Timeline Warsaw VO Канада
Clock Changes in Warsaw, Poland (Warszawa)
29 мар 2020 г., 02:00
Start DST: воскресенье 31 март 2020 г.
1 hour forward
End DST: воскресенье 27 октябрь 2020 г.
1 hour backward
31 мар 2020 г. — Daylight Saving Time Started
When local standard time was about to reach
воскресенье 31 март 2020 г., 02:00:00 clocks were turned forward 1 hour to
воскресенье 31 март 2020 г., 03:00:00 local daylight time instead.
Sunrise and sunset were about 1 hour later on 31 мар 2020 г. than the day before. There was more light in the evening.
27 окт 2020 г. — Daylight Saving Time Ended
When local daylight time was about to reach
воскресенье 27 октябрь 2020 г., 03:00:00 clocks were turned backward 1 hour to
воскресенье 27 октябрь 2020 г., 02:00:00 local standard time instead.
Sunrise and sunset were about 1 hour earlier on 27 окт 2020 г. than the day before. There was more light in the morning.
Daylight Saving Time in Other Years
DST changes do not necessarily occur on the same date every year.
Pre-1300: A small fishing village exists on the banks of the Vistula
1413: Warsaw becomes the seat of the Dukes of Mazovia; early castle built
1525: First in a history of several Warsaw Uprisings
1526: Last of the Mazovian Dukes dies, and Warsaw passes to the Polish Crown
1529: Parliament held in Warsaw for the first time
1596: Capital of Poland moved from Krakow to Warsaw by King Zygmunt III Waza
1683: Victory at Vienna by King Jan III Sobieski, who built the palace at Wilanow
1791: Constitution of the 3rd of May signed at Saint John’s Cathedral
1794: Kosciuszko Uprising against the partitioning powers
1795: Final partition puts Warsaw under Prussian rule
1806: Napoleon liberates Warsaw
1815: Warsaw annexed by the Russian Empire
1830: An uprising against the Tsar begins at the Cadet College in Lazienki Park
1863: Another uprising staged against Russian authorities, with harsh reprisals
1918: Poland regains independence
1920: The Wonder of the Vistula, victory in the Battle of Warsaw against the Soviets, secures independent Poland’s borders
1920-1939: Interwar Warsaw expands, develops and modernizes
1939: German armies bomb Warsaw and march in to occupy the city
1940: Building of the Jewish ghetto
1943: Jewish Ghetto Uprising
1944: Warsaw Uprising
1945: Warsaw liberated by the Soviet Army, creation of the People’s Republic of Poland
1953: Rebuilding of historic Warsaw begins
1955: Palace of Culture and Science completed
1968: Riots in Warsaw against censorship and repression
1974: Rebuilding of the Royal Castle completed
1975: Warsaw’s Central Station built
1976: First serious workers’ riot in Warsaw
1979: Inspirational visit of Pope John Paul II
1980: Historic Warsaw becomes a UNESCO World Heritage site
1981: Institution of martial law
1989: First round table talks at the Presidential Palace
1990: Third Republic
1995: Warsaw Metro opened
2012: Co-hosting of the football Euro 2012 with Ukraine
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Warsaw Historical Timeline
1569 Poland and Lithuania are united and parliament shifts from Kraków to the more centrally located Warsaw.
1596 King Sigismund III Vasa moves his court to Warsaw.
1655 — 1660 sees prolonged warfare with Sweden.
1700 — 1721 The Great Northern War sees Polish forces run ragged by the Swedes and Russians.
1764 Stanisław August Poniatowski becomes king. His finest hour comes in 1791 with the signing of a constitution that promises sweeping reforms. Russia invades in 1792 to quash the constitution and in 1793 the Second Partition of Poland promises the end of the Polish state.
1795 Austria, Russia and Prussia impose a third partition of Poland, effectively ending Polish independence.
1807 Napoleon’s troops enter Warsaw and a semi-independent Duchy of Warsaw is created. Following the collapse of Napoleon’s campaign in Russia, the 1815 congress of Vienna rules that Warsaw is to come under Imperial Russian tutelage, effectively wiping Poland off the map for over a century.
November 23, 1830 An armed uprising in Warsaw takes the Russians until September 1831 to crush.
