you fail to surrender your licence. After the suspension, the number of points on your record will be reduced to 4. Any extra points could again bring you to the interview level. If you reach 9 points again, your licence may be suspended for 6 months.

— As a Level One or Level Two driver, you will have your licence suspended if you accumulate 9 or more demerit points during a 2-year period.

— Note: If you are a novice driver and are convicted of violating any novice condition, an offence that is associated with 4 or more demerit points or receive a court-ordered suspension for an offence that would have resulted in 4 or more demerit points, you will receive the appropriate penalty and Novice Driver Escalating Sanction licence suspension. However, the demerit points will be recorded as zero on your record, and will not be counted towards the accumulated demerit point system.

Fully licensed drivers — demerit-point system for fully licensed drivers
— 6 points
— You will receive a warning letter recommending that you improve your driving skills.
— 9 points
— You may have to go to an interview to discuss your record and give reasons why your licence should not be suspended. You may also have to complete a driver re-examination. If you fail this test, your licence can be cancelled. If you fail to attend an interview, or fail to give good reasons for keeping your licence, your licence may be suspended.
— 15 points
— Your licence will be suspended for 30 days from the date you hand over your licence to the Ministry of Transportation. You can lose your lice4nce for up to 2 years if you fail to surrender it. After the suspension, the number of points on your driver’s record will be reduced to seven. Any extra points could again bring you to the interview level. If you reach 15 points again, your licence will be suspended for 6 months.

7 points
* Failing to remain at the scene of a collision
* Failing to stop for police
6 points
* Careless driving
* Racing
* Exceeding the speed limit by 50 km/h or more
* Failing to stop for a school bus
5 points
* Driver of bus failing to stop at unprotected railway crossing
4 points
* Exceeding the speed limit by 30 to 49 km/h
* Following too closely
3 points
* Exceeding the speed limit by 16 to 29 km/h
* Driving through, around or under a railway crossing barrier
* Driving while holding or using a hand-held wireless communications/entertainment device or viewing a display screen unrelated to the driving task
* Failing to yield the right-of-way
* Failing to obey a stop sign, traffic light or railway crossing signal
* Failing to obey traffic control stop sign
* Failing to obey traffic control slow sign
* Failing to obey school crossing stop sign
* Failing to obey the directions of a police officer
* Driving the wrong way on a divided road
* Failing to report a collision to a police officer
* Improper driving where road is divided into lanes
* Crowding the driver’s seat
* Going the wrong way on a one-way road
* Driving or operating a vehicle on a closed road
* Crossing a divided road where no proper crossing is provided
* Failing to slow and carefully pass a stopped emergency vehicle
* Failing to stop at a pedestrian crossover
* Failing to move, where possible, into another lane when passing a stopped emergency vehicle
* Driving a vehicle equipped with a radar detector
* Improper use of a high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane
2 points
* Failing to lower headlight beam
* Improper opening of a vehicle door
* Prohibited turns
* Towing people — on toboggans, bicycles, skis, for example
* Failing to obey signs
* Failing to share the road
* Improper right turn
* Improper left turn
* Failing to signal
* Unnecessary slow driving
* Reversing on a highway
* Driver failing to wear a seatbelt
* Driver failing to ensure infant passenger is secured
* Driver failing to ensure toddler passenger is secured
* Driver failing to ensure child is secured
* Driver failing to ensure passenger under 16 years is wearing seatbelt
* Driver failing to ensure passenger under 16 years is occupying a position with a seatbelt

The Official MTO Drivers Handbook Professional & Technical

Тел/Факс: 8 (4967) 12-83-10
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Актуальные новости

The Official MTO Drivers Handbook Professional & Technical The Official MTO Drivers Handbook Professional & Technical Professional & Technical The Official MTO Drivers Handbook The Official MTO Drivers Handbook Professional & Technical The Official MTO Drivers Handbook Professional & Technical

Насосная станция подачи коагулированной воды на установку механической фильтрации

Успешный пуск установки Электродеионизации Химического цеха произошел 28.03.2020 на Затонской ТЭЦ (ТЭЦ-5) , г.Уфа, Республика Башкортостан.

Установка Электродеионизации является финальным звеном комплекса обессоливающей установки подпитки котлов Затонской ТЭЦ.

Проектирование, монтаж и наладочные работы выполнены специалистами ООО «АкваТехСервис».

Уникальным является тот факт, что установка является первой установкой Электродеионизации непосредственного эксплуатанта — ООО «Башкирской Генерирующей компании»(группа компания «Интер РАО»).

В связи с важным событием на Затонскую ТЭЦ был организован визит специалистов ресурсных СМИ Республики Башкортостан для освещения события.

Со стороны ООО «БГК» работа нашей компании была высоко оценена, планируется дальнейшее взаимовыгодное сотрудничество.

Станция обезжелезивания ОПУ-5 на Ярегском нефтяном месторождении

Станция обезжелезивания ОПУ-5 на Ярегском нефтяном месторождении производительностью 50 т/ч. Работы на объекте закончены в срок и в соответствии с договором.

Начиная с 2020 года и по настоящее время ООО «АкваТехСервис» реализует поставки, строительно-монтажные и пуско-наладочные работы блочно-модульных водоподготовительных установок(ВПУ) на объектах строительства Усинского нефтяного месторождения.

Блок водоподготовки парогенераторной установки имеет высокую заводскую готовность, то есть спроектирован, собран таким образом, что требует только монтажа на фундамент непосредственно на объекте строительства. Все работы проводятся без привлечения сторонних организаций-непосредственно командой ООО «АкваТехСервис».

В 2020 году было поставлено, смонтировано и запущено в работу 3 блочно-модульных установки.

В 2020 году благодаря слаженной работе нашей команды выполнены работы еще для 3 блочно-модульных установок.

В планах на 2020 год запуск еще 2 блочно-модульных водоподготовительных установок.

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