1863 — 1864 Citizens of Warsaw again try and fail to topple the governing Russian government in what becomes known as the January Insurrection. Warsaw flourishes for the next half a century under Mayor Starykiewicz.
1918 The end of World War I leads to the collapse of the partitioning powers. Polish hero Józef Piłsudski is released from detention in Germany and assumes control of Poland. Warsaw is once again the capital of an independent Poland.
1920 Bolshevik troops invade Poland, but are beaten back after the epic Battle of Warsaw, effectively saving post-WWI Europe from the Red Army.
1921 The foundation of the first modern Polish constitution and beginning of what is commonly called the 2nd Polish Republic.
1939 August 23 The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact is signed. Based around Soviet/German non-aggression it effectively carves Poland up between the two. Poland is invaded on September 1, with the first gunshots fired on the Westerplatte Peninsula in the north, signalling the start of WWII. On September 17 the east of Poland is invaded by the USSR and Warsaw capitulates 11 days later on the 28th.
1944 August 1 Poland’s Home Army launches the Warsaw Uprising with the intention of liberating Warsaw from Nazi occupation. It ends in defeat two months later with the city in ruins.
1945 January 17 Soviet and Polish units enter the rubble of Warsaw. Total destruction stands at 84%, civilian losses are estimated at over 700,000.
1945 Business is nationalized and political and religious leaders are imprisoned. With much of the capital, Warsaw, in ruins, Łódź is used as Poland’s temporary capital until 1948. In 1947 the Communists consolidate a political monopoly after rigged elections. In 1955 the Warsaw Pact is created and Warsaw’s Palace of Culture is completed.
Władysław Gomułka becomes Poland’s premier in 1956 and a political thaw begins. Events in Gdańsk are the first to rock the system; protesting about plunging living standards workers at the Lenin Shipyards call a strike in 1970, with the army promptly called in to intervene. Bloody clashes lead to the deaths of 44 workers, and ultimately force Gomułka out of power. The late 1970s witness a dramatic drop in living standards and spiralling prices; a half-mad economic policy propped up by foreign loans is exposed as useless. 1978 sees Cardinal Karol Wojtyła elected as Pope and taking the name John Paul II. The following year he returns for a nine day tour of his native Poland in what is regarded by many as the pivotal point in the collapse of communism. Preaching 32 sermons in nine days his brief return offers hope and unity to Poles, and lights the flame that will later explode in the Solidarność (Solidarity) revolution.
1980 A general strike is called in August by the fledgling Solidarność trade union, led by shipyard electrician Lech Wałęsa.
1981 Martial law is declared by the Minister of Defence General Jaruzelski on December 13.
1982 Solidarność is outlawed by the government.
1983 Martial law is lifted in July and most political leaders released from prison. Lech Wałęsa receives the Nobel Peace Prize.
1985-88 Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s perestroika reforms initiate a period of liberalization, though economic crisis and popular frustration continue to deepen.
1989 Following more strikes Solidarność is legalized. Partly free elections are held. Solidarność sweeps the elections and the Communist regime collapses.
1990 Lech Wałęsa becomes the first popularly-elected president of post-Communist Poland.
2004 Poland enters the European Union on May 1, 2004 sparking a mass exodus of young Poles seeking their fortune.
2005 April 2nd Following a long battle with illness Pope John Paul II passes away. His funeral in the Vatican is attended by a million Poles.
2007 Platforma are voted into power, thereby breaking the Kaczyński twins hold on power.
Poland is awarded the rights to co-host Euro 2012 along with the Ukraine.
2009 World leaders convene in Poland to mark the 70th anniversary of WWII.
2010 April 10th. A plane carrying President Lech Kaczyński, his wife and 94 other Polish dignitaries to Smoleńsk in Russia to commemorate the murder of Polish officers in WWII crashes while trying to land. Everyone on board is killed, many who form the Polish elite. The country is sent into a state of shock.
2012: Poland successfully co-hosts the Euro 2012 football tournament with neighbouring Ukraine (though the Polish team didn’t make it out of the group stage).
2020: Warsaw plays host to a strategically important and historically significant NATO Summit.
Авиабилеты из Варшавы в Ванкувер
Календарь низких цен на авиабилеты Варшава – Ванкувер
Самые дешевые авиабилеты Варшава – Ванкувер (WAW – YVR)
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Направление Варшава – Ванкувер пользуется наибольшей популярностью в июне и июле. В этот период средняя стоимость авиабилетов составляет 79 057 ₽ .
В низкий сезон – в апреле и декабре цена на авиабилеты падает в среднем до 68 464 ₽ .
Перелет с пересадкой из Варшавы в Ванкувер
Основной вариант билета на самолет Варшава – Ванкувер (туда и обратно) – перелет с пересадкой. Его стоимость – от 41 461 ₽ до 53 893 ₽ .
Самые низкие цены на перелет с пересадками предлагает авиакомпания Air Canada. Цена билета – от 41 461 ₽ .
Также доступные и удобные варианты предлагают авиакомпании:
- Lufthansa (от 47 184 ₽ с пересадкой в Франкфурте-на-Майне)
- KLM (от 48 603 ₽ с пересадкой в Амстердаме)
- Condor (от 53 893 ₽ с пересадкой в Франкфурте-на-Майне)
Рейс Варшава – Ванкувер с пересадкой позволит сделать путешествие еще интереснее. Стыковка может осуществляться в:
- Амстердаме (рейс KL1366 Air France)
- Франкфурте-на-Майне (рейс LH1349 Lufthansa)
- Цюрихе (рейс 2L1349 Air Canada)
Это отличный шанс познакомиться с этими городами, ведь время пересадки обычно составляет не менее 6 часов.
Необходимо учесть, что в зависимости от количества дней, оставшихся до вылета, цена билета на самолет Варшава – Ванкувер может измениться более чем на 80%.
Aviasales.ru советует купить авиабилеты Варшава – Ванкувер заранее, тогда вы сможете выбрать условия перелета, ориентируясь на свои пожелания и финансовые возможности.
Цены на авиабилеты Варшава – Ванкувер по месяцам *
|Месяц||В одну сторону||Туда и обратно|
|Ноябрь 2020||01.11.2020||01.11 — 08.11.2020|
|Декабрь 2020||01.12.2020||01.12 — 08.12.2020|
|Январь 2020||01.01.2020||01.01 — 08.01.2020|
|Февраль 2020||01.02.2020||01.02 — 08.02.2020|
|Март 2020||01.03.2020||01.03 — 08.03.2020|
|Апрель 2020||01.04.2020||01.04 — 08.04.2020|
|Май 2020||01.05.2020||01.05 — 08.05.2020|
|Июнь 2020||01.06.2020||01.06 — 08.06.2020|
|Июль 2020||01.07.2020||01.07 — 08.07.2020|
|Август 2020||01.08.2020||01.08 — 08.08.2020|
|Сентябрь 2020||01.09.2020||01.09 — 08.09.2020|
|Октябрь 2020||01.10.2020||01.10 — 08.10.2020|
* Цены, найденные пользователями за последние 48 часов, не являются офертой.
Аэропорты Варшавы, из которых выполняются рейсы в Ванкувер:
Аэропорты Ванкувера, принимающие рейсы из Варшавы:
Timeline Warsaw VO Канада
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Flying time from Toronto, Canada to Warsaw, Poland
The total flight duration from Toronto, Canada to Warsaw, Poland is 9 hours, 7 minutes.
This assumes an average flight speed for a commercial airliner of 500 mph, which is equivalent to 805 km/h or 434 knots. It also adds an extra 30 minutes for take-off and landing. Your exact time may vary depending on wind speeds.
If you’re planning a trip, remember to add more time for the plane to taxi between the gate and the airport runway. This measurement is only for the actual flying time. You should also factor in airport wait times and possible equipment or weather delays. If you’re trying to figure out what time you’ll arrive at the destination, you may want to see if there’s a time difference between Toronto, Canada and Warsaw, Poland.
The calculation of flight time is based on the straight line distance from Toronto, Canada to Warsaw, Poland («as the crow flies»), which is about 4,312 miles or 6 940 kilometers.
Your trip begins in Toronto, Canada.
It ends in Warsaw, Poland.
Your flight direction from Toronto, Canada to Warsaw, Poland is Northeast (43 degrees from North).
The flight time calculator measures the average flight duration between points. It uses the great circle formula to compute the travel mileage.
“New WW2 Strategy Game Offers A Harrowing Look At Poland’s Ill-Fated 1944 Uprising”
“(…) in execution Warsaw manages to deliver its own experience entirely.”
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Об этой игре
Вербуйте мужчин и женщин, солдат и гражданских, молодежь и стариков и используйте их уникальные навыки, знания и способности, чтобы противостоять врагу. Знакомьтесь с выходцами из всех слоев общества, объединенных в попытке свергнуть немецких оккупантов.
Собирайте разноплановые навыки, которые позволят вам атаковать с флангов, взрывать препятствия, отстреливать одиночных врагов и заманивать вражеские войска в зоны, где ваши тщательно спланированные атаки нанесут максимум урона.
Следите за тем, чтобы ваши герои были хорошо вооружены: оружие можно подбирать по пути, отнимать у врагов или находить в грузах. Развивайте героев с помощью системы медалей, чтобы разблокировать уникальный набор навыков, и соберите лучший отряд, в который войдут как герои из рядов повстанцев, так и те, кто приходит в убежище, чтобы получить ресурсы.
ХОДИТЕ С УМОМ
ВЫЖИВИТЕ В ВОССТАНИИ
Изучайте сильные и слабые стороны своего отряда. Ищите оптимальные сочетания состава, оружия и навыков, чтобы побеждать все более опасных врагов, посланных подавить восстание. Сражайтесь с пехотой, специальными войсками, тяжелыми орудиями и бронемашинами. Делайте выбор в реалистичных исторических ситуациях и живите с его последствиями. И не позволяйте все более свирепым и многочисленным врагам остановить вас на пути к главной цели. Ваши герои должны выжить. А не пасть жертвами.
- Пошаговая тактическая RPG с персонажами разных классов и управлением навыками и ресурсами в декорациях Второй мировой
- Глубокая система тактического боя с множеством дополняющих друг друга навыков, оружия и способностей персонажей
- Личные истории персонажей, которые раскрываются по ходу игры наряду с разнообразными историческими и выдуманными событиями
- Потрясающая реиграбельность благодаря нелинейному геймплею
- Требуются 64-разрядные процессор и операционная система
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- Видеокарта: 1 GB VRAM — NVIDIA GeForce GTX 470 / ATI Radeon HD5800
- DirectX: Версии 11
- Место на диске: 3 GB
- Звуковая карта: DirectX Compliant
- Требуются 64-разрядные процессор и операционная система
- ОС: Windows 7 SP1 / 8.1 / 10 64 bit
- Процессор: Intel Core i7 3770K / AMD FX 8350
- Оперативная память: 6 GB ОЗУ
- Видеокарта: 2 GB VRAM — NVIDIA GeForce GTX 560 / AMD Radeon HD6850
- DirectX: Версии 11
- Место на диске: 3 GB
- Звуковая карта: DirectX Compliant
WARSAW © 2020-2020 Pixelated Milk / Gamingcompany Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Warsaw panorama view
Warsaw Panoramic View
The webcam introduces the center in the city of Warsaw. Also, This webcam shows a lovely contrast of the old and the modern, the green and the concrete. Warsaw as seen on webcam is spread over a large area. Modern buildings meets Communist concrete and Gothic architecture from centuries past. The hustle and bustle of Warsaw is ev >Online web cameras such as this one is an easy way to get a feel of a city.
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What to do in Warsaw
There are many things to do in Warsaw that is not captured here on live webcam online . While this list is by no means complete, it gives some insights into the diversity of Warsaw, which is ev >cam online footage above.
Castle Square is a juxtaposition of the old and the new. It looks like an old town city, but it was actually rebuilt after WWII. It has a joyous atmosphere by day and by night. The Warszawa Royal Castle is an interesting landmark that used to be the residence of the Polish Monarchy. The Castle is situated in Castle Square and is an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In the Soho Factory Praga, you’ll find the Neon Museum which tells the very interesting history of Cold War Poland. The Chopin museum is a fascinating display in honour of the world-renowned pianist, Frederyk Chopin. It hosts an impressive collection of paintings, letters and manuscripts documenting the life of this famous musician.
Lazienki Park is the largest park in Warsaw. It is named after the bathing pavilion that was located on the Lazienki Park grounds. The park is part of the Royal Route, which used to be the main route to convey urgent messages. Alternatively, one can visit the University Library Garden which is a rooftop garden at the Warsaw University library.
History of Warsaw
Warsaw started as a small hamlet on the Wisla River. Not much growth took place from its first establishment in the 10th century until the 14th century. In the 1400’s, Warsaw became the capital of the Duchy of Mazovia and in the 1500’s it became an important territory of Poland. In 1596, Warsaw was made the capital of Poland and became increasingly important. The 17th and 18th centuries were periods of great growth in Warsaw. This period saw the construction of the Wilanow Palace, the Saxon Garden and the National Theater. In 1795 Warsaw was taken by Prussia and was later handed over to Russia in 1815.
Warsaw gradually developed during the 19th century. In this period the Warsaw University was founded, the Copernicus Monument was unveiled and the Warsaw Mermaid Statue was created. In the early 1900’s, Warsaw saw the construction of tram lines and the introduction of electricity.
During WWI, Warsaw was captured by Germany. About a third of the Warsaw population was Jewish at the time and they were oppressed and later transported to concentration camps. Those who remained fought hard against the Germans but unfortunately did not have the power to overpower the German forces. In September 1945, Russia captured Warsaw and by the end of WWII, Warsaw was a devastated city. The city was slowly rebuilt to the vibrant and eclectic city that it is today.
Baltic Live Cam has many cameras situated across the globe. There are many cameras showing panoramic views on online cams . One example is the online camera showing a panorama of Vilnius in Lithuania. A web camera online also shows the comings and goings in Tallinn in Estonia. There are many sights that can be seen via camera online including marvelously scenic views of the Tel Aviv marina.
Timeline Warsaw VO Канада
General ‘Bor’ Komorowski, commander of the Polish Underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK), sets the beginning of the uprising in Warsaw against the German occupying forces at ‘W-hour’; 5:00 p.m. on August 1, 1944. The uprising is expected to last about a week and have the character of mopping up and disarming operation. The insurgents, however, are unaware that the Germans have decided to defend ‘fortress’ Warsaw and to counter-attack Red Army forces to the east of the city. [ declarations ].
Warsaw’s insurgents an estimated 40,000 soldiers, including 4,000 women, have only enough weapons for 2,500 fighters. They are facing a 15,000-strong German garrison which will grow to a force of 30,000, armed with tanks, planes, and artillery.
Day-to-day events [ day-to-day ] . Eyewitness’ reports [ radio dispatches ].
Insurgents attack 180 German military installations and the town’s key strategic positions. After bloody battles, their attacks upon the bridges, airports, train stations and main military and police installations are repelled.
However, significant areas of the city’s left bank districts are captured including: the Prudential high-rise building, the main post office, and the state mint. Gas, electric, and water works are in Polish hands. The Warsaw Power Plant in the Riverside district will be restored to operation providing electrical power for hospitals, printing presses, weapon production facilities, and other services until September, 1944. Communication through the crucial west-east front supplying arteries is severed.
In Wola, insurgents capture a large Waffen-SS food and military uniforms warehouse. Many Polish units chose to wear these uniforms embellished with white and red armbands to represent the national colors. The first day of fighting killed 2,000 insurgents and 500 Germans. At nightfall, a network of street barricades is constructed, blocking the most of the city’s arteries .
The first issue of Information Bulletin (Biuletyn Informacyjny) newspaper is published. Overall, over 130 different newspapers and periodicals are published in Warsaw during the Uprising. [ newspapers ]
The Soviet eastern front offensive stops within twelve miles of Praga, the suburb on Warsaw’s right bank; it will not resume until September 11, 1944. The Soviet air force abandons the skies over Warsaw to the Luftwaffe.
German troops conduct mass executions of approximately 65,000 civilians in the captured districts. Poles, without regard for age or gender, are rounded up house by house and shot. More than 1, 360 patients and staff of Wola and St. Lazarus hospitals are murdered. The Special Group ‘verbrennung-kommando’ is collecting and burning the bodies. [ map ]
In Mokotow, female civilians are used as shields in front of tanks that are attacking insurgents’ positions. This practice will continue throughout the Uprising. [ atrocities ]
The insurgent battalion Zoska, a >[ saving jews ]
The siege of Brьhl Palace, a government complex near Saxon Garden is lifted by German forces breaking through Wola district. The German Governor of Warsaw region Ludwig Fischer, and Warsaw garrison commander general Reiner Stahel leave the building escorted by tanks. With the fall of Wola, the Old Town quarter is cut off from the City Centre and surrounded.
In Warsaw’s Pruszkow suburb, a Durchgangslager 121 selection camp is established. Before the end of 1944, 600,000 deported inhabitants of Warsaw will pass through.
In the liberated areas, Scout Postal Service starts distributing mail, newspapers, and messages even to the areas under German control. [ mail ]
[ radio ]
The first communications links through sewers are opened between isolated districts of Mokotow and City Centre. They will serve as vital transportation and evacuation lines for the duration of the Uprising.
A German leaflet titled ‘Ultimatum’ and signed by a Supreme Commander is dropped from planes. It urges the Warsaw inhabitants to leave the city, promising accommodations, jobs, and medical care, while threatening ‘consequences’ to those who disobey the call. [ leaflets ]
The main German offensive against the Old Town starts with 8,000 soldiers; it will continue unabated until the quarter falls on September 2. The offensive’s objective is to isolate insurgent defenses, push them away from a strategic area overlooking one of the city’s bridges, and liquidate them.
The first of four Home Army newsreels produced during the Uprising is shown to insurgents and civilians in the Palladium theatre.
In City Centre, insurgents repel a major tank attack. Nine tanks and other armed vehicles are destroyed. Heavy fighting occurs around Gdansk train station in an attempt to link up insurgent forces in Zoliborz and Old Town. The attacks are repelled with the use of an armored train.
Germans shut down the water supply after taking over the city’s water filtering station. Water rationing and well digging begins. By the end of September, the City Centre district has more than 90 functioning wells.
A German B-IV vehicle mine abandoned near an Old Town barricade is brought inside the Polish defensive positions. Its sudden and massive explosion kills over 300 insurgents and civilians.
Von dem Bach issues a proposal to surrender, which is ignored. Additional German forces attack Old Town. Artillery and armored train are shelling the district. During heavy aerial bombing some buildings are completely destroyed; the Polish Bank is struck by 10 bombs.
Insurgents capture isolated German strongholds in the City Centre district. The strategic high-rise telephone exchange building ‘PASTA’, a significant number of weapons, and 115 German soldiers are captured.
A 750-strong insurgent group breaks into the city’s northern Zoliborz district. Another group enters the city from the south. The cargo train station, the Church of Holly Cross, the Police Headquarters, and another telephone exchange building are taken. However, an attack upon the Warsaw University campus, launched with the help of two armored vehicles (one of them insurgent-made ‘Kubus’) fails. [ kubus ]
Two Home Army attempts to break the siege of Old Town by attacking the Gdansk train station defended by an armored train, fail.
A Ju-87 Stuka plane is shot down by a insurgent heavy machine gun crew which violates the official ban not shoot at planes in order to conserve ammunition.
Insurgents’ attempt to break through the Old Town siege into the City Centre overnight fails. Only one group, disguised in Wehrmacht uniforms, marches in three soldier column through the German positions in Saxon Garden into City Centre.
With the Old Town military situation becoming critical, between September 1 and September 2, insurgents escape through sewers into City Centre and Zoliborz. [ sewers ]
Left behind are 7,000 gravely wounded soldiers and 30,000 civilians. Advancing Germans forces execute most of the wounded, old and disabled. Some wounded insurgents are burnt alive in field hospitals.
Polish casualties in Old Town are 30,000 civilian dead and 7,500 dead and wounded insurgents (77 percent), German casualties were 3,900 dead and wounded (54 percent).
After much delay, the governments of Great Britain and the United States grant Allied combatant rights to the Home Army. It was hoped to end the summary executions of Polish POWs by German troops [ combatant ]. The Soviet Union refuses to issue a similar statement.
Airplanes drop leaflets signed by General von dem Bach urging civilians to leave the city on September 9 and September 10. The Polish Red Cross opens negotiations with Germans regarding the evacuation of elderly, wounded and underage civilians. Several thousand civilians leave the city during a two-hour cease fire.
A German offensive concentrates on the northern section of the City Centre, which is shelled by a 600mm mortar every eight minutes, inflicting in heavy casualties. Bombing destroys the City Centre printing plant, interrupting the publishing of Information Bulletin and other newspapers. Civilians flee into City Centre south.
With the fall of Praga to the Red Army on September 16, German forces evacuate to Warsaw proper and dynamite remaining Vistula bridges. The Red Army is relieved by Soviet-sponsored General Berling’s Polish First Army.
Retreating from Praga, German front line troops augment Gen. von dem Bach’s forces. To prevent the establishment of bridgeheads, the main German effort concentrates on shattering the resistance in Czerniakow and Zoliborz districts along the the river.
From September 14 to September 16, bloody fighting erupted in Zoliborz with General Hans Lallner 19th Panzer Division. Berling’s troops cross the river between September 16-17 in an abortive attempt to link up with Zoliborz insurgents. Civilians are executed in Marymont, a quarter of the Zoliborz district. [ atrocities ]
09/15-09/23. For three consecutive nights, 1,600 soldiers from Berling’s army cross the Vistula and join insurgents in the Czerniakow district. The attempted landing between September 17-18 in the Riverside district fails with most of the 1,050 soldiers killed or captured. Heavy fighting in Czerniakow continues until September 23. Some defenders evacuate across the river, others reach the City Centre. Germans execute all captured insurgents and take Berling’s soldiers as POWs.
09/18. First and last massive American day-time, high altitude airdrop; insurgents recover 16 tons, or 20 percent of the cargo; the rest falls into German hands. [ airlift ]
Heavy bombardment of the City Centre by Karl Morser mortar on September 16 brings massive casualties, including 100 German POWs.
Some Mokotow defenders evacuate through sewers to City Centre. About 150 of them exit into German-held territory and are executed.
09/27. Mokotow capitulates after General von dem Bach promises to observe the Geneva Conventions. For the first time during the Uprising, captured Home Army members are treated as POWs.
09/29. Massive attack against Zoliborz with a panzer division and overwhelming number of infantry. Despite insurgents’ desperate and bloody fighting, their resistance is broken.
Zoliborz capitulates on September 30. Several dozens communist unit soldiers attempt to cross the Vistula River; only a few succeed. A small groups of Jewish fighters hide in the cellars. A fortnight later, they are whisked out of the city by Home Army paramedics.
On September 28 General von dem Bach offers capitulation and the negotiations begin.
General von dem Bach and emissaries of General ‘Bor’ Komorowski sign the capitulation declaration. All fighting in Warsaw ceases at 8:00 p.m. on October 2, 1944. The terms of the capitulation agreement guarantees Geneva Conventions treatment for insurgents. Only the Wehrmacht, not the SS or Soviet collaborators, are to handle Polish POWs. [ capitulation ]
Final issue of Information Bulletin is published, dated October 4. Last Lighting’s radio transmission from Warsaw to London was recorded at 9:40 p.m. on October 4, 1944.
Insurgents prepare for the surrender by destroying weapons, discarding any German uniforms or helmets in their possession, securing the archives, and issuing Home Army IDs to communists units and forged IDs to Jewish fighters.
Fifteen thousand insurgents from all districts went into the captivity, 5,000 wounded are evacuated into different prison camps. Evacuation of wounded insurgents from the field hospitals lasts until the second half of October.
All civilians are forced to leave the city. Among them are some insurgents who decided not to
go to POW camps and a few designated by the Home Army to continue the struggle. Approximately 55,000 civilians will end up in the concentration camps as dangerous elements [ concentration camps ] , and an additional 150,000 are transported into forced labor camps in Germany.
[ uprising cost ]
Postwar Polish assessments claim that 33,000 railway wagons filled with furniture, personal belongings and factory equipment left Warsaw.
After everything of value was carried away, entire blocks of abandoned houses were set on fire. Monuments and government buildings were blown up by special German troops known as Verbrennungs und Vernichtungskommando (burning and destruction detachments